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Moral Criticisms of the Market

This assignment requires you to read an article by Ken S. Ewert (found in the Reading & Study folder). Note that in his article, Ewert is defending the free market from "Christian Socialists." He states their position and then gives a rebuttal.

Do you agree with the critique of the market in Ken S. Ewert's "Moral Criticisms of the Market"? Why or why not? Read carefully and offer cogent reasons.

Moral Criticisms of the Market

MARCH 01, 1989 by KEN S. EWERT

Mr. Ewert, a graduate of Grove City College, is working on a master?s degree in public policy at CBN University.

According to an author writing in a recent issue of The Nation magazine, ?The religious Left is the only Left we?ve got.? An overstatement? Perhaps. However, it points to an interesting fact, namely that while the opposition to free markets and less government control has declined in recent years among the ?secular left,? the political-economic views of the ?Christian left? seem to remain stubbornly unchanged.

Why is this so? Why are the secular critics of the market mellowing while the Christian critics are not?

Perhaps one major reason is the different criteria by which these two ideological allies measure economic systems. The secular left, after more than half a century of failed experiments in anti-free market policies, has begrudgingly softened its hostility towards the market for predominantly pragmatic reasons. Within their camp the attitude seems to be that since it hasn?t worked, let?s get on with finding something that will. While this may be less than a heartfelt conversion to a philosophy of economic freedom, at least (for many) this recognition has meant taking a more sympathetic view of free markets.

However, within the Christian camp the leftist intellectuals seem to be much less influenced by the demonstrated failure of state-directed economic policies. They remain unimpressed with arguments pointing out the efficiency and productivity of the free market, or statistics and examples showing the non-workability of traditional interventionist economic policies. Why? One likely reason is that the criteria by which these thinkers choose to measure capitalism are fundamentally moral in nature, so much so that socialism, despite its obvious shortcomings, is still preferred because of its perceived moral superiority. In their eyes, the justness and morality of an economic system are vastly more important than its efficiency.

ff indeed the Christian critics of the market are insisting that an economic system must be ultimately judged by moral standards, we should agree and applaud them for their principled position. They are asking a crucially important question: is the free market a moral economic system?

Unfortunately, these thinkers have answered the question with a resounding ?No!? They have examined the free market and found it morally wanting. Some of the most common reasons given for this indictment are that the market is based on an ethic of selfishness and it fosters materialism; it atomizes and dehumanizes society by placing too much emphasis on the individual; and it gives rise to tyrannical economic powers which subsequently are used to oppress the weaker and more defenseless members of society.

If these accusations are correct, the market is justly condemned. But have these critics correctly judged the morality of the free market? Let?s re-examine their charges.

I. Selfishness

The market, it is suggested, is based on and encourages an ethic of selfishness. According to critics of the market, mere survival in this competitive economic system requires that we each ?look after Number One.? Individuals are encouraged to focus on the profit motive to the exclusion of higher goals and as a result selfishness becomes almost a virtue. And this, it is noted, is in stark contrast with the self-sacrificial love taught by the Scriptures. Instead of rewarding love, compassion, and kindness towards others, the free market seems to reward self-orientation and self-indulgence. Instead of encouraging us to be concerned about our neighbor, the free market seems to encourage us to be concerned about ourselves. Individuals who might otherwise be benevolent, according to this view, are corrupted by the demands of an economic system that forces them to put themselves first. In the thinking of these critics, the market is the logical precursor to the ?me generation.?

However, this charge is superficial and misleading in several respects. It is important to remember that while the free market does allow ?self-directed? economic actions, it does not require ?selfish? economic actions. There is an important distinction here. it should be obvious that all human action is self-directed, Each of us has been created with a mind, allowing us to set priorities and goals, and a will, which enables us to take steps to realize these goals. This is equally true for those who live in a market economy and those who live under a politically directed economy. The difference between the two systems is not between self-directed action versus non-self-directed action, but rather between a peaceful pursuit of goals (through voluntary exchange in a free economy) versus a coercive pursuit of goals (through wealth transferred via the state in a ?planned? economy). In other words, the only question is how will self-directed action manifest itself: will it take place through mutually beneficial economic exchanges, or through predatory political actions?

Clearly the free market cannot be singled out and condemned for allowing self-directed actions to take place, since self-directed actions are an inescapable part of human life. But can it be condemned for giving rise to selfishness? In other words, does the free market engender an attitude of selfishness in individuals? If we define selfishness as a devotion to one?s own advantage or welfare without regard for the welfare of others, it is incontestable that selfishness does exist in the free economy; many individuals act with only themselves ultimately in mind. And it is true, that according to the clear teaching of Scripture, selfishness is wrong.

But we must bear in mind that although selfishness does exist in the free market, it also exists under other economic systems. Is the Soviet factory manager less selfish than the American capitalist? Is greed any less prevalent in the politically directed system which operates via perpetual bribes, theft from state enterprises, and political purges? There is no reason to think so. The reason for this is clear: selfishness is not an environmentally induced condition, i.e., a moral disease caused by the economic system, but rather a result of man?s fallen nature. It is out of the heart, as Christ said, that a man is defiled. Moral failure is not spawned by the environment.

It is clear that not all self-directed action is necessarily selfish action. For example, when I enter the marketplace in order to earn wealth to feed, clothe, house, and provide education or medical care for my children, I am not acting selfishly. Likewise, if you or I want to extend charity to a needy neighbor or friend, we must first take ?self-directed? action to create the wealth necessary to do so. Such action is hardly selfish.

The point is this: the free market allows individuals to peacefully pursue their chosen goals and priorities, but it doesn?t dictate or determine those priorities. It does not force an individual to focus on his own needs and desires, but leaves him or her at liberty to be self-centered or benevolent. My ultimate goal may be self- indulgence, or I may make a high priority of looking after others?the choice is mine. As to which I should do, the market is silent. As an economic system, the market simply does not speak in favor of selfish or unselfish priorities.

