Risk Management In British Hedge Funds Dissertation

Length: 60 pages Sources: 40 Subject: Economics Type: Dissertation Paper: #89099157 Related Topics: Risk, Mutual Fund, Dissertation, Net Neutrality
Excerpt from Dissertation :

Risk Management in Hedge Funds

A research of how dissimilar hedge fund managers identify and achieve risk

The most vital lesson in expressions of Hedge Fund Management comes from the inadequate name of this kind of alternative investment that is an alternative: The notion that all methodical risks are differentiated away is not really applicable here, with the Hedge Fund returns, in realism, representing a mixture of superior administration of market inadequacies and cognizant contact to some exact systematic risks. Simply the methodical risks that are "unwanted" from a strategic standpoint are expanded away. So, hedge funds, in actual fact, are not completely hedged.

Furthermore, the right measure that is in expressions of risk management contact moves from the jurisdiction of additional risk in contrast to a standard to a total risk method. Having the total return here is what really matters for administrators and depositors and not a contrast of the hedge fund presentation to some benchmark, like in other forms of funds.

Likewise, the undesirable skewness that is related to a lot of class of hedge funds provide a vital challenge to quantitative methodologies that are based on the supposition of returns familiarity (e.g. Riskmetrics classic method), with the area turning into a very good study case for new methods, like Extreme Value Theory (EVT).

Finally, with this multifaceted outline in mind, the need for an first and continuous due assiduousness and decision-making tracking flows as the most important concern from an investor's or fund of funds' viewpoint. At this time, the duty of full portfolio clearness (for genuine stockholders, but not for the entire market) becomes obligatory for the positive risk manager, while, obviously. other kinds of risk usually non-spoken through quantitative methodologies, (e.g. The liquidness barriers recognized through long "lock-up" periods) can not also be undervalued.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement 1

Abstract 2

Chapter One 5

General Introduction 5

1.1 Background 7

1.2 Problem discussion 12

1.3 Purpose 13

1.4 Problem definition 13

1.4 Limitations 13

1.5 Perspective & #8230;.14

Chapter Two: Literature Review 16

2.1 Fee Structures 18

2.2 Varied Variability 20

2.3 Valuation Issue & #8230;28

Chapter Three: Methodology 31

3.1 Research philosophy 32

3.2 Research strategies & #8230;33

3.3 Research method & #8230;34

3.4 Method of data collection & #8230;34

3.5 Primary and secondary data 34

3.6 Qualitative and quantitative method 35

3.7 Interview 36

3.8 Interviewee selection 38

3.9 The questionnaire 39

3.10 Primary data analysis 42

3.11 The credibility of the study 43

3.12 Working approach & #8230;43

3.13 Reliability and validity & #8230;44

Chapter Four: Interviews and Analysis 47

Inroduction & #8230;47

4.2 The definition and nature of risk 49

4.2.2 The justification of risk management 51

4.2.3 The utilized risk management strategies 52

4,2.4 The difference among the measurement and the management of risk 54

4.2.5 The management of risk in the construction process 55

4.2.6 The risk variables used 55

Chapter Five: Finding and Recommendation 57

5.1 The definition and nature of risk Analysis 58

5.2 The justification of risk management 58

5.3 The utilized risk management strategies & #8230;59

5.4 The difference among the measurement and the management of risk 59

5.5 The management of risk in the construction process 60

5.6 The risk variables used 61

Chapter Six: Conclusion 63

References 68

Appendix 77


A hedge fund is basically looked at as a private investment fund that is insecurely controlled, skillfully achieved, and not extensively obtainable to the public (Lhabitant, 2004). Rendering to an approximation of the Van Hedge Fund Advisors, the hedge fund is an industry that has been in the process of growing at an all time rate of 15% per annum that as been over the last era...


There were about 7,000 hedge funds that are functioning in 2009 with a total assets that have a value of USD 1.5 trillion. The rising approval of hedge funds has produced study whether hedge fund administrators can actually create greater presentation. Assessing hedge fund managers' abilities is a thought-provoking task for a lot of different reasons.

First, material on hedge funds is problematic to get. Unlike funds that are mutual, hedge funds are not a requisite when it comes to reporting to an industry connotation. They willingly report a lot of the data to numerous databases. Therefore, the information is not complete, and the return data is dependent on a number of prejudices.

Hedge fund is a word that has continuously been related with much disagreement. In the stir of remarkable failures for instance the two Bear Stearns which are linked hedge funds, which made the corporation's third quarter net-profit deterioration by roughly 65% due to losses incurred by the hedge funds, many questioned the strategies and the risk management which has been employed by hedge funds (Grynbaum, 2007). Computing and understanding the risk characteristics that are associated with the forms of investments and the positions which are faced by hedge funds is very complex, combine this with the typical lack of transparency and data regarding the hedge fund and the subject gets even more complicated. This is what led many stockholders to take legal actions that went against a lot of the protuberant hedge funds that were involved in the sub-prime mortgage situation; the thinking was that the hedge funds were unsuccessful to notify the stockholders of the risks that were associated with the savings that the funds had assumed (Graybow, 2007).

