Colds And Its Common Causes, Possible Complications, And Management Essay

Length: 4 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Disease Type: Essay Paper: #38882799 Related Topics: Celiac Disease, Meningitis, Breastfeeding, Pneumonia
Excerpt from Essay :

¶ … diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)

Common cold

The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting both their professional and personal lives.

Diaper rash in infants

Diaper rash denotes red, scaly patches occurring on an infant's bottom. Its primary cause is wet or dirty diapers, unchanged for long periods (Lawton, 2013). The grubby diaper provides bacteria, fungi, and yeast with adequate conditions to grow, thereby causing a rash. Typically, babies suffer these rashes at 9-12 months of age (Benaroch, 2015).

Diarrhea in young children

Diarrhea refers, in actuality, to a means of ridding the body of germs via loose stools. The urge to visit the toilet numerous times causes much water loss from one's body, and may lead to serious problems. Diarrhea may last for a period of 10-15 days (Healthwise, 2014).

Earaches

Earaches refer to extremely sharp pains occurring in any one, or in both, ears, and are more common in young children than in adults. Earaches may follow a pattern- they may recur after some intervals of time or may be steady and continuous (NHS Professional Team, 2014).

Stomachaches in children

Just like earaches, sharp pains occurring in the stomach are denoted as stomach aches, with children having a greater tendency than adults to contract the problem. Stomach aches may occur because of several abdominal infections or other stomach issues (Ferry, 2015). Stomach pains take the form of intolerable cramps.

Common causes

Viruses are the key causes of diarrhea and common cold, while diaper rash arises from wet and dirty diapers (bacteria, fungi, or yeast grow on diapers unchanged for long durations). Diarrhea is also caused by bacteria, while stomach aches and earaches in little children spring from diarrhea and cold, respectively. Earaches may also arise from ear infections, occurring because of fluid deposits in one's ear, for long (ADAM, 2015). Gastroenteritis (stomach inflammation or an aftereffect of food poisoning) may be a causal factor of diarrhea. This could also lead to stomach aches. Additionally, like diarrhea and common cold, stomach aches can also result from bacterial and viral infections. Moreover, other possible causes of stomach aches include irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion, appendicitis, celiac disease, and infections in the urinary tract (Swierzewski, 2008). These ailments leave children in plenty of discomfort, bringing with them diarrhea or constipation.

Possible complications

While these ailments do not necessitate any kind of emergency treatment unless severe symptoms occur, if they continue for prolonged durations (i.e., more days than is considered normal) one must visit a doctor. These diseases, if ignored, may sometimes prove a severe inconvenience in one's daily life, or may even turn fatal. If the common cold persists for over 10 days in children, with high, 100 "F (degree Fahrenheit) body temperatures, it necessitates an appointment with a doctor (Mayo clinic staff, 2013). This is because the common cold, when left untreated, may cause asthma, sinusitis, bronchitis, ear infections, or pneumonia.

Similarly, when very young children suffer chronic diarrhea, accompanied by high fever (103° F), one must consult a doctor, as acute diarrhea can cause several gastrointestinal problems. Furthermore, prolonged diarrhea causes acute loss of water from one's body, which may have fatal consequences if not treated on time (Krucik, 2015).

If an infant's diaper rash persists for over 3-4 days, and appears abnormal, one must become alert. Diaper rash is accompanied by multiple complications. Basically, such complications develop when diaper rash leads to secondary infections. One complication may be thrush (red, shiny dots), which are particularly painful when compared to normal diaper rash (Right Diagnosis, 2015).

Ears are counted among the most sensitive parts of the human body. Thus, earaches also come with multiple associated complications. Earaches may cause a temporary hearing loss or eardrum perforation (though these conditions may heal in 2-3 weeks). More severe complications of earaches are paralysis of face, mastoiditis, meningitis, and speech-related problems in kids (Healthwise, 2012).

If stomach aches go on for many days, they may cause complications, as well. Complications stemming from stomach ache include stomach bloating, pain during urination, bowel movement problems, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, blood vomiting, appetite loss, severe alcohol as a constituent) should be avoided. Adequate rest is the best means to speedy recovery. Furthermore, sore throats can be relieved through gargling using salt-water (1 cup warm water with half a teaspoon of salt) (Doerr, 2015).

Diaper rash in infants

Precautionary measures must be taken for diaper rashes. Rash areas must be kept dry and contact with urine and stool must be avoided. The area must be washed using warm water and dried with very soft cotton cloths (MedBroadcastClinicalTeam, 2015). Additionally, until the rashes completely disappear, diapers mustn't be used. Ointments prescribed by the doctor should be applied to the affected area.

Diarrhea in young children

Diarrhea basically leads to essential fluid loss from one's body. Breast milk contains a large quantity of antibodies, thus, if possible, infants should be given extra breast milk to treat the condition. Also, use of ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) may help, to some degree, in regaining these lost fluids (Murphy et al., 2009). One must also consult a physician to acquire extra sodium, potassium and nutrient supplements to compensate their loss because of diarrhea.