However, the free market, while not touching the heart of a man or eliminating selfishness, does in fact restrain selfishness. It channels self-centered desires into actions that are beneficial to others. This is so because in order to ?get ahead? in the free economy, we must first please other people by producing something which is of use and value to them. In other words, the market disciplines each of us to look outwards and serve others. Only by doing so can we persuade them to give us what we want in exchange.

We will rerum to this theme later, but for now the point is that in a very practical sense, the workings of the market persuade even the most self-indulgent among us to serve others and to be concerned about the needs and wants of his neighbor. True, the motivation for doing so is not necessarily pure or unselfish, but as the Bible so clearly teaches, it is only God who can change the hearts of men.

Furthermore, the free market, because of the incredible wealth it allows to be created, makes living beyond ourselves practicable. In order to show tangible love toward our neighbor (minister to his or her physical needs) we must first have the wealth to do so.

We sometimes need to be reminded that wealth is not the natural state of affairs. Throughout most of history the majority of people lived under some sort of centrally controlled economic system and were forced to devote most of their energies to mere survival. Often all but the wealthiest individuals lacked the economic means to look much beyond themselves and to aid others who were in need.

But the productivity spawned by economic freedom has radically changed this. In a free market, we are not only able to choose unselfish values and priorities, but we are also able to create the wealth necessary to fulfill them practically.

II. Materialism

Another moral indictment of the market, closely related to the charge of selfishness, is the belief that the market fosters materialism. The example most often used to demonstrate the market?s guilt in this area is the perceived evil effect of advertising. It is contended that advertising creates a sort of ?lust? in the hearts of consumers by persuading them that mere material possessions will bring joy and fulfillment.

In this sense, the market is condemned for creating a spirit of materialism and fostering an ethic of acquisitiveness. The market in general, and advertising specifically, is a persistent temptress encouraging each of us to concentrate on the lowest level of life, mere material goods.

This charge can be answered in much the same manner as the charge of selfishness. Just as allowing free exchange doesn?t require selfishness, neither does it require materialism. It is true that when people are economically free, materialism is possible, and certainly there are materialistic people in market economies. But this hardly warrants a condemnation of the market. Materialism, like selfishness, can and will occur under any economic system. It is obvious that a desire for material goods is far from being unique to capitalism. Witness, for example, the response of shoppers as a store puts out a new rack of genuine cotton shirts in Moscow or a shipment of fresh meat arrives in a Krakow shop.

Although the role of advertising has been much maligned, it in fact provides a vital service to consumers. Advertising conveys information. It tells consumers what products are available, how these products can meet their needs, and what important differences exist among competing products. The fact that this is a valuable function becomes apparent if you imagine trying to buy a used car in a world without advertising. Either your choice of cars would be severely limited (to those cars you happen to stumble upon, i.e., gain knowledge of) or you would have to pay more (in the form of time and resources used in seeking out and comparing cars). In either case, without the ?free? knowledge provided by advertising, you would be much worse off.

But the economic role of advertising aside, does advertising actually ?create? a desire for goods? If it does, why do businesses in market-oriented economics spend billions of dollars each year on consumer research to find out what customers want? Why do some advertised products not sell (for example, the Edsel) or cease to sell well (for example the hula hoop)? In the market economy consumers are the ultimate sovereigns of production. Their wants and priorities dictate what is produced; what is produced doesn?t determine their wants and priorities. Many bankrupt businessmen, left with unsalable (at a profitable price) products wistfully wish that the reverse were true.

Moreover, the Bible consistently rejects any attempt by man to ascribe his sinful tendencies to his environment. If I am filled with avarice when I see an advertisement for a new Mercedes, I cannot place the blame on the advertisement. Rather I must recognize that I am responsible for my thoughts and desires, and that the problem lies within myself. After all, I could feel equally acquisitive if I just saw the Mercedes on the street rather than in an advertisement. Is it wrong for the owner of the Mercedes to incite my desires by driving his car where I might see it? Hardly.

Just as God did not allow Adam to blame Satan (the advertiser?and a blatantly false advertiser at that) or the fruit (the appealing material good) for his sin in the Garden, we cannot lay the blame for materialism on the free market or on advertising. The materialist?s problem is the sin within his heart, not his environment.

If we follow the environmental explanation of materialism to its logical conclusion, the only solution would appear to be doing away with all wealth (i.e., eliminate all possible temptation). If this were the appropriate solution to the moral problem of materialism, perhaps the moral high ground must be conceded to the state-run economies of the world after all. They have been overwhelmingly successful at destroying wealth and wealth- creating capital!

III. Impersonalism And Individualism

Another common criticism of the market economy is its supposed impersonal nature and what some have called ?individualistic anarchy.? According to many Christian critics, the market encourages self-centered behavior and discourages relational ties in society. The non-personal market allocation of goods and services is seen to be antithetical to the seemingly higher and more noble goal of a loving and interdependent community. Because of the economic independence that the market affords, the individual is cut off from meaningful relationships with his fellow human beings and divorced from any purpose beyond his own interests. In short, the free market is accused of breeding a pathetic and inhumane isolation.

But does the market encourage impersonal behavior? Certainly not. It is important to understand that the presence of economic freedom does not require that all transactions and relationships take place on an impersonal level. For example, many people have good friendships with their customers, suppliers, employees, or employers. While these relationships are economic, they are not merely economic and they are not impersonal.

Furthermore, while the market leaves us free to deal with other people solely on the basis of economic motives, we are not required nor even necessarily encouraged to do so. We are completely free to deal on a non- economic basis. Suppose that I am in the business of selling food, and I find that someone is so poor that he has nothing to trade for the food that I am offering for sale. In the free market I am completely free to act apart from economic motives and make a charitable gift of the food. I have in no way lost my ability to act in a personal and non-economic way.

Community Relationships

So the market is not an inherently impersonal economic system. Nor is it hostile to the formation of community relationships.

An excellent example of a community which exists within the market system is the family. Obviously I deal with my wife and children in a non-market manner. I give them food, shelter, clothing, and so on, and I certainly don?t expect any economic gain in return. I do so joyfully, because I love my family and I value my relationship with them far above the economic benefits I forgo. Another example is the church. I have a non-economic and very personal relationship with people in my church. And there are countless teams, clubs, organizations, and associations which I can join, if I choose. If I want, I can even become part of a commune. The market economy doesn?t stand in the way of, or discourage, any of these expressions of community.

