Limit Your Summary To 8 Sentences. The Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

limit your summary to 8 sentences.

The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.

Why was the current study conducted?

The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to occur. There has not been much research on this specific subject area, and the mechanisms by which working memory impacts performance are not well-known.

3. State the independent variable(s). If the author(s) of the article you chose to read conducted more than one experiment, please state the independent variable(s) for each experiment.

The independent variables included the pressure conditions, working memory demands, and the characteristics of the participants as being either low in working memory capacity or high in working memory capacity. High demand, low demand, high pressure, low pressure, high working memory trait, and low working memory trait are the six core independent variables.

4. State the dependent variable(s). If the author(s)...
...In particular, modular arithmetic (MA) tests were selected because they can mimic real world mathematical tasks while also providing new stimuli that challenge even those with a high aptitude.

5. State the hypothesis (es). If the author(s) of the article you chose to read conducted more than one experiment, please state the hypothesis (es) for each experiment.

There are two hypotheses. The first is that persons with low working memory capacity will be more prone to choking under pressure because they had a lower capacity for success to begin with. The second is that persons with high working memory capacity will be more prone to choking under pressure because they rely more heavily on working memory to accomplish cognitive tasks, and pressure consumes the working memory necessary for their success.

6. Describe the experimental procedure (e.g., what took place, the tasks that the subjects/participants completed). If the author(s) of the article you chose to read conducted more than one experiment, please describe the general procedure for each experiment.

The procedure has multiple parts. First, the researchers offered a simple fixation point before beginning the MA tasks. Then a practice round consisted of three low-demand and three high-demand problems delivered in random order. The main part of the experiment was the test consisting of 24 questions each for the low pressure and high pressure scenarios. The 24 questions were subdivided into those that were high demand and low demand. Pressure conditions were simulated in three ways: monetary incentives, peer pressure, and social evaluation.

7. Describe the results of the study.

The results were that the persons with high working memory capacity suffered the most from pressure. When there was no pressure, however, the high working memory capacity individuals did perform better than their low capacity counterparts. Pressure was the variable that impacted performance…

Sources Used in Documents:

Reference

Beilock, S.L. & Carr, T.H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and "choking under pressure" in math. Psychological Science 16(2), 101-105.

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