Figure 1: Top Hedge Fund Companies

Hedge funds are a relatively new financial vehicle in some countries and its popularity is growing quickly (Anderlind, Dotevall, Eidolf & Sommerlau, 2003). The regulations in places like England appear to be much stricter regarding the operation of the hedge funds than in USA, but freedom for the managers and a complicated risk characteristic are still noteworthy sections of the domestic hedge funds (Aronsson, 2006). observing as the hedge funds have been known to have an access to a much larger market and can also have the right to trade in different forms of financial devices, derivatives and merchandises, the approaches obtainable to the administrators are apparently limitless. With this, there have been a lot of different kinds of risks that have also been born, as well as approaches to counter them (Reuters, 2011). As risk management is a vital portion of handling a reserve and bearing in mind the complexity of the jeopardies confronted by hedge funds, this is a thought-provoking topic to study. We have therefore made the decision to study the risk management used in hedge funds, how the fund managers' build their portfolio when it comes to the validity and the risk of diverse risk measures utilized to compute the risk.

1.1 Background

The founder of the first hedge fund was Alfred Winslow Jones. He was born in Australia 1901 but then moved, yet young, to the United States where he started his education (McWhinney, 2010). He then pursued and graduated from Harvard at the age of 22 and then became an American representative in his early thirties. Jones then went on to get his PhD from the University of Columbia and in the timely 1940s he began working a job for the Fortune magazine (McWhinney, 2010). During the time Jones was writing an article concerning the tendencies of new replacements for capitalizing capital for the periodical in 1948, he started become interested in trying to manage capital himself (Cottier, 2000). His monetary novelty, which today is more recognized as the definitive short/long impartialities model, was to try to decrease the danger in possessing long-standing stock places by having a short sell with the other stocks. In agreement with the long/short impartialities classical, Jones was therefore able to limit the jeopardy of the marketplace, which was current in the portfolio. Additional Jones achieved in attaining optimistic return from both when the market had gone up and down because of differences that are in the arrangement of long and short locations. The objective of hedge funds nowadays is still to make total returns in the similar way (Cottier, 2000). Jones also desired to develop the returns and tried to do so by expending influence (McWhinney, 2010). Then during the year of 1949 Jones had hurled the world's first hedge fund.

Figure 2: Hedge Funds that are under performed.

During the next couple of years Jones would alter the construction of the hedge fund, changing it from a general to an incomplete company. He then added an inducement fee to recompense the partner who was handling the fund (McWhinney, 2010). Another main variance from the mutual funds is that a lot of the hedge fund administrators, to display that they believe in their decisions to try and reach the absolute returns, capitalize in private…

Sources Used in Documents:


Grinblatt, M., Titman, S. (2001). Financial markets and corporate strategy, (2nd ed). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Grynbaum, M. (2007). Bear stearns profit plunges 61% on subprime woes. Retrieved March 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/21/business/20cnd-wall.html?_r=2

Gupta, A., Liang, B. (2005). Do hedge funds have enough capital? A Value-at-Risk approach. Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 77, 2005, pp. 219-53

Hedgecock, A., Loving, K. (2011). Private Investment Advisers Registration Act of 2010 Heralds Important Changes for Private Fund Managers. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www.rbh.com/private-fund-investment-advisers-registration-act-of-2010- heralds-important-changes-for-private-fund-managers-07-21-2010/
McWhinney, J. (2010). A brief history of the hedge fund. Retrieved February 14, 2011, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/mutualfund/05/HedgeFundHist.asp
Reuters. (2011). Hedge fund basics. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.hedgeworld.com/education/index.cgi?page=hedge_fund_basics
RPM Asset Management. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from https://www.rpm.se/
Sentat. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.sentat.se/
Stromqvist, M. (2009a). Hedge funds and the financial crisis of 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2011,from http://www.riksbank.com/upload/Dokument_riksbank/Kat_publicerat/Ekonomi ska%20kommentarer/2009/ek_kom_no3_eng.pdf
Stromqvist, M. (2009b). Hedgefonder och finansiella kriser. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.riksbank.se/upload/Dokument_riksbank/Kat_publicerat/PoV_sve/s v/stromqvist2009_1sv.pdf
Swedish Statute of Investment Funds (SFS 2004:75). Retrieved March 24, 2011, from
Swedish Investment Funds Act (SFS 2004:46). Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20040046.htm

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