But now we come to the heart of this objection against the market: what if people will not voluntarily choose to relate to each other in personal or community-type relationships? What if they choose not to look beyond their own interests and work for some purpose larger than themselves? The answer to this is the rather obvious question: Who should decide? what is the appropriate degree of relationship and community?

True community, I submit, is something which must be consensual, meaning it must be voluntarily established. Think of a marriage or a church. If people do not choose to enter into these relationships when they are free to do so, we may judge their action to be a mistake, but by what standard can we try to coerce them into such relationships? Even if there were some objective standard of ?optimum community,? it is not at all clear that we would create it by robbing people of their economic freedom. There is no reason to believe that individuals living under a system of economic ?planning? are less isolated or have more community by virtue of their system. The fact that individuals are forced into a collective group hardly means that a loving and caring community will result. Love and care are things which cannot be coercively extracted, but must be freely given.

Moreover, the free market actually encourages the formation and maintenance of the most basic human community?the family. As the utopian socialists of past centuries?including Marx and Engels?recognized, there is a vital connection between private property and the integrity of the family. Destroy the one, they reasoned, and the other will soon disintegrate.

Their motives were suspect but their analysis was correct. When the state fails to protect private property and instead takes over the functions traditionally provided by the family (such as education, day care, health care, sickness and old-age support), the family unit is inevitably weakened. Family bonds are undermined as the economic resources which formerly allowed the family to ?care for its own? are transferred to the state. There is little doubt that the disintegration of the family in our country is in large part due to state intervention. Instead of turning toward and receiving personal care from within the family, individuals have been encouraged to turn toward the impersonal state. The result has been the disintegration of family bonds. It is state economic intervention?not the free market system?which is inherently impersonal and antithetical to true human community.

IV. Economic Power

The objection to the market on the grounds of impersonalism is based on the same fallacy as were the previously discussed charges of selfishness and materialism. Each of these claims indicts the market for ills which in fact are common to all mankind?faults that would exist under any economic system. Impersonalism, selfishness, and materialism are the consequence of the fall of man, not the fruit of an economic system which allows freedom. If these sinful tendencies are an inescapable reality, the question that must be asked is: ?What economic system best restrains sin??

This brings us to a fourth moral objection to the market which is often espoused by the Christians of the left: that the market, which is often pictured as a ?dog-eat-dog? or ?survival of the fittest? system, leaves men free to oppress each other. It allows the economically powerful to arbitrarily oppress the economically weak, the wealthy to tread upon and exploit the poor. According to this view, wealth is power, and those with wealth will not necessarily use their power wisely and justly. Because the nature of man is what it is, this ?economic power? must be checked by the state and restrained for the public good.

But does the market in fact allow individuals to exploit others? To begin with, there is a great deal of misunderstanding about this thing called ?economic power,? The term is in fact somewhat of a misnomer. When we speak of power, we normally refer to the ability to force or coerce something or someone to do what we de sire. The motor in your car has the power to move the car down the road; this is mechanical power. The police officer has the power to arrest and jail a lawbreaker; this is civil power. But what of economic power? If I possess a great deal of wealth, what unique ability does this wealth confer?

In reality what the critics of the market call economic power is only the ability to please others, and thus ?economic power? is not power in the true sense of the word. Regardless of a person?s wealth, in the free market he can get what he wants only by pleasing another person through offering to exchange something which the other deems more valuable. Wealth (assuming it is not used to buy political power) doesn?t bestow the ability to apply force to or dominate another individual.

Take for example the employer of labor, an individual who is often considered to be the embodiment of economic power and an exploiter of those less powerful than himself. It is often forgotten that an employer can get what he wants?employees for his business?only by offering something which pleases them, namely a wage which they consider better than not working, or better than working for someone else. He has no power to force them to come and work for him, but only the power to offer them a better alternative.

What ensures that he will want to make them a pleasing offer? The fact that doing so is the only way to get what he is interested in, namely their labor, provides a very strong incentive. But suppose the prospective employee is in very desperate straits and almost any wage, even one which seems pitifully low, will please him enough to work for the employer. In this situation, it seems as if the employer can get away with paying ?slave wages? and exploiting the economically weaker employee.

This scenario, however, ignores the effects of the competition among employers for employees. In the market economy, employers are in constant competition with other employers for the services of employees. They are ?disciplined? by this competition to offer top wages to attract workers. Because of competition, wages are ?bid up? to the level at which the last employee hired will be paid a wage which is very nearly equivalent to the value of what he produces. As long as wages are less than this level, it pays an employer to hire another employee, since doing so will add to his profits. Economists call this the marginal productivity theory of wages.

But what if there were no competing employers? For example, what about a ?one-company town?? Without competition, wouldn?t the employer be able to exploit the employees and pay ?unfair? wages?

First of all, it is important to remember that in the free market, an economic exchange occurs only because the two trading parties believe that they will be better off after the exchange. In other words, all exchanges are ?positive sum? in that both parties benefit. Thus if an employee in this one-company town is willing to work for low wages, it is only because he or she places a higher value on remaining in the town and working for a lower wage than moving to another place and finding a higher paying job. The ?power? that the employer wields is still only the ability to offer a superior alternative to the employee. In choosing to remain and work for a lower wage, the employee is likely considering other costs such as those of relocating, finding another job, and retraining, as well as nonmonetary costs, such as the sacrifice of local friendships or the sacrifice of leaving a beautiful and pleasant town.

Moreover, this situation cannot last for long. If the employer can pay wages that are significantly lower than elsewhere, he will reap above-average profits and this in turn will attract other employers to move in and take advantage of the ?cheap labor.? In so doing, these new employers become competitors for employees. They must offer higher wages in order to persuade employees to come and work for them, and as a result wages eventually will be bid up to the level prevailing elsewhere.

