The first step in project management involves identifying the requirements. The second step is establishment of a clear and achievable objective. The third step is finding a balance for the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost. Finally, the fourth step in project management is the adaptation of the specifications, plans and approach to the various concerns and expectations of the client. It is necessary that the manager understand the cultural, social, international, political and physical environmental concerns of a project as "virtually all projects are planned and implemented..." (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004) within these contexts. Required interpersonal skills of the manager in project management include those as follows:
Influencing the organization;
Negotiations with conflict management; and Problem-solving. (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004)
The project management system is defined as the "set of tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures used to manage a project." (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004) This leads this work to the next priority of management, which is that of 'information management' in the organization.
V. INFORMATION Management recent study states findings that employees inability to "find key files, emails or documents can cause stress, frustration, arguments, and a bad atmosphere between colleagues at work." (Public Technology, 2008) Due to the pace of technological change it is increasingly necessary that organizations examine the method used for managing information and that the organization implement procedures and policies for accountability in storing documents and other electronic records. The information management system chosen by the organization must consider several factors including the organization's goals, the achievement of efficient document flow, reporting requirements, security, backup copies of records, legal, administrative and regulatory requirements, as well as other key factors. It is necessary that management decide if information management will be through a centralized or decentralized location.
Decentralization advantages include:
1) Immediate access to files by employees;
2) Quick attention to customer/client inquiries; and 3) the ability to set up the files to the specification and preferences of each individual location or department. (Information Systems Management, 2007)
Centralization advantages include:
1) Efficient control, protection and security of all files in one location;
2) the development of standardized procedures;
3) Cost-effective use of personnel;
4) Efficient use of equipment; and 5) a reduction in operating costs. (Information Systems Management, 2007)
VI. OPERATIONS Management
The work of McNamara entitled "Operations Management" states that the focus of operations management is careful management of "...the processes to produce and distribute products and services." (2008) McNamara states that there is often a negative view of the word 'control' however "it must exist or there is no organization at all." (2008) Administration controls include those of: (1) delegation; (2) evaluation; (3) financial statement (budget management); (4) performance management; (5) policies and procedures; (6) quality control and operations management; and (7) risk, safety, and liabilities. (McNamara, 2008) McNamara states that delegation "is an approach to get things done, in conjunction with other employees. Delegation generally includes assigning responsibilities to an employee to complete a task, granting the employee sufficient authority to gain the resources to do the task and letting the employee decide how that task will be carried out." (2008) Evaluation is defined by McNamara as "carefully collecting and analyzing information in order to make decisions. Evaluation can focus on many aspects of an organization..." (2008) including the organizations goals, processes and outcomes. (McNamara, 2008; paraphrased) Financial statement and especially budget management are important aspects of operations management in that the goals and strategies must make the best use of the available resources in accomplishing the goals of the organization. Regular financial audits are required according to McNamara in order to make sure that the practices of management are following standards that are generally accepted in the organization. Performance management has as its focus the "performance of the total organization including its processes, critical subsystems and employees. Performance reviews provide an opportunity for supervisors and their employees to regularly communicate about goals, how well those goals should be met, how well the goals are being met and what must be done to continue to meet those goals. The employee is rewarded in some form for meeting performance standards, or embarks on a development plan with the supervisor in order to improve performance." (McNamara, 2008) it is important that policies and procedures are communication to employees enabling employees to adhere to the organization's policies and procedures as well as policies that are effective due to enactment of laws or regulation of governance. Quality control is critical in operations management and to ensure that the client receives only high quality services from the organization's employees. The last area of Operations Management to consider is 'risk, safety, and liabilities' so as to avoid any of these issues in the organization.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work has reviewed three areas of organizational management that are key in avoiding and overcoming stress in the workplace. Those three areas of organizational management are: (1) project management; (2) information management and (3) operations management. Each of these areas of management offers a unique method of efficient management of the organization in its provision of services, in its initiative of interorganizational communication and efficiency in record-keeping and information systems implementation and in management of these various processes in the organization. This work has reviewed the advantages to decentralization and centralization of the organization's records and as well has reviewed the various factors that affect the method that is most desirable for an organization. It is clear that management of the project, the information system of an organization and the operations of the organization is critically required in order to promote effectiveness, efficiency and best practices in the organization.
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2004) PMBOK Guide. 3rd ed. The Project Management Institute.
Business: The Economy Taxing Workplace Stress (1999) BBC News. 27 Oct 1999. Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/487977.stm
Gorkin, Mark (2003) the Four Stages of Burnout. 'The Stress Doc'. Online available at http://www.stressdoc.com/4stages.htm
Health Stress Tops Work Sickness League (1999) BBC News 3 Oct. 1999 Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/463853.stm
Information Systems Management (2008) Document workflow. Online available at http://www.freewebs.com/managing-workplace-information/informationsystems.htm
Managing Workplace Stress (2005) International Petroleum Industry and International Association of Oil & Gas Producers.2005.
McNamara, Carter (2008) Management Function of Coordinating/Controlling: Overview of Basic Methods. Free Management Library. Online available at http://www.managementhelp.org/cntrllng/cntrllng.htm
McNamara, Carter (2008) Operations Management. Free Management Library. Online available at http://www.managementhelp.org/ops_mgnt/ops_mgnt.htm
Overcoming Objections to Flexible Work Arrangements.…