An IQ level below 70 signifies a deficiency in adaptive functioning.
The possible causes of mental retardation may be attributed to three genetic disorders - down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and fragile X syndrome. The impaired genetics conditions are believed to be the most common causes of mental retardation. In addition, researchers have identified few other causes that may profoundly heighten the risk for developing mental retardation in a child. Difficulties during or following pregnancy may also result in severe problem in the fetus such as genetic mutation occurring during fetal development or if the mother suffers from rubella during her pregnancy. In addition, if the baby is not exposed to sufficient oxygen during pre and post-birth phases, it may lead to developmental disability following brain damage. Malnutrition or iodine deficiency may contribute to the development of mental retardation. Institutionalization at a very young age as well as sensory deprivation for a prolonged period of time is considered as the significant environmental variables increasing the risk of being mentally retarded. The forceps delivery increases the risk of getting mentally retarded child three times higher than a normal delivery (Szymanski & King 1999).
Significance of IQ
An Intelligent Quotient (IQ) refers to the standardized test intending to perform a quantitative analysis of intelligence of an individual in different areas including language, understanding, numerical literacy, problem-solving skills and decision-making ability (DSM IV 2000). While the average score is defined as 100, the score below 75 will frequently, not always, imply individuals having difficulties in interacting with daily life-events. As standardized in Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale (WAIS), mental retardation can be categorized under four identified spectrums - IQ level varying between 55 to 70 implies mild level of mental retardation which is educable and the required intensity of supports is intermittent, between 40 to 54 it is implied as moderate and this level is trainable with limited intensity of required supports, between 25 to 39 the level of mental retardation is severe which is non-trainable and the intensity of required supports is extensive and IQ score below 25 signifies non-trainable education level and the intensity of supports required is pervasive. In the context of total population in the United States, the prevalence of individuals with mild level of mental retardation is 0.9-2.7% and the rest three levels combine 0.3-0.4% (Van & Mark 1997).
Preparation for a Collaborative Team Teaching
Collaborative team teaching encourages several pedagogical and intellectual benefits by facilitating dynamic and interactive learning environment, permitting teachers an effective mode of modeling thoughts within or across the boundary of disciplines, and inspiring researchers to advocate new ideas and intellectual affiliation among faculties. The most attractive advantage of collaborative team teaching is getting facilitated with the opportunity to be both teacher and learner at the same time. As the collaborative team teaching demands cooperation among faculty members, who can occasionally be protective about their sessions and teaching styles, so prior to my participation in the collaborative team teaching class in next September I will put my best effort in understanding the context and enhancing my soft skills including good communication, punctuality, negotiating skills, hard work, showing respect to others and diplomatic attitude (McDaniel & Colarulli 1990). In my understanding I fully realize that the initial phase of the class may need more attention to be given in a non-conventional mode of learning, however, as the session progresses it would facilitate the teachers to experience personal benefits in terms of improved classroom management abilities, sharper observational skills, increased ability to play the role of active learner, improved critical thinking skills, increased level of group compliance and a positive change in learner-instructor relationship (McCann and Radford 1993). As the primary objective...
In addition, I will go through all the relevant literatures, journals and research papers concerning the strategies used in collaborative team teaching along with its implication in helping students with disabilities (Wentworth and Davis, 2002) so that I could be able to smooth the progress of my assignment.
92 NAC 51, Title 92, Nebraska Administrative Code, Chapter 51. Nebraska Department of Education Rule 51, regulations and standards for special education programs. Effective Date, October 3, 1999 (Revised).
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Caldwell, T.H., Sirvis, B.P., Still, J., Still, M., Schwab, N., Jones, J., et al. "Students who require medical technology in school." In S. Porter, M. Haynie, T. Bierle, T. Heintz, & J. Palfrey (Eds.), Children and youth assisted by medical technology in educational settings, 1997: 3- 18, Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Dice, Marvin L. Intervention Strategies for Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. San Diego, California: Singular Publishing Group, Inc., 1993.
Hamaguchi, P.M. Childhood speech, language, & listening problems: What every parent should know (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001
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Letterman, Margaret R. And Kimberly B. Dugan. "Team Teaching a Cross-Disciplinary Honors Course: Preparation and Development." College Teaching 55, no. 2, 2004: 76-79.
McCann, I. & Radford, R. Mentoring for teachers: The collaborative approach. In B.J. Cadwell and E.M. Carter (Eds.), The return of the mentor: Strategies for workplace learning, Washington, DC: Falmer Press,
McDaniel, E.A. And Colarulli, 0. C. "Collaborative teaching in the face of productivity concerns: The dispersed team model," Innovative Higher Education (citing Gabelnick et al., 1990), 1997.
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Szymanski L, King BH. "Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and co morbid mental disorders." American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Working Group on Quality Issues. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999 Dec; 38(12 Suppl): 5S-31S
Van RS &…
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge performed in authentic settings and the functional life skills curriculum became best practice. The functional, age-appropriate curricular focus resulted in these students demonstrating skills and knowledge not thought possible earlier" (Quenemoen, 2008). In the 1990s, added significant new practices were acknowledged as
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and
Special education is presided over by federal law in most educational jurisdictions. According to the Indviduals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Special Education is defined as: specifically planned instruction used to meet the distinctive needs of a child with a disability, at no cost to the parents. This kind of service is in place to provide supplementary services, support, programs, specialized placements or surroundings to make sure that all students'
Special Education: Collaboration Between Teachers The majority of special education students receive instruction in both general education classes as well as special education support classes. Most of these students are enrolled in Resource Support Programs in which a special education teacher has responsibility for offering learning supports across the general education curriculum. The job of the special education teacher, or Resource Specialist, is to ensure that the student's IEP is properly
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "Brookover, et al. (1982); Brophy (1983); Brophy and Evertson (1976); Brophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and
In the past, students with disabilities tended to be isolated from their peers by Special Education paradigms that obliged them to receive learning in a physically isolated setting. Far from helping these children to achieve their full potential, such setups tended to stigmatize them, making, making it even more difficult to look beyond their ability for their own identity and how this could be applied for the benefit of society