Economic Ability to Please

What is true for the employer in relation to the employee is true for all economic relationships in the free market. Each individual, though he may be a tyrant at heart, can succeed only by first benefiting others?by providing them with an economic service. Regardless of the amount of wealth he possesses, he is never freed from this requirement. Economic ?power? is only the economic ability to please, and as such it is not something to be feared. Far from allowing men to oppress each other, the free market takes this sinful drive for power and channels it into tangible service for others.

It is also important to consider that the only alternative to the free market is the political direction of economic exchanges. As the Public Choice theorists have so convincingly pointed out in recent years, there is no good reason to suppose that people become less self-interested when they enter the political sphere. In other words, to paraphrase Paul Craig Roberts, there is not necessarily a ?Saul to Paul conversion? when an individual enters government. If he was power-hungry while he was a private-market participant, he likely will be power-hungry after he becomes a ?public servant.?

But there is an important difference. In contrast with economic power, political power is truly something to be feared because of its coercive aspect. The power-seeking individual in government has power in the true sense of the word. While in the market he has to please those he deals with in order to be economically successful, the same is not true, or is true to a far lesser degree, in the political sphere. In the political sphere he can actually abuse one group of people but still succeed by gaining the favor of other groups of people.

A classic example is a tariff. This economic intervention benefits a small group of producers (and those who work for or sell to the producers) at the expense of consumers who have to pay higher prices for the good in question. The politician gains in power (and perhaps wealth) because of the significant support he can receive from the small but well-organized group of producers. Other examples of the use of political power that clearly benefit some individuals at the expense of others are government bail-outs, subsidies, price supports, and licens ing monopolies. The fact that these types of legislation continue despite the fact that they harm people (usually the least wealthy and most poorly organized) demonstrates the tendency of mankind to abuse political power.

In fact, virtually every state intervention into the economy is for the purpose of benefiting one party at the expense of another. In each of the cases mentioned above, some are exploited by others via the medium of the state. Therefore, if we are concerned about the powerful oppressing the weak, we should focus our attention on the abuse of political power. It, and not the so-called ?economic power? of individuals acting within the free market, is the true source of tyranny and oppression. Our concern for the downtrodden should not lead us to denigrate economic freedom but rather to restrain the sphere of civil authority.

V. Conclusion

The free market is innocent of the charges leveled at it by its Christian critics. Its alleged moral shortcomings turn out to be things which are common to mankind under both free and command economic systems. While it is true that the free market restrains human sin, it makes no pretense of purging people of their selfishness, materialism, individualism, and drive for power. And this, perhaps, is the true sin in the eyes of the market?s critics.

The market is explicitly non-utopian. It doesn?t promise to recreate man in a new and more perfect state, but rather it acknowledges the moral reality of man and works to restrain the outward manifestations of sin. In this sense the free market is in complete accord with Biblical teachings. According to Scripture, man cannot be morally changed through any human system, be it religious, political, or economic, but moral regeneration comes solely through the grace of God.

If the Christian critics of the market expect an economic system to change the moral character of people, they are sadly mistaken. Such a task is clearly beyond the ability of any human institution or authority. We must be content to restrain the outward expression of sin, and this is something which the free market does admirably.

