It thus becomes the concern of CBT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. But it can be useful in reducing symptoms...
However, it fails to consider and address the aspect of gender differences between depressed men and women.
On the whole, the cognitive behavior therapy promises a lot of help to depressed persons, as shown by surveys and researchers but both findings and methods have been limited and require further study.
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This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences. Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages.
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process. Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics
Social Cognitive Theory First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition
REFERENCES "About WordNet." (2009). Princeton University Online. Cited in: http://wordnet.princeton.edu/ Balota, D. And E. Marsh, eds. (2004). Cognitive Psychology: Key Readings .Psychology Press. Campbell, J. And R.E. Mayer. (2008). "Questioning as an Instructional Method: Does it Affect Learning From Lectures?" Applied Cognitive Pscyhology. 23(6): 747-59. Chomsky, N. (1967). "A Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior." Readings in the Pscyhology of Language. Cited in: http://www.chomsky.info/articles/1967-.htm Goldstein, B. (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. Wadsworth. Green, M.R. And A. Oliva.
Self-Regulation Bandura understands that the development of self is influenced by the environment but that the individual also has significant responsibility of determinism that makes the individual responsible for his or her behaviors. According to Boeree self-regulation is absolutely essential to behavior control and provides the backbone of human personality. Boeree describes the three steps that Bandura suggests that contribute to self-regulation; self-observation, or the process of observing our own behavior
Although the teacher is the authority figure and the rules are clearly established, the students are allowed to voice their opinions. This setting creates the best learning environment because the children know their boundaries but are able to participate in the decision-making process. In addition, the teacher can improve instruction by generating feedback about lesson delivery and instructional techniques from his or her students. Question 3: Assessment Standardized testing is a