There was also significant risk of increased attention problems associated with watching nonviolent television for the same age group, but no risk was associated with viewing educational programming. Older children ages 4 and 5 showed no increased risk five years later for attention problems from watching violent or non-violent programs. This second study was based on data collected from parents of 933 children and shows that the effect of violent television content on attention problems is much higher than previously estimated when program content was not identified." (Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008)
The work of Josephson (2005) entitled: "Television Violence a Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages" states that children at the preschool age, or between three and five years of age "...begin watching television with an "exploration" approach. They actively search for meaning in the content, but are still especially attracted to vivid production features, such as rapid character movement, rapid changes of scene, and intense or unexpected sights and sounds. Because television violence is accompanied by vivid production features, preschoolers are predisposed to seek out and pay attention to violence - particularly cartoon violence. It is not the violence itself that makes the cartoons attractive to preschoolers, but the accompanying vivid production features. With this preference for cartoons, preschoolers are being exposed to a large number of violent acts in their viewing day. Moreover, they are unlikely to be able to put the violence in context, they are likely to miss any subtlety conveyed mitigating information concerning motivation and consequences. Preschoolers behave more aggressively than usual in their play after watching any high-action exciting television content, but especially after watching violent television." (Josephson, 2005)
March 2007 report published by Reuters News entitled: "Screen Violence Tied to Boy's Aggression: Study" relates that boys in the range of ages 2 to 5 "who viewed an hour of on-screen violence a day increased their chances of being overly aggressive later in childhood, but the association was not seen in girls..." (Reuters, 2007) This study reports that: "...the association between violent programming and overly aggressive behavior was not found among the 146 girls in the study, who tended to watch more educational and nonviolent shows than the boys." (Reuters, 2007)
It is related in the work entitled: "Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives" "The effect of media violence on behavior is not only an interesting psychological question but is also a relevant public policy and public health issue. Although many studies have been conducted examining the link between violence on TV and aggressive behavior, most of these studies have overlooked several other potentially significant factors, including the dramatic context of the violence and the type of violence depicted as well as the race and ethnicity of the viewers." (Reuters, 2007) Findings are related after the conduction of a study reported in "Perspective on Psychological Science" journal in September 2008 that a correlation was found to exist "between watching violent TV and lower academic performance in African-American males..." (Reuters, 2007)
It is related that the data in this study "raise the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) it is suggested in this study that in studying "the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression...
In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007)
The work of Perez-Ortiz entitled: "Television as an Agency of Socialization" states that a major theory in the study of television is that of social organization theory which holds that as the group "develops through the interaction and socialization of its members, a series of events are repeated and transmitted from generation to generation. Those events, that can be divided into norms, rules, ranking and sanctions, are the driving motives for the actions of each individual within the social group. Therefore, before the individual takes the initiative towards an action, he or she will be comparing his or her actions to the ones of the fellow members of the group.. It has been proved that young viewers internalize norms, role definitions and other understandings of social organization from what they see on TV screens and mainly through the representation of stereotypes of recognizable portrayals of stable patterns of group life." (2002)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Findings in this study include that boys ages two to five who had viewed one or more hours of television violence each day were at an increased risk for being aggressive later in childhood however, this link to media television violence and later aggressive behavior was not found to be present in girls. Additionally this study has found that African-American males watching violent television were also found to have lower academic achievement and lower grades. Findings include that television shows inclusive of violent punishment appears to "inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males." (Reuters, 2007)
It is related that the data in this study "raise the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) it is suggested in this study that in studying "the possibility that processes competing with or overriding the aggression stimulating or aggression modeling effects of viewing violence on television may be more salient for African-American males." (Reuters, 2007)
For example, viewing TV shows where violent behavior is punished may inhibit feelings of aggression to a greater degree in African-American males. In any case, additional research is required to assess the effects on African-American males of viewing TV aggression." (Reuters, 2007) There is a great deal yet misunderstood concerning television violence viewing in children who are preschool age however, it does appear that viewing television violence is more likely to result in male children developing aggressiveness than the risk for females developing aggressive behavior.
Recommendations for future research include the recommendation that more study be undertaken to understand why male children appear to be more likely to develop aggressive behavior upon viewing televised media violence than are females.
Reebye, Pratibha (2005) Aggression During Early Years - Infancy and Preschool. T h e C. A n a d I a n C. h I l d a n d a d o l e s c e n t P. s y c h I a t r y R. e v I e w F. e b r u a r y 2-0 0-5 (1-4): 1. Online available at http://www.irm-systems.com/onottaca/doc.nsf/files/B5699D7CBA111CF48725712D00526DF5/$file/Feb05AggressionDuringEarlyYears.pdf
Watching Violent TV at Pre-School Age Linked to Aggression in Young Boys (2008) Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008. Online available at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/87763.php
Josephson, W.L. (2005) Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Online available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntseffevage_e.html.
Screen Violence Tied to Boys' Aggression: Study (2007) Reuters News. 5 Nov 2007. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0460670820071105
Television viewing and aggression: Some alternative perspectives (2008) Reuters News 1 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/blogBurst/health?type=healthNews&w1=B7ovpm21IaDoL40ZFnNfGe&w2=B9QtAZ2UCcOq5iPRJnVhIQk&src=blogBurst_healthNews&bbPostId=Cz1f258jRerSxB7uaim0C4wkPAWBCkSVj5qOCz4i9t5fSo6t4&bbParentWidgetId=B9QtAZ2UCcOq5iPRJnVhIQk
Perez-Ortiz, PJ (2002) Television as an Agency of Socialization. 2002 March. Online available at http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/pjp0101.html
Television Violence and the Effects on Children Although the debate goes on as to whether or not television violence has a negative impact on children, there is ample evidence to verify that indeed, children are impacted in largely negative ways by being witnesses to violence on television. This paper provides six reasons why allowing children to watch violent TV is a bad idea and can create aggressive people later in life. Reason
In fact, the relationship between academic performance and television is not clear cut. Research has shown that children who watch a large amount of television typically do poorly in school, yet those who spend a moderate amount of time in front of the television do better than non-viewers. There is a small negative relationship between television viewing and a child's IQ. However, there are significant subgroup differences. There are
Children and Television Television may be an almost universal feature on the domestic scene, however it is not sued I the same way by everyone who has access to a set (Gunter 1). The television set has become an integral piece of the household furniture, and practically every house has at least one set, if not more, which means that children are born into a world in which television is present
The founder will purchase the facility, rather than rent it and will pay up to 85,000 for down payment. The costs total up to $587,980 and the expected income is of $705,600, revealing a net profit of $117,620 after the first year of operations. Part of the investment will come from the economies of the founder, the rest remaining to be gathered from bank loans. Contracting bank loans is
These results are quite striking considering that the mothers come from non-professional backgrounds and had no more than 12 years of schooling on average. Another study on low-income mother-child dyads shows that the rate of vocabulary production is also positively influenced by early exposure to diverse words. In particular, children whose mothers consistently used more varied vocabulary had faster and more linear growth in child vocabulary production between 14
It seems that violence on television does contribute to aggressive behavior, yet it is important to note that television is only one of many causes of aggression (Gunter and McAleer, 1990). Many other factors unrelated to television influence violence, and the specific impact of televised violence is dependent upon age, sex, family practices, and the way violence is presented. One statement is often repeated: television has major effects on