Organizational Behavior and People Management

Individual Project: Project Proposal
Your task for PART 01 is to prepare a project proposal on how to set up the start-up company successfully, while ensuring that the executive team and the supplier teams remain motivated. Your proposal must indicate all the tasks that you will complete to ensure a successful start-up along with the schedule for completion of these tasks. Your proposal should have a brief project introduction, a problem statement, the project objectives, and conclusion. All references should be in the Harvard Referencing System.
One example of a project proposal can be found at the following Web site: Plutonic Power Corporation East Toba River and Montrose Creek Hydroelectric Project proposed construction schedule [Online]. (n.d.). Available from: 15 September 2009).
The case study on which the project is based is as follows:
Project Background: Assume that you are a project manager who has delivered a number of projects exceeding customer expectations within the schedule and budget in high-technology sectors including aerospace and robotics. So far in your career, you have been managing projects under different organisational forms including functional, projectized, and matrix structures. You have completed projects to initiate new business units in existing organisations. However, you do not have experience in starting an organisation, in particular an organisation where the time to allow the employees to work collectively as a team is limited.
An entrepreneur, Dr. Ryan O'Neal, and an investor, Jeff Hoffman, approach you with a business idea and a funding of $12 million. Ryan and Jeff would like you to develop an innovative system in warehouse order fulfilment. The system will consist of a group of autonomous mobile vehicles which will move quickly through the warehouse and load and move orders to the fulfilment platform. Dr. O'Neal is an expert in mobile robotics while Jeff Hoffman is an investor with a strong background in warehouse management, supply chain management, and fulfilment technologies. A critical project requirement is to implement the business idea and launch the product within 10 months. Ryan and Jeff are both convinced that if the product is launched in 10 months, there will be a set of committed customers in the U.S. to sustain future venture funding. Ryan and Jeff estimated that about 100 professionals will be needed for eight months to undertake the necessary technical and engineering work. This translates to 1,000 staff-months.
The brief project statement that you wrote together with Ryan and Jeff is:
To create the start-up company so that the product (as defined in a charter document) is available for installing at customer sites in 10 months from the start date and a production operation is also in place by that time to develop the vehicles at a rate of 50 units per week and control station at one per week.
The proposed name for the new organisation is Sturata Inc. and it will be setup in Vermont, USA. You will be the interim COO (Chief Operating Officer) of the company until successful completion of the setup phase. Jeff Hoffman will be the president and CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of the company at least during the setup phase, while Dr. O'Neal will be vice president, engineering and the CTO (Chief Technical Officer).
Let us assume that after discussion with your family and friends you decide to become the key player of the executive team together with Jeff Hoffman and Dr. O'Neal. Miss Yamaguchi, a young Japanese-American with a degree from The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and an MBA, was hired as VP, Administration. Miss Yamaguchi has earlier experience of setting up two start-ups in cross-cultural configurations. The position of a CFO (Chief Financial Officer) is still vacant, however.
There are a number of issues involved with this project, including the following:
? The product needs to be extensively tested in a live warehouse environment before it can be rolled out or even before performing test installations on potential customer sites.
? Safety regulations must be met because the mobile vehicles will work in warehouses together with human workers. These safety regulations are different for different states in the U.S.
? The project team needs to be assembled. As the overall project is of significant size and challenging in multiple dimensions, you need to employ staff quickly and the team members you recruit need to start contributing as soon as they are hired. On the other hand, as the project is at the "idea level" at this point in time, it will take some time before work can be assigned. Therefore, employing staff should be done accordingly.
? The project consists of two phases, work on which must continue on an on-going basis: Phase A) Research, Design and Development and Phase B) Production. Although production will lag the first phase, the infrastructure needs to be ready before production begins and therefore production planning should start very early during the first phase.
? The management of and relationship with the suppliers of components and subsystems needed in developing autonomous mobile vehicles (or robots) and other technical systems is an important aspect of the project. The autonomous mobile vehicles and other technical systems will be designed in-house, but an estimated 100 suppliers will supply necessary components even during the first phase. Moreover, production needs to begin and the supply chain should be in place for production needs by the end of Phase A.
? The project also involves some challenging research work. Dr. O'Neal has background in research and has contacts in some best schools around the world especially in the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Germany, and California, and the UK. However, a liaison function needs to be developed to interface with the academics involved in the project.
? No company has been set up to undertake the project so far. Therefore, all legal and administrative work to form a legal business is also included in the project.
Acquisition Proposal: Jeff Hoffman discovered a small company called Ryoichi in Tokyo, Japan, which undertakes contract work. The company is comprised of 13 closely-knit engineers. Jeff reported that the team at Ryoichi had the skills and expertise Sturata Inc. needs to design autonomous mobile vehicles. Jeff knows a few people from within Ryoichi. In fact, one of them was his student at a course which he taught at UC Berkeley. Dr. O'Neal was also impressed by the portfolio of contract work Ryoichi has delivered. He agreed that their skills and expertise correspond to the needs of Sturata Inc. Jeff wants to buy Ryoichi, using a mix of stock options and cash to finance the purchase. Ryan instead wants to use Ryoichi as a contract company because he is concerned about difficulties in communications (only five people from Ryoichi speak fluent English), the entrepreneurial spirit of that team, and the fact that the team members are very tightly knit together.
Assume that after discussions and negotiations mediated by you, Sturata Inc. decided to acquire Ryoichi and use it as a design and development centre. A formal offer is being prepared to acquire Ryoichi for US$1.25 million 30/70 cash/options ratio (ratio of cash to the underwritten value of stock options that a buying company offers to the shareholders of the company being purchased). As a start-up company, Sturata can only offer stock options and not marketable securities with cash or other tangible assets. It was also agreed that the team will look into the possibility of opening up a production centre in China. This has further complicated the overall project.
Recent Developments: Each member of the executive team spent 60 hours during the first week just to develop a hiring plan and to engage recruiters. During the second week of operations, a series of unfortunate events occurred. Ryoichi requested a revision in the buyout offer to a 50/50 cash/options ratio. Jeff Hoffman suffered a mild heart-attack and is currently hospitalised. Dr. O'Neal had to take a leave of five days to travel to Ireland for the funeral of his grandmother. These events have almost destroyed the original start-up project plan you had designed. Things were changing too fast and you found yourself under immense pressure to keep the project on schedule. More than half of your project contingency buffer has already been absorbed in a matter of just one week. There is no more room for error, and obviously, you are under immense pressure.
In a conference call, the executive team emphasised that start-ups are high-stress and high-stake undertakings and thought that there should be a way to control leadership stress

Prepare the Outline of the Final Project based on your Project Proposal done in PART 01. The Outline must be structured on the Proposal to ensure the application of the concepts and techniques learnt in this module.
The Outline must also show clear boundaries between the following sections of the Final Project:
? The organisational design plan
? An interface diagram showing different stakeholders and their interaction
? A plan to resolve potential conflict within the executive team
? A list of cross-cultural behavioural issues and solutions if an off-shore contracting company is engaged
? Ways to manage leadership and team member stress
? A Code of Ethics
In addition, the Outline should provide a preliminary list of references that you intend to consult to support your project.

Your project deliverables will include:
1. An organisational design plan for the start-up showing its evolution over 10 months. Include the following in this plan:
a. Your decision for the initial organisational form. What should the organisational form look like as the project progresses towards completion? Provide explanations to support your answer.
2. An interface diagram to show interfaces between various teams and units within the organisation and their interfaces with external organisations and regulatory bodies. For each internal and external interface, identify stakeholders. Describe what form of leadership skills will be needed for interaction at these interfaces.
3. Concrete activities and a plan to resolve the potential conflict between Jeff Hoffman and Dr. O?Neal about Ryoichi.
4. Assessment of any behavioural issues with regard to Sturata Inc. buying Ryoichi and whether you should put a structure in place so that Ryoichi employees are assimilated cohesively within the new organisation. Explain your answer.
5. A plan to manage leadership and team member stress individually and collectively. You need to research to find and the best ways to control leadership stress. Your description for these should not exceed two paragraphs. Your research should not be limited to the recommended text. Explain how leaders can reduce stress for team members.
6. A Code of Ethics for Sturata Inc. highlighting the value system the organisation should embrace keeping in view its multi-cultural and cross-functional nature. The code should include one short paragraph to explain each of the following:
? General employee conduct in a multicultural environment
? Conflict of interest and post-work activities
? Recording organizational communications
? Relationship with suppliers
? Relationship with customers and partners
? Gifts, favours, and commissions
? Responsibility to society and environment
Glindinning, M. (2009) ?Kiva robots save Zappos shoe leather?, Material Handling Wholesaler [Online]. Available from: (Accessed: 22 February 2009).

