Sustainable Development Essay
Excerpt from Essay :
Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism and Sustainability
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries in North America in the 18th century which resulted to be successful in large countries where the income was high and people were able to consume the products that were produced locally. The increased adherence to the local production backed by the government resulted in the construction of infrastructure for the economic purposes in the Teotihuacan and accessibility to shores resulted in the colonial development and thus made the export possible (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 61).
However, neoliberalism promotes the free trade and reduces the expenditure of government in order to promote the activities in the private sector of the economy. The construction of roads linked the major cities to smaller cities and the development in the private sector by means of tax reduction attracted the people from small cities. Moreover, the focus on the development of private sectors attracted the riches from the region to invest and generate profits. The colonial population that was populated due to the trade purpose followed this adherence and started to invest. The adherence towards the export and investments resulted in the construction of port in Buenos-Aires and the colonies that were made in the 18th century influenced the architecture of buildings which were mainly influenced from British engineering and the cities in Andean nation i.e. Chile was impacted from these activities. It has been observed that the urbanization was strongly influenced from the development of well-planned cities and the architecture (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 63).
Urban primacy indicates the increase in population twice in the number of a certain city with respect to its adjacent city and such cities are often considered to be center of social, political and economic activities. The growth in the population of Peru in the year 2010 was considered to be 11 times high than its neighboring city Arequipa. The city possessed the infrastructures by means of museums, offices and universities and thus attracted large number of population. Moreover, Buenos-Aires is 3.5 times greater in population than its neighboring cities and the population of Montevideo is 5 times higher than its neighboring cities. Similarly, Port-au-Prince is also larger than its neighboring cities in Haiti with the 3.8 times increased population (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 65).
The privatization in the region took place as a result of neoliberal policy in order to reduce the dependency on state for the economic activities and bring investments from the riches to generate more profits and employment opportunities (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 94).
It has been observed that the urban growth in Latin America has been increased over the years and many key factors have been found to account for the increased growth in this region. The pattern of migration that took place during the 19th century caused the increase in population and the growth was sustained due to the industrialization in the urban areas which resulted in the economic uplift of this region and the urban-rural migration still prevails in the 20th century specifically due to economic factors and the availability of services. Moreover, the increased facility to communicate and transport facilities attracted large number of youth to these cities which resulted in their permanent settlement which also increased the birth rate in these cities (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 65-66).
The industrialization that took place from the year 1930 -- 1940 in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico attracted a large number of rural population and people from small cities started to migrate towards these cities by means of employment opportunities and due to the provision of better services in large cities. The problem occurred because
the urbanization increased at faster pace than the employment opportunities in the city (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 67).
The informal sector started to prevail in Latin America in order to reduce the part of state by paving way for the growth in private sector. The informal sector in Latin America consist of various age groups in which teenagers working at white collar jobs were found in Bolivia as well as professionals working at blue collar jobs were also existing in Havana. Moreover, people were also found to be indulged in illegal activities comprising of drug dealing etc. In Reo-de-Janeiro. The women were also found to be working as saleswomen in the streets of Quito and hence, the informal sector prevailed in all ages and genders (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 70).
The city was developed in a number of zones and the business district was formed around the traditional plaza, however, the contemporary office buildings were developed in Santiago and Buenos Aires. The corridor of business district was made a residential area of elites whereas the spine of the city consisted of moderate quality houses and urban facilities. The squatter-settlement of self-built homes started to begin as the distance from the core of the city increased where low-income population founded housing. The favela neighborhood was a self-build zone but over the period of time and with the economic stability of its residential; the area became well developed (Jackiewicz & Bosco, 70-71).
According to Elliot (37), sustainable development is referred to the continuous process that ensures the economic growth and development for long-term which can be achieved with the planned set of economic activities. The sustainable development through environment takes place when the state authorities make attempts to safeguard the environment, provide sustenance and address the environment related issues in the society and the sustainable development cannot be achieved under the absence of vigorous environment. The healthy environment of the region drops when it is surrounded by contaminated water resources and appreciates deforestation which ultimately becomes unfriendly towards the people. However, the culture provides the cohesion in the community and attracts the global establishments towards the region and, it also provides the people with a sense of belongingness. In this way, when healthy environment is fostered and cultural diversity is maintained by giving way to classis architects then specific region possesses efficient workforce that enlightens its importance along the globe and provides it economic opportunities which ultimately leads towards the sustainable development (Nurse, 29).
According to Butler (204), sustainable development is threatened with increased exports because the profitability of export rely heavily on the host country's economic condition and if the host country's economic condition or monetary value fails then the region can encounter with the economic shocks by means of decrease in exports and increased production capacity. The tourism in the country attracts the foreign authorities towards the growing economy and provides the country to show its adaptability and advancements to the foreign countries and brings investors and riches to the country and the tourism also generates economic activity in the country. The mass-tourism is the type of tourism in which economic activities generate by means of transportation, recreation, sales of local products and accommodation services. The very same tourism also generates positive image of the country to the foreign countries and brings harmony among the individuals. The second type of tourism is the ecotourism which attracts the tourists towards the natural environment of the region mainly consist of natural visiting places i.e. lakes, valleys, flora and fauna. This type of tourism concentrates on the sustainability that can be achieved from the environmental perspective and provides weight age to the natural phenomenon of the country and generates economic activity through the visit of tourists. However, the third type, industrial tourism tends to attract the investors and riches by inviting them to visit the infrastructures and observe the trends in order to find them feasible. These tours needs initial investment but becomes profitable in the long run when the investors decide to invest by observing the growing economy of the region Murphy, (175).
When the drugs are produced in any country then the abundance of drug supply in the region makes these drugs accessible to the public and its utilization causes the organized crimes by paving way towards the human and social injustice. Its causes downfall in the social environment of the region and promotes unemployment and illiteracy in the region. The sustainable development of any country depends on…
Sources Used in Documents:
Butler, Richard W. "Tourism, environment, and sustainable development." Environmental conservation 18.03 (1991): 201-209.
Elliott, Jennifer. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, 2012.
Howell, D., and Mamadou Diallo. "Charting U.S. economic performance with alternative labor market indicators: The importance of accounting for job quality." online]. SCEPA Working Paper 6 (2007): 202007-6.
Jackiewicz, E.L., Bosco, E.J. (2012). Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Roman and Littlefield Publishers.
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