Ear aches

Ear infections are the primary cause of earaches in children, following a bout of cold or flu. Therefore, in early childhood, one must take precautions against flu / cold. Children shouldn't poke their ears with objects like ear buds. Breast milk (containing adequate antibodies) may help reduce earaches. Further, babies must be kept at the right angle while breastfeeding, as a wrong position (e.g., if the infant is placed completely horizontally) may cause milk to go into the baby's ear tubes (Hoi, 2010).

Stomach aches in children

Stomach aches have multiple causes; managing a stomach ache depends upon its key cause. Antibiotics and medicines suited to the disease may be injected or administered orally. In case of hernia or appendicitis, surgery will be recommended. If stomach issues arise from a certain variety of food, the child's eating habits will be changed for curing him/her of the condition (Alan & Lake, 1999).

References

ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm

Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx

Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.

Doerr, S. (2015). Cold. MedicineNet, Inc. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/mobileart.asp%3Farticlekey%3D330%26page%3D1&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382356&sig=APONPFmDtWt8qmN_XxzyJrLrSITc5kBaQQ

Ferry, R. (2015). Abdominal Pain in Children. eMedicineHealth. Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/mobileart-emh.asp?articlekey=59424&page=1

Healthwise. (2014). Diarrhea in Children. WebMD, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.m.webmd.com/children/tc/diarrhea-age-11-and-younger-home-treatment

Healthwise.(2012).Complications of Ear Infections.WebMD, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.m.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/tc/complications-of-ear-infections-topic-overview

Hoi, T. (2010). Earache. Ministry of Health. New Zealand.

Justadd. (2015). Health guidelines: Common Cold. Pg 2-4.

Krucik, G. (2015). What causes diaper rash? 2 possible conditions. Healthline Networks, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/symptom/diaper-rash

Lawton, S.(2013).NappyRash.NottinghamUniversityHospitalsNHSTrust.Nottingham.NG72UH.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2013). Diseases and Conditions: Common Cold. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/common-cold/basics/symptoms/con-20019062

MedBroadcast Clinical Team. (2015). Condition Fact sheets: Diaper Rash. MediResource, Inc. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://chealth.canoe.com/condition_info_details.asp%3Fchannel_id%3D0%26relation_id%3D0%26disease_id%3D320%26page_no%3D2&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439372907&sig=APONPFls9EJ2LHbfv_4V-uZjw6ldN0G_RQ

Murphy, M.S., Abrahamson, Ed., Churchill, R., Crimmins, J., Faust, S., Hayr. A.,Johal, N.,Marriott. I., Meadows, N., Minford, S., Moy, R., Povey, E., Sinha, G and Taylor, J. (2009). Diarrhea and Vomiting in Children. NICE. Manchester. UK.

NHS Professional Team. (2014). Earache. NHS Choices. UK.

Right Diagnosis. (2015). Complications of Diaper rash. Health Grades Inc. Retrieved from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/d/diaper_rash/complic.htm

Swierzewski, S.J.(2008).AbdominalPainComplications.HealthTopicsDigestiveHealth.RemedyHealthMedia, LLC.Retrievedfromhttp://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.healthcommunities.com/abdominal-pain/complications.shtml&ei=Aktq8kQf&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439374279&sig=APONPFkApVij_5mQGxjkyJ_o-4PZ0el1Eg

Victorian government. (2010). Abdominal Pain in Children. Emergency Department Fact sheets. Melbourne.

Sources Used in Documents:

References

ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm

Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx

Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
Doerr, S. (2015). Cold. MedicineNet, Inc. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/mobileart.asp%3Farticlekey%3D330%26page%3D1&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382356&sig=APONPFmDtWt8qmN_XxzyJrLrSITc5kBaQQ
Ferry, R. (2015). Abdominal Pain in Children. eMedicineHealth. Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/mobileart-emh.asp?articlekey=59424&page=1
Healthwise. (2014). Diarrhea in Children. WebMD, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.m.webmd.com/children/tc/diarrhea-age-11-and-younger-home-treatment
Healthwise.(2012).Complications of Ear Infections.WebMD, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.m.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/tc/complications-of-ear-infections-topic-overview
Krucik, G. (2015). What causes diaper rash? 2 possible conditions. Healthline Networks, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/symptom/diaper-rash
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2013). Diseases and Conditions: Common Cold. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/common-cold/basics/symptoms/con-20019062
MedBroadcast Clinical Team. (2015). Condition Fact sheets: Diaper Rash. MediResource, Inc. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://chealth.canoe.com/condition_info_details.asp%3Fchannel_id%3D0%26relation_id%3D0%26disease_id%3D320%26page_no%3D2&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439372907&sig=APONPFls9EJ2LHbfv_4V-uZjw6ldN0G_RQ
Right Diagnosis. (2015). Complications of Diaper rash. Health Grades Inc. Retrieved from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/d/diaper_rash/complic.htm
Swierzewski, S.J.(2008).AbdominalPainComplications.HealthTopicsDigestiveHealth.RemedyHealthMedia, LLC.Retrievedfromhttp://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.healthcommunities.com/abdominal-pain/complications.shtml&ei=Aktq8kQf&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439374279&sig=APONPFkApVij_5mQGxjkyJ_o-4PZ0el1Eg


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