General Notes:
1- Please make sure that you cite and reference all your outside sources properly, as per the Harvard Referencing System
2- Avoid any type of copy paste when you are using your references.
3- Make sure 10 % to avoid the plagiarism.
4- Part 01 should be 750 ~900 words, Part 02 750 ~800 words and Part 03 should be 2500 ~2750.
5- Each Part should have a separate resources/references

Hedge Accounting

Based on the previous research in M4: Assignment 1, discuss hedge accounting requirements. Address the following:

Explain IFRS No.39 hedge accounting requirements, accounting for investments in derivative financial instruments, criteria for hedge accounting recognition, and deferral of recognition of periodic unrealized fair value changes.
Identify and describe financial instruments used by firms for hedging activities and their distinctive characteristics.
Identify and describe financial activities for which hedging behavior is appropriate and some of the activities for which companies commonly engage in hedging.
Provide current or historical examples of these issues.

My instructor gave me a project in marketing course
These are the inctructions:
Your assignment:
Consider twhat you would do today if a venure capitalist were willing to make an investment of $20 million US, help you start a company that would one day be a global giant.

1. what product or service category would you prefer?why?
(in class I chose the category and the brand and this is face moisturizers and the brand name is Pond`s.So you are gonna do all the assignment about this product.)

2.Describe two segments that are highly involved with this product or service. (pond`s is the product)
See Irish case for a sample of how to describe segments appropriately
(in this part I am uploading a document of Irish case for you to take benefit while you are writing. in this case,in second page there are two segments written.the instructor said that you should NOT use these same segments)She wants lucrative segments which includes the same same behaviors, same lifestyles,who has similar lifestyles) so find two different segments related to behavior - not the age or income)

3. What 3 competing brands do you think currently fulfills these needs best?
(you should find 3 competing brands)

4. Create a means-end chain for the brand (pond`s)
Attribute-functional benefit - psychosocial implication- value
( I am also uploading a different document that includes all these points for you)

I chose freshman english writing so please consider this

I need that work in 8 hours please consider this as well

Thank you very much
There are faxes for this order.

Spend time either walking around or sitting and watching people in a very busy public place. Look for things that you associate with people from race/ethnic, cultural, gender, and social-class backgrounds that are different from your own. Look for the kinds of common interactions or behaviors between different groups and those like your own. For example, do they acknowledge the other's presence if eye contact happens to occur? Do any behaviors change in the presence of other groups?

Consider what you expect to see based on your assumptions and understandings about persons of different backgrounds (how you expect them to dress, walk, talk, interact with each other, interact with others, etc). Make note of those things that catch your attention. Pay special attention to what you don't see as well. In two to three paragraphs, share your observations with the class. Please begin your post with, "In my observation..."
You are to spend about an hour or so watching people in a public place. If you are really crunched for time, you can do this while at work or while shopping. Make notes on what you observed about people who are different from you in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, culture, social class, or even age. How were they dressed? How did they interact with each other? Did their behavior change when others were around?

Make sure you describe in detail what you saw, what you expected to see, and what you did not see. Provide enough information for the rest of the class to visualize what you observed.


1. Case description

Euro Cast is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of metal and plastic moulded components to almost every industry, including automotive, consumer durables, telecommunications, computers, power tools, etc. With over 100 manufacturing plants across the world, it operated on every continent, usually in areas of established or emerging industrialization. There were large factories in the UK, Germany, France, Spain and Italy, and smaller ones in Scandinavia, Austria, Turkey and Israel.

Every factory was considered to be a semi-autonomous profit centre and was headed up by a general manager. Each reported to a regional manager of one of the divisions (eg, Plastics Division). New business was generated both by national marketing and by word-of-mouth recommendations from existing customers, but most orders were for regular repeat business or for new designs from existing customers. The role of the small technical sales team at each factory was to follow up enquiries with technical advice visits to the customers, followed by the preparation of quotations. In many cases, Euro Cast provided design assistance to the customers. It was the role of the advisor to suggest ways to simplifying the overall design which would be cheaper for the customer, whilst being fast, easy and profitable to produce in the factory. Mould costs were calculated and quoted too, and in most cases the customer would pay for the moulds from the outset, retaining ownership of it at the end of the contract. Euro Cast organized the purchase of the moulds, costing up to 50,000 (fifty thousand pounds) each, and could make a small profit on this activity.

In the late 1990s, the market started to change rapidly. First, major customers such as Hewlett Packard, Dell Computers, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, and Black and Decker started building new factories in developing countries. These were being established both to exploit the benefits of lower labour costs and overheads and as market-entry points into these rapidly developing economies. In most cases, however, large pro-portions of their output would serve existing markets throughout the world. Because Euro Cast was one of the most important suppliers (only about five competitors had world-wide coverage), it was often encouraged by its customers to establish supply factories in the same regions, ideally on adjacent sites. Customers explained that business was, in part, being transferred to their new sites and since Euro Cast had been selected as a preferred supplier, and it had the opportunity to benefit from ongoing business development and growth. Attractive forecasts were provided, but not guaranteed. Partnerships would be established where Euro Cast had the benefit of sole-supplier status to the customers local plant.

The second change was the trend for customers products to be of globally standard de-signs. This allowed buyers to purchase components for their many factories around the world, from virtually any approved supplier anywhere. Therefore, they were in a powerful position to restrict the number of suppliers, as well as demanding a single global, low price. For Euro Cast this provided a new set of challenges; its costs had varied widely around the world, depending mainly on local labour and overhead costs. Selling prices had varied according to costs and local commercial and regulatory conditions, but de-tailed costs of production had never been disclosed to customers.
However, customers would now be able to literally shop around and find the lowest Euro Cast price for them-selves. At the same time, each Euro Cast general manager had tried to defend his/her business, even if that involved buying in the components from other company sites and adding a profit before selling to the customer. This was becoming too obvious to large customers.

