Cyber-Crime, Cyber-Terrorism, And Cyber-Warfare Since Research Paper

Length: 10 pages Sources: 10 Subject: Military Type: Research Paper Paper: #44365655 Related Topics: Russian Organized Crime, Unix, Hezbollah, Espionage
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Contemporary Cyber-warfare Cases Studies

In 2011, the Center for Strategic and International Studies published Significant Cyber Incidents Since 2006 (Lewis, 2011) as part of its Cyber and Internet Policy, Technology and Public Policy Program. Among the incidents detailed in that report, referenced by their year of occurrence:


After officials in former-Soviet Estonia removed a World War II memorial from its capital city of Tallinn in the Spring of 2007, a large-scale cyber-attack disabled the websites and computer networks of Estonia's government offices, the office of the president, the Estonian Parliament, police facilities, news organizations, two of Estonia's largest financial institutions.

United States Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, confirmed has his unclassified email account had been successfully hacked. Subsequent investigation identified that attack as having originated directly from the People's Liberation Army in China.

As German Chancellor, Angela Merkel visits China, German, French, and British government computer systems suffer a major attack on their respective computer information systems. Those attacks are connected to Chinese hackers with toes to that nation's military. After complaints to Beijing, China's Premier, Wen Jiabao, promises to enact "forceful measures" against those responsible.

Computer systems of the British Foreign Office and other government entities suffer intrusions identified as having originated from China's People's Liberation Army. Director-General, Jonathan Evans, of the elite British MI5 counter-terrorism agency references the intrusions in his first speech, expressing frustration that the anti-terrorism mission of his organization has had to waste valuable resources combating espionage by Russia and China.


According to South Korean officials, China launched intrusion attacks against Korean embassy and military networks.

Unidentified foreign intruders gain unauthorized access to the databases of the U.S. Republican and Democratic presidential campaigns.

Shortly before armed conflict erupts between Russia and former Soviet Georgia, the government computer systems of the latter are hacked in an attack that successfully overloads and disables their network servers. The timing suggests to independent investigators that the cyber-attacks were not random or coincidental, but provide evidence of co-ordination between the entities responsible and the Russian military.


During Israel's 2009 Gaza Strip offensive, more than five million computers execute a coordinated cyber-attack on that government's. Israeli investigators attribute the attack to Hamas or Hezbollah-financed enterprises perpetrated by criminal organizations located in the former Soviet Union.

According to a report published by experts fro the University of Toronto, sensitive data from hundreds of government computers in more than 100 countries were compromised by an attack launched by a Chinese spying operation called "GhostNet." That investigation had been originally requested by the Tibetan government-in-exile after it discovered 1,295 computers infected with malware in connection with which network administrators monitored the theft of documents in real time using webcams and microphones. Those incidents also reveal that information warfare efforts launched from China are greatly increasing in sophistication by virtue of their "high-value" targets and other evidence of a targeted spying operation.

The "Conficker" or "Downadup" computer worm threatens millions of computers by virtue of an inherent vulnerability in Microsoft Windows. The worm successfully infects millions of business organizations, government agencies, and personal networks, an extends to consumer devices such as USB memory sticks, in addition to traditional hardware system targets.


After China's leading search engine suffers a cyber-attack launched by Iranian hackers, Chinese hackers reciprocate in kind, targeting Iranian websites. Internet users in China encounter pages covered with pictures of the Iranian flag and the phrase "Iranian Cyber Army" on Baidu, China's largest Internet search engine. To retaliate, Chinese hackers emblazon Chinese flags and nationalist slogans on Iranian websites.

Former U.S. Intelligence Chief, Michael McConnell, testifies before the U.S. Senate that the threat to the nation posed by foreign computer hackers is as significant as the existential threat once posed by Soviet nuclear weapons during the Cold War and that the U.S. is currently unprepared...


The estimated monetary losses to Sony exceed $170 million.

The FBI identifies Chinese entities with likely government connections to infiltration of the International Monetary Fund computer network via fraudulent emails infected with malware.

Seventy-two (mostly American) organizations suffer cyber-attacks launched by a major cyber-espionage operation that successfully obtains unauthorized access to major military secrets as well as commercial industrial designs. The breach is discovered and announced by the computer security firm McAfee, after that company succeeded in infiltrating one of the servers involved as a point of control in the attack. Subsequent investigation reveal breaches dating back to 2006 and tracing breaches to the UN, the International Olympic Committee, and to the governments of Canada, South Korea, Taiwan, the U.S., and Vietnam. The computer systems of at least six U.S. government agencies and thirteen defense contractors are compromised.


There is no doubt that computer technology has contributed greatly to global development and to human endeavours since their introduction, but even more so since the dawn of the Internet Age and the Digital Revolution. However, as has historically proven to be the case with major technological innovation throughout human history, there also negative consequences and potential threats posed by computer technology. In the realm of criminal enterprises, computer technology now allows major criminal organizations to perpetrate financial and other so-called "white-collar" crimes against millions of victims from the relative safety of remote locations.

