English Language Learners in the Term Paper

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Late-exit programs differ from early-exit programs in the amount and duration that English is used for instruction as well as the length of time students are to participate in each program (Hawkins, 2001). Students remain in late-exit programs throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of their instruction in their first language, even when they have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient (Hawkins, 2001). Two-way bilingual programs, also called developmental bilingual programs, group language minority students from a single language background in the same classroom with language majority. Ideally, there is a nearly 50/50 balance between language minority and language majority students (Hawkins, 2001). Instruction is provided in both English and the minority language. In some programs, the languages are used on alternating days. Native English speakers and speakers of another language have the opportunity to acquire proficiency in a second language while continuing to develop their native language skills. Students serve as native-speaker role models for their peers. Two-way bilingual classes may be taught by a single teacher who is proficient in both languages or by two teachers, one of whom is bilingual (Hawkins, 2001).

Finally, California must decide who should be in charge of selecting the programs that schools will use to teach students who need to learn English. Federal requirements, state laws and policies, and local school board decisions will all play a role in the course California takes. Research estimates that the future of "bilingual education" will directly affect one out of four public school students and have a significant impact on almost every school in California (E-Source Online, 2005). As a result, all schools must be prepared to meet the challenge of an increasingly diverse student population, including many students who are not proficient in English.

Bibliography

E-Source Online. (2005). Backgrounder: Bilingual Education in California, 1998-2005. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from E-Source Online Web site: http://ww.edsource.org/pub_bi_edu.cfm

Hawkins, Sonya. (2001). Effect of Total Language Immersion as Opposed to ESL Pullout Programs at a Rural, Western Arkansas Middle School. EDFD 6993 Special Projects.

Rennie, Jeannie. (2004). ESL and Bilingual Program Models. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from HelpforSchools.Com Web site: http://www.helpforschool.com/ESLandBilingualProgramModels.shtml

San Jose Unified School District. (2001). School Desegregation. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from District Overview Web site: http://www.sjusd.k12.ca.us/District-Information/contact/deseg.html

Temple, C. (1996). Language Minority Students in School Reform: The Role of Collaboration.. Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington D.C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED400681).

English Language Learners in the California Elementary…

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Bibliography

E-Source Online. (2005). Backgrounder: Bilingual Education in California, 1998-2005. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from E-Source Online Web site: http://ww.edsource.org/pub_bi_edu.cfm

Hawkins, Sonya. (2001). Effect of Total Language Immersion as Opposed to ESL Pullout Programs at a Rural, Western Arkansas Middle School. EDFD 6993 Special Projects.

Rennie, Jeannie. (2004). ESL and Bilingual Program Models. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from HelpforSchools.Com Web site: http://www.helpforschool.com/ESLandBilingualProgramModels.shtml

San Jose Unified School District. (2001). School Desegregation. Retrieved March 4, 2005 from District Overview Web site: http://www.sjusd.k12.ca.us/District-Information/contact/deseg.html

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