It has kept going ever since" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 66). Morley's wife, Julia (a former beauty pageant winner) joined him in 1970 to help organize the competition to help maintain the contestants' morals and to ensure their modesty was suitably protected ("not invariably with success") (Cavendish, p. 67). Miss World has subsequently attracted television audiences in almost every country in the world and has earned an enormous amount of money for charity (Cavendish, 2001). How do you visualize the lifestyle of our descendants in the 21st century?" (p. 40). By the time the event had assumed the dimensions of Miss World though, things had definitely changed. According to Cooke, by the mid-1970s, beauty contests had assumed a definite "whiff of seediness and desperation about them -- a stench strong enough to penetrate through all that facade" (p. 40). These shifts in how beauty pageants were perceived were largely the result of rising criticisms from women's rights advocates who railed against the manner in which women were portrayed in such events, culminating with the throwing of flour bombs at the 1970 Miss World contest held at the Royal Albert Hall and hosted by Bob Hope (Cooke, 2004).
During the first few years of the competition, the Miss Great Britain title was a highly prized award, but Cooke suggests that it represented one of the only ways women had at the time to express themselves in a legitimate fashion: "My feeling," she says, is that it was, perversely, a kind of liberation for some women -- a way of making their only assets and their skills (the application of lipstick, the ability to walk gracefully in high heels) work for them" (p. 39). The winner of these early pageants were highly regarded and universally admired; winners got to travel (although under chaperoned conditioned), and were able to attend important civic events. "It was a nice little earner, too. 'Yes, I can open the Leigh Bowling Centre on 10th of January," wrote Gillian Taylor, an attractive blonde winner in 1963. In an effort to counter accusations that the pageant was equivalent to a "female cattle market," the organizers introduced questions and answers of "a high-souled if stilted nature about each girl's ambitions and intellectual achievements" (Cavendish, 2001, p. 65). A review of the judges' scorecards from this era is revealing. A maximum of 20 points was available in each of four categories: 1) daywear, 2) swimwear, 3) evening dress and, 4) the interview (Cooke, 2004).
According to Cooke, in 1981, contestants were asked: "Science fiction, feature films and TV serials are giving an
One of the protestors at the event said:
We were clear among ourselves that we weren't demonstrating against the women who were participating in the contest. But we did feel very strongly that for women to be judged just by their physical appearance... did symbolise the way in which women were seen either as sex objects or as domestic drudges, and we wanted to widen horizons for women. (p. 41)
The changes that resulted took longer and were more painful than the protestors could imagine, perhaps, but by 1988, ITV stopped broadcasting Miss World; and the Miss She competition, which was originally launched in 1955 to promote the glossy magazine of the same name (this eventually evolved into Miss Ultra Glow and, finally, Miss Alberto Balsam), was ended in 1989 (Cooke, 2004).
Beauty Business, the. (2000, August). Business Asia, 8(12), 36.
Cavendish, R. (2001, April). The First Miss World Contest. History Today, 51(4), 64.
Cooke, R. (June 14, 2004). Girls, girls, girls. New Statesman, 133(4692), 38.
David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen. (2002). You Look Mahvelous: An Examination of Gender and Appearance Comments in the 1999-2000 Prime-Time Season. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 429.
Freese, J. & Meland, S. (2002). Seven Tenths Incorrect: Heterogeneity and Change in the Waist-to-Hip Ratios of…
How do you visualize the lifestyle of our descendants in the 21st century?" (p. 40). By the time the event had assumed the dimensions of Miss World though, things had definitely changed. According to Cooke, by the mid-1970s, beauty contests had assumed a definite "whiff of seediness and desperation about them -- a stench strong enough to penetrate through all that facade" (p. 40). These shifts in how beauty pageants were perceived were largely the result of rising criticisms from women's rights advocates who railed against the manner in which women were portrayed in such events, culminating with the throwing of flour bombs at the 1970 Miss World contest held at the Royal Albert Hall and hosted by Bob Hope (Cooke, 2004).
Beauty & the Disney Beast "Beauty and the Beast" was never really about beauty or ugliness. It has always been about admiration; the reaching out and obtaining of a kind of wealth that otherwise seemed beyond comprehension. Not surprisingly, of course, since ugliness cannot be rewarded in its own right -- or at least it couldn't be prior to the advent of reality TV -- the creature gifted with the keys
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance. Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to
Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media. 3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative
As she explains to the reader: "I felt no fear of him, and but little shyness. Had he been a handsome heroic-looking young gentleman, I should not have dared to stand thus questioning him against his will, and offering my services unasked. I had hardly ever seen a handsome youth; never in my life spoken to one" (idem, 173). The young woman who was actually full of energy and eager
Power Relations in Junichiro Tanizaki's Naomi The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live. Spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Japanese Meiji Restoration period, which was propelled by the fusion of industrialized economy and Western culture, and personified by the authorial brilliance of authors such as
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here was a woman writing in the 17th century who was willing to discuss the sexual practices of the males around her and to criticize them. Being a nun, this was even more out of the ordinary and makes Asbaje an even