Even more serious is the fact that terrorist groups and well-funded nation states now have the capability to conduct major attacks capable of disrupting the societies and even destroying the critical infrastructure upon which modern life depends without ever having to worry about confronting superior military forces. In that regard, in particular, the evidence strongly suggests that the U.S. is currently extremely vulnerable to major catastrophic cyber-warfare attacks from nations such as China, among others, most likely. Naturally, the risks posed by exiting capabilities and inclinations of various state-funded and major independent malicious entities absolutely require increased dedication of resources to mitigating the risks they represent to the nation.


Baker, W., Hylender, C., and Valentine, J. (2008) Verizon Business Data Breach

Investigation Report. Accessed 29 October 2011 from:

Dyer, C., McCoy, R., Rodriguez, J., and Van Duyn, D. "Countering Violent Islamic

Extremism: A Community Responsibility." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,

Vol. 76, No. 12 (2007): 3-9.

Evans, M. (2007). The Final Move Beyond Iraq: The Final Solution While the World

Sleeps. Lake Mary, FL: Front Line.

Kelsey, J.T.G. "Hacking into International Humanitarian Law: The Principles of Distinction and Neutrality in the Age of Cyber Warfare." Michigan Law Review,

Vol. 106 (2008): 1427 -- 1451.

Kizza, J.M. (2005). Computer Network Security. New York: Springer.

Knapp, K.J. And Boulton, W.R. "Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations:


into Commercial Environments." Information Systems Management (Spring

2006): 76 -- 87.

Larsen, R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About

Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central


Lewis, J.A. (2011). Significant Cyber Incidents Since 2006. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Cyber and Internet Policy, Technology and Public Policy

Program. Accessed 29 October 2011 from:

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Shah, A. "Security upgrades needed with growing cyberwar threats: Industrial systems, transport and power grid infrastructures are still vulnerable, panelists said this week." ComputerWorld, October 7, 2011. Accessed 29 October 2011 from:



Sources Used in Documents:


Baker, W., Hylender, C., and Valentine, J. (2008) Verizon Business Data Breach

Investigation Report. Accessed 29 October 2011 from:

Dyer, C., McCoy, R., Rodriguez, J., and Van Duyn, D. "Countering Violent Islamic

Cite this Document:

"Cyber-Crime Cyber-Terrorism And Cyber-Warfare Since" (2011, October 30) Retrieved June 22, 2021, from

"Cyber-Crime Cyber-Terrorism And Cyber-Warfare Since" 30 October 2011. Web.22 June. 2021. <>

"Cyber-Crime Cyber-Terrorism And Cyber-Warfare Since", 30 October 2011, Accessed.22 June. 2021,

Related Documents
Cyber Terrorism Cyber Crime Cyber Espionage and Cyber Warfare
Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Black Studies - Philosophy Paper #: 54678662

Cyber-Crime, Cyber-Terrorism, Cyber-Espionage, and Cyber-Warfare Threats, Risks, and Vulnerabilities In the contemporary business and IT (information technology) environments, increasing number of business organizations are investing in the IT tools to enhance competitive market advantages. Integrating the IT tools in a business model has become a crucial strategy that organizations can employ to achieve a market success. While IT tools deliver several market benefits for businesses, nevertheless, businesses face enormous risks when integrating

Cyber Terrorism
Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Topic: Terrorism Paper #: 88428814

Cyber Terrorism The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the

Cyberterrorism and the US Economy
Words: 2627 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Black Studies - Philosophy Paper #: 35771919

Cyberterrorism on the U.S. Economy The Impact of Cyber Terrorism on the U.S. Economy In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), cyber terrorism can be defined as a calculated and politically enthused attack against data, information, computer systems and computer programs, which in turn, brings about non-physical vehemence against civilian targets. In simple words, cyber terrorism implies making use of the web to cause detriment to the real world

History of Cyber Crimes
Words: 1827 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Education - Computers Paper #: 23682972

Cybercrime, Cybercriminals, And Cybercops Cybercrime Cybercrime has long been perceived to represent new crimes arising from the emergence of technological advancement, but an examination of the history of cybercrime reveal that its roots are as ancient as the crimes of fraud, harassment, and malicious property damage. The history of cybercrime is reviewed briefly here, as are the challenges faced by law enforcement efforts to curb cybercrime. Some gains have been realized, such

Looking at the Estonian Denial of Service Attacks of 2007
Words: 2693 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Black Studies - Philosophy Paper #: 16827333

Cyber Terrorism Incidence: The Estonian Denial of Service Attacks of 2007 There are different forms of cybercrimes including data theft, system compromises and DoS (denial of service) attacks. The motivations behind such internet attacks are varied. Some of the motivations include: economic sabotage, extortion and harmless fun particularly against pornography and gambling websites. Frustrations and retaliation are seemingly the main drive behind attacks on gaming networks, where player against player cyber-attacks

Legal and Technical Future of Cyber Security
Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Criminal Justice Paper #: 3244878

Future of Cyber Security Report on the Legal and Technical Future of Cyber Security The future of Cyber security relies on the quality of decisions that the government seconded by the private sector process as for now. Attacks on networks and databases have become a complex and lucrative activity that attracts a financial gain for people involved in that business. For this reason, there is a need to determine whether the existing