As can be seen, all three of the above discussed authors contribute an essential point-of-view and approach to the question of the modern day fundamentalism and today's holy wars and crusades. Although each author takes a unique approach to the subject, it is impossible to say that one is right and another wrong. Instead, each author's approach adds to or supplements the other authors' theories and approaches. For example, whereas as Armstrong provides an in depth theoretical explanation for the problem, she does little in terms of backing her theory up with first person documentation from the present day situation. Instead, much of her theory is based on references to past events and circumstances. However, her theory is given more...
Thus, the three authors presented in this paper each offer important insight into understanding both the history and current status of religious fundamentalism.
Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.
Armstrong, Karen. Holy War. New York: Random House, 2001.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkley: University of California Press, 2003.
Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Ruthven, Malise. Islam: A Very Short…
The Battle of Hattin, as it has come to be known, was a very decisive event in the history of the Crusades. After destroying the Christian army, Saladin and his Muslim brothers quickly conquered almost every Frankish city and on October 2, 1187, the Holy City of Jerusalem fell which signaled the beginning of the Third Crusade, "a reaction to the fall of the Holy City of Jerusalem to the
One thing not even Madden can excuse is that cultural and social exchanges between Christians did not lead to compassion towards members of other faiths, particularly Jews. In fact, the crusading impulse invariably, more so with every successive crusade, brought examples of the persecution of Jews in the region. The first crusade almost immediately spawned mass killings of Jews down the Rhine en route to Jerusalem, supposedly because Jews' wealth
Kilij Arslan, having seen saw how easily his army had defeated the Frank invaders at minimal cost, grossly underestimated at his great cost the much more disciplined and formidable European crusading armies that followed. (McFall 5, "Ill-Fated Crusade....") The Second Wave The 'second wave' of crusaders -- elite contingents of effective military force led by local leaders and knights from different parts of Europe took a little longer to organize and
.. Popular understanding of the crusades nowadays tends to think in terms of a great contest between faiths fuelled by religious fanaticism. This perception is bound up with modern sensibilities about religious discrimination, and... It is a perspective which, at least as far as the First Crusade is concerned, needs to be rejected. Bull, 1999, p. 16/17) The Crusades The first crusade was initiated when Alexis I, the leader of the Byzantine Empire
God is better than your god Extremism has lead to numerous catastrophes throughout history and religion has sometimes served as a motive for extremists to act. Whether one is Christian, Muslim, or whether he or she is affiliated with any other religious ideology, the respective person is likely to have a distorted understanding of society as long as he or she is bombarded with malicious information meant to turn them
The Second Crusade, 1147-1149, was led by Louis 7th of France and the Holy Roman Emperor and proved to be a failure (Crusades 1 pp). The purpose of the Third Crusade, 1189-1192, was to reclaim Jerusalem, which had been lost in 1187 to Saladin, the Islamic army's greatest general (Crusades 1 pp). This effort was undermined by the personal rivalry between Philip II of France and Richard I of England