Western Civilization Scholasticism Was a Term Paper

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As a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, James II was deposed, and William of Orange was invited to become king on condition that he agreed to a new Bill of Rights and a Constitutional Agreement with Parliament. By contrast, France's political absolutism was centered on strengthening the power of the French kings, and weakening that of the nobles. It was established and consolidated during the reign of Louis XIV who weakened the General Assembly of France and proclaimed himself head of the government.

10. Between the 15th and the 18th century, witchcraft was treated as heresy, and the ones found guilty of it were sentenced to death by the Inquisition. Pope John XXII formalized the persecution of witchcraft in 1320 when he authorized the Inquisition to prosecute sorcery. There were no trials, and the Church was not concerned whether the accusations were alleged or real. King James I of England who reigned between 1566 and 1625 estimated that the ratio of women to men who "succumbed" to witchcraft was twenty to one. Of those formally persecuted for witchcraft, between 80 to 90% were women (Ellerbe: (http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/ellerbe1.htm).Womenwere seen as weak hence easily influenced by the forces of evil. The fact that women were regarded as inferior, and were not allowed to speak or defend themselves from accusations also contributed to the percentage of women who were killed for allegedly performing witchcraft. Moreover, there was no knowledge of mental illnesses which made mental patients vulnerable to accusations of being possessed or performing witchcraft. The last legal execution of a witch occurred in 1782 in Glarus, Switzerland.

Baron, Hans. "Machiavelli: the Republican Citizen and Author of the Prince." English Historical Review 76 (1961): 217-253.

Ellerbe, Helen. "The Witch Hunts: The End of Magic and Miracles 1450-1750 C.E. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/ellerbe1.htm

Gibbons, Jenny. "A New Look at the Great European Witch Hunt." PanGaia (1999) http://www.beliefnet.com/story/17/story_1744_1.html

Rickaby, Joseph. "Scholasticism" New York: Dodge Publishing Company, 1908. http://www2.nd.edu/Departments/Maritain/etext/scholas1.htm

The Black Death." History of Western Civilization http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/

Lecture 3: The Protestant Reformation." The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture3c.html

Sources Used in Document:

Rickaby, Joseph. "Scholasticism" New York: Dodge Publishing Company, 1908. http://www2.nd.edu/Departments/Maritain/etext/scholas1.htm

The Black Death." History of Western Civilization http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/

Lecture 3: The Protestant Reformation." The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture3c.html

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