Social Sciences Background- for Centuries, Research Paper

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It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend political unity. Sociologists are diverse in their methodology, some prefer quantitative studies and critical theory, others qualitative approaches using case studies, observation and individual interviews. All, though, are designed to form a picture of society -- a clustering of sub-disciplines that examine differing dimensions of society, and then come together as a whole to also paint a more holistic version of human interaction and the institutions that engender that interaction. In the 21st century, sociology tends to overlap other social sciences even more as it seeks to understand systems and their overlapping interactions (Backhouse & Fontaine, 2010)

Interrelationships- One way to see the interrelationships between anthropology, psychology and sociology is to see each discipline as having fundamentally the same questions about humans, but a different approach and focus. There are, of course, fundamental questions -- where does knowledge come from, how do we know what we know, and how then is that translated into human behavior, human institutions, and individual actions? (Fischer & Barnes, 2002). All the social sciences wish to
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uncover more information about humanity, and utilize a critical thinking model to do so. Critical thinking is the manner in which we look at information, then process that information, and bring outside knowledge together to interpret that information. It is a process within the social sciences that typically involves the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative attempts to understand social issues through direct observation, communication with individuals, analysis of tests, or looking at primary documents within society (books, films, etc.). The quantitative approach tends towards explaining social phenomenon through direct, empirical evidence; statistical data, experiments, measuring, quantifying behaviors (Bernard, 2011). Regardless of the discipline, the umbrella of social science helps us understand that each category of study offers a bit more insight into humanity.

Cultural Diversity- Humans often use the social sciences to help explain culture, wisdom, and the manner in which technology impact society. As humans become more technologically competent, ethical, philosophical, moral, and even structural questions abound. Through a measured and evolving approach, the social sciences can help us make sense of the direction of human evolution -- both in knowledge and behavior. Globalization has clearly changed the way humans interact. As economic boundaries shift, it is important to combine social science with a broader approach to management and business theory; using sociology, anthropology, history, leadership studies in psychology, etc. In order to develop a robust model that tends to be mutli-cultural in approach (Mahajan, 2006).

Works Cited

American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm

Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Fischer, W., & Barnes, D. (2002). Critical Thinking About Social Issues. Portland, ME: Walch Books.

Mahajan, S. (2006). Globalization and Social Change. New York and New Delhi: Lotus Press via Google.

Vessuri, H. (2000). Ethical Challenges…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm

Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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