The third significant market trend was that customers increasingly wanted suppliers to do more assembly (value-added) work. At its simplest, this could involve simply snapping together two parts. Alternatively, it could require complex purchasing, assembly and testing of major sub-assemblies. To do this, Euro Cast would need to invest in assembly lines, testing equipment, storage, component and finished goods inventory, and systems to support purchasing and logistics. Specific approved suppliers to component assemblers were usually dictated by customers. Lead times from these global suppliers could be up to 12 weeks. Customers initial delivery schedules were often stable and close to forecast levels, but could vary wildly as competitive forces affected customers sales. But, overall, this type of work did appear commercially attractive, typically bringing in up to 10 times the revenue of a simple moulded part. The opportunity to become a first-tier supplier to some of the worlds leading manufacturers was hard to resist. Indeed, supplying global customers was the mainstay of the strategic plan for the new decade.

2. The tasks and marking scheme

2.1. Analyse and evaluate the Euro Casts supply chain. In particular, assess how lengthy and complex the flow of goods, services and information appears to be in the companys supply chain. Maximum marks: 20
2.2. Identify the ways in which Internet technologies might be used to support Euro Casts supply chain activities. Maximum marks: 15
2.3. Using Lammings lean supply concept model, evaluate the Euro Casts relationships with its large global customers. What does this mean about Euro Casts potential to support its customers requirements in intensely price-sensitive global markets? Obviously, you need to read about Lammings lean supply chain concept before answering this question. Maximum marks: 20
2.4. Propose and defend/illustrate at least two ways in which Euro Cast could be lean by reducing the number of processes, operations and/or costs in its downstream supply chain activities. Use feasible and well-informed arguments. Maximum marks: 15
2.5. Are there other ways in which the company could organize itself to meet the challenges and market trends described in the above case context? If yes, illustrate at most two ways. Maximum marks: 15
2.6. Grammar and logical order of presentation. Maximum marks: 15

3. The essay and method of submission

3.1. Prepare a structured essay around 1500 words that captures your response to the questions listed above. You should adhere to the word limit, which excludes bibliographic references, diagrams and appendices. You dont need to submit an appendix to score well in the essay, but if you do include one or more in your write-up, they should not exceed four pages in total.
3.2. Cite relevant, up-to-date and authoritative (especially academic journal) references to acknowledge all definitions, report observations, and other evidence of academic inquiry. Use only the Harvard style of referencing and be consistent in its use. The use of other styles of citation and referencing will attract a penalty.
3.3. A minimum number of THREE academic (ie, journal) references are required to be consulted, cited and listed by each essay. The maximum is five.
3.4. For each Internet-based source you acknowledge, state the date you accessed it and include an explanatory comment that contextualizes the online material.
3.5. Proofread your document before submission. Poorly written or ambiguous texts will score disappointingly.
3.6. You may use the first or third grammatical person as a deictic reference to a participant or supply chain player/operator in your discussion.
3.7. Submit both electronic and printed copies of your work before or on the deadline indicated above.
3.8. Where plagiarism is suspected, electronic copies of the submitted work will be run through Turn-It-In, the anti-plagiarism software.

There are faxes for this order.

The Popular Music Forum: Assignment #3 - A Paper on an Aspect of Change in Popular Music

Change is what rock and roll is all about. ??"Bruce Springsteen

The emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s was dramatic to say the least. In 1954, the year before (Were Gonna) Rock Around The Clock hit Number One, record sales stood at $213 million. By the end of 1959, record sales had tripled to $613 million and 80 percent of those sales were to teenagers who bought rock and roll records. Black artists who had never been able to mount a sustained presence in the popular mainstream became established stars in the pop Top Ten and competed on equal footing with white artists, despite the efforts of the major labels to promote cover versions of R&B and rock and roll over the African American originals. Although controversy would continue to surround rock and roll music, the marketplace had overwhelmed every attempt to restrict or retard its growth and rock and roll won out over the objections of parents, critics, and moral authorities who saw it as a plague on the Nations youth.

The recording industry itself was dramatically reshaped by rock and roll. Prior to rock and roll, the major labels (RCA, Columbia, Decca, and Capitol) controlled the popular mainstream. Of the 162 million selling records sold between 1946 and 1952, the major labels produced all but five. However, rock and roll was virtually ignored by the majors and by 1957 two thirds of records on the pop charts were produced by independent labels.

Although 1950s rock and roll ??" and its wide-ranging cultural effects ??" undoubtedly produced the most dynamic and dramatic changes that ever occurred in the history of popular music, more changes would come and many would produce significant shifts in music and in our culture. The British Invasion of the 1960s ??" led by The Beatles and followed by The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Yardbirds, The Who, The Dave Clark Five, The Hollies, The Animals, The Spencer Davis Group, and, ultimately, Led Zeppelin ??" ended the US domination of pop music. The emergence of psychedelic rock fueled the teen drug culture of the 1960s and carried with it the counterculture revolution of sex, drugs, and rock and roll. In the 1970s, heavy metal, punk, and new wave would redefine the social and musical movements of the 1960s and, in turn, would spawn alternative, glam, and heartland rock and roll in the 1980s. That decade would herald further dramatic upheaval as rap and hip-hop crossed over from inner cities into the popular mainstream and MTV redefined how music was presented and delivered. The changes would keep coming in the 1990s with grunge, indie rock, and Britpop, and, of course, continue today as we cross the millennium and entered the 21st century.

Your Assignment

Identify, explore, and critique any subgenre of rock and roll that brought about change in American popular music that you feel is significant and worthy of examination. It could be a change from the distant past or from the near past and, as a consequence, part of your own personal experience. It could also be a change that is taking place right now and is currently reshaping what we understand popular music to be. Also, your selection does not have to be limited just to rock and roll; you can explore any kind or aspect of popular music, as long as you clearly identify the change in which it ushers, how that music changed (or is changing) things, and discuss what effects your selection and its consequential change produced (or is producing) culturally and socially. In the paper, you should cite examples to support your conclusions. It is, of course, advisable to cite outside sources for support and frame your argument in the form of a formal essay (Look over Presenting Arguments, Tips On Writing Papers, and Critical Thinking in the Syllabus).
Some examples you could focus on include, but are certainly not limited to:

MTV brought the music video into the mix of popular music and made music something to watch. This, obviously, changed popular music in a dramatic way. Artists whose musical talents may have been questionable became big stars because they were video friendly. Hits were driven, not by radio, but by music videos, and the art of the music video became a form unto itself. What effects, positive and negative, have been produced by the music video? How has the music video changed our perception of popular music? What effects has the music video had on the quality and significance of popular music in our culture?

