The first step in project management involves identifying the requirements. The second step is establishment of a clear and achievable objective. The third step is finding a balance for the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost. Finally, the fourth step in project management is the adaptation of the specifications, plans and approach to the various concerns and expectations of the client. It is necessary that the manager understand the cultural, social, international, political and physical environmental concerns of a project as "virtually all projects are planned and implemented..." (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004) within these contexts. Required interpersonal skills of the manager in project management include those as follows:
Influencing the organization;
Negotiations with conflict management; and Problem-solving. (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004)
The project management system is defined as the "set of tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures used to manage a project." (a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004) This leads this work to the next priority of management, which is that of 'information management' in the organization.
V. INFORMATION Management recent study states findings that employees inability to "find key files, emails or documents can cause stress, frustration, arguments, and a bad atmosphere between colleagues at work." (Public Technology, 2008) Due to the pace of technological change it is increasingly necessary that organizations examine the method used for managing information and that the organization implement procedures and policies for accountability in storing documents and other electronic records. The information management system chosen by the organization must consider several factors including the organization's goals, the achievement of efficient document flow, reporting requirements, security, backup copies of records, legal, administrative and regulatory requirements, as well as other key factors. It is necessary that management decide if information management will be through a centralized or decentralized location.
Decentralization advantages include:
1) Immediate access to files by employees;
2) Quick attention to customer/client inquiries; and 3) the ability to set up the files to the specification and preferences of each individual location or department. (Information Systems Management, 2007)
Centralization advantages include:
1) Efficient control, protection and security of all files in one location;
2) the development of standardized procedures;
3) Cost-effective use of personnel;
4) Efficient use of equipment; and 5) a reduction in operating costs. (Information Systems Management, 2007)
VI. OPERATIONS Management
The work of McNamara entitled "Operations Management" states that the focus of operations management is careful management of "...the processes to produce and distribute products and services." (2008) McNamara states that there is often a negative view of the word 'control' however "it must exist or there is no organization at all." (2008) Administration controls include those of: (1) delegation; (2) evaluation; (3) financial statement (budget management); (4) issues in the organization.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work has reviewed three areas of organizational management that are key in avoiding and overcoming stress in the workplace. Those three areas of organizational management are: (1) project management; (2) information management and (3) operations management. Each of these areas of management offers a unique method of efficient management of the organization in its provision of services, in its initiative of interorganizational communication and efficiency in record-keeping and information systems implementation and in management of these various processes in the organization. This work has reviewed the advantages to decentralization and centralization of the organization's records and as well has reviewed the various factors that affect the method that is most desirable for an organization. It is clear that management of the project, the information system of an organization and the operations of the organization is critically required in order to promote effectiveness, efficiency and best practices in the organization.
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2004) PMBOK Guide. 3rd ed. The Project Management Institute.
Business: The Economy Taxing Workplace Stress (1999) BBC News. 27 Oct 1999. Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/487977.stm
Gorkin, Mark (2003) the Four Stages of Burnout. 'The Stress Doc'. Online available at http://www.stressdoc.com/4stages.htm
Health Stress Tops Work Sickness League (1999) BBC News 3 Oct. 1999 Online available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/463853.stm
Information Systems Management (2008) Document workflow. Online available at http://www.freewebs.com/managing-workplace-information/informationsystems.htm
Managing Workplace Stress (2005) International Petroleum Industry and International Association of Oil & Gas Producers.2005.
McNamara, Carter (2008) Management Function of Coordinating/Controlling: Overview of Basic Methods. Free Management Library. Online available at http://www.managementhelp.org/cntrllng/cntrllng.htm
McNamara, Carter (2008) Operations Management. Free Management Library. Online available at http://www.managementhelp.org/ops_mgnt/ops_mgnt.htm
Overcoming Objections to Flexible Work Arrangements.…
9. Supporting organizational teams provides employees with a medium to discuss concerns and problems as well as an opportunity to help discharge emotional pressure. Sharing in a group serves as a catharsis and stress release system. 10. Guarantying employees have the freedom to work effectively as well as ensuring they sense their work contributes to a greater purpose decreases workplace stress (Raitano and Kleiner). Secondary Prevention When implementing secondary prevention method, the organization
Workplace Violence Major Findings and Implications Corrective Actions and Recommendation Plan Evaluation of Effectiveness of Plan This paper is based on workplace violence, predominantly in the health care industry. Workplace violence in the today's time has accelerated immensely amongst various industries, and healthcare industry is considerable amongst them. The violent actions and behaviors performed in the workplace environment that can cause emotional and psychical damage to a person is typically referred to as workplace
Stress Environment has to be 'wiped out' (Net-Working Survival Guide), if not than employee has to be trained to handle stressful situations. But expecting a lot out of employee's limited resources and restrictions is unfair. Deterministic view has to be adopted while improving the organizational structure such that the level of stress is significantly reduced. Organizational structures can be improved by adopting following strategies, Realistic Approach: Realistic Approach is required not just
This even happened in Athens in 1993 when its municipal government imposed conditions of a cholesterol check. They sought to accept only those employees having acceptable level of cholesterol. Employers later had to abandon this policy due to public hue and cry but it shows how far employers can go in imposing medical conditions on employees. Drug testing is a common practice in a number of organizations as its harmful
The answer is all of them. They all hold true at some time for certain individuals. As an industrial psychologist the key task at hand is deciding which theory to apply in order to improve motivation at one's own workplace, or if working as a consultant, at the client's workplace. There is no clear answer or magic formula that will tell the industrial psychologist which theory to apply and at
This researcher obtained a majority of the relevant, scholarly research through Questia, which advertises itself as the world's largest online library. During the third chapter of this research effort, the methodology segment, this researcher relates techniques utilized in the Literature Research Methodology to manipulate information which later contributed to the verdict of the hypothesis for this study. Information related to implementing and retrieving the bullying questionnaire is shared during the