Rap/hip-hop has created more controversy than any other musical form in recent memory. The arguments surrounding sex and violence in rap music have been around since the 1980s and continue to the present day. Like many genres of music, rap contains some sexist and violent elements, but is rap actually more sexist and violent than other genres? Is rap racist in its outlook? Does rap encourage listeners to violent behavior and adopt sexist attitudes? Does the media engage in a disproportionate amount of coverage on sexism and violence in rap music?

Music trends seem to run in cycles. Boy bands seem to occur and reoccur like clockwork. In the 1970s it was Menudo, in the 80s it was The New Kids On The Block, in the 90s it was N Sync and the Backstreet Boys. Teen idols reoccur with much the same frequency and predictability. They stretch from Ricky Nelson to Justin Timberlake (during his N Sync days), David Cassidy to Zac Efron. Are there trends in the making? Is the past about to once again turn into the present? And if so, what accounts for the cyclic nature of any specific trend? And what changes are wrought if what appears to be change has actually happened over and over again in the past?

Write a case study of two similar products or services of your choice that have different brands. They may be products that you are about to buy (such as a DVD player) or services (such as counselling).
Evaluate the strengths and limitations of your chosen products or services in relation to the four marketing mix elements ? product, placement, promotion and pricing.
Your case study should include:
? background information on the product or service, such as the type of product, where it is sold, target market and price
? strengths of the marketing mix elements of each product both theoretically and practically
? limitations of the marketing mix elements of each product both theoretically and practically
? marketing theories that support your evaluations
? an identification of which one of the two products appeals to you and why in relation to the marketing mix elements
? reference to relevant literature, linking your ideas to theory (see attached links)

Discuss how the western world has turned into societies fueled by a culture of consumerism zombies, talk about how capitalism fuels consumerism. How we buy and consume things without reason or purpose other than to consume. We line up at movie premier and Apple stores for hours and even days on end just to be the first ones to purchase the latest and greatest gadgets or watch the first screening of the latest movie for no other reason aside from being the first ones to do so. Make a comparison and contrast of zombies to consumers in the west. Talk about conspicuous consumption, how we are brain washed to buying things we don?t need by advertisers. How we are aimlessly drifting in a world that has betrayed our faith in humanity with consumerism. Therefore, we have become a society of the walking thoughtless mindless consumer undead. Present both sides but defend the argument of western societies turning into consumerism zombies.
Must be 5 pages not including the work cited page MLA format double space, Times New Roman, 11 or 12 font size, plus a work cited page with at least 5 work cited.

The specific topic is Budweiser. This paper is to analyze the Budweiser campaign, and consumer behavior due to the publicity of their campaign. This paper should go in depth about their commmercial advertisments (specific examples) along with the basis of the marketing of Budweiser. The basis of topics such as segmentation, culture demographics, social influences, perception, motivation, and pricing should be talked about somewhat in depth in relation to the Budweiser campaign, and its effects on consumers. This paper should mention what a good campaign consists of, in regards to the Budweiser campaign, analyzing its strengths and weaknesses. This paper should also discuss the PR in realtion to the Budweiser camapign, types of media used, what media works. Talk about factors that will influenece the publicity of the Budweiser camapaign, and how it will effect the consumers. The main point of the paper is how the the publicity of the Budweiser campaign, influences consumer behavior. There should be alot of numbers and figures to back up the research and argument of this research paper.

The following are explicit instructions on the paper:

Each student will prepare a paper based on an issue that presents a legal and ethics issue based one or more of the GM520 Terminal Course Objectives. I recommend that the issue relate to your work environment or personal interests so that practical applications can derive from the paper in accordance with Keller?s practitioner orientation. The paper requires each student to explore a specific issue that presents both legal and ethical issues for business professionals, develop a webliography to support research of the topic, and prepare an 8-10 (at least 8 but no more than 10) [Do 8!!]page paper that analyzes in depth the issue selected. The final paper is expected to cite at least 15 sources (cases, articles, web sites) in accordance with the guidelines outlined in The Business Student Writer?s Manual and Guide to the Internet (1998) by Bergman, Garrison, and Scott, or according to the MLA method of citation.

Legal, Political and Ethical Dimensions of Business


Your assignment:

Write a paper based on a "law and ethics" issue. The issue should relate to at least one GM520 Terminal Course Objective. Further, pick something which pertains to your work environment or personal interests so that you glean practical applications from your research.

Your paper will be at least 8-10 [8 for this paper] pages of in-depth analysis of your legal and ethical business issue. Its webliography will contain at least 15 sources which support research of the topic (cases, articles, web sites) in accordance with the guidelines outlined in The Business Student Writer?s Manual and Guide to the Internet (1998) by Bergman, Garrison, and Scott.

Format of Report: (along with grading weight):

1. Facts (5%). This section acquaints the reader with the context in which the problem is framed; i.e., a given legal and ethics issue of interest. Present key facts that are important in understanding the problem. Note: The paper must tie to one of our law TCOs (B-I) AND the ethics TCO (A).

2. Problem Statement (5%). This section includes a concise statement of the major issue you are investigating. Your proposal, submitted in Week Two, can form the basis for this section.

3. "Causes" analysis (20%). This section provides a detailed analysis of the causes of the legal and ethics issues in your paper. A major objective of this course is to identify corrective and preventive courses of action involving law and ethics from a management perspective and orientation. You should demonstrate that you are applying course material.

4. Literature Review (15%). This section summarizes what is discovered in a search of the literature. This means reviewing, theories, concepts, references, and statutes discussed in class, but more importantly, reviewing what other writers report or how other cases are relevant to the issue you are studying. All sources cited should be included in the Reference/Bibliography section of the research report. This section only uses those items which actually "relate" to your situation. Think "stare decisis." You MUST use outside sources in your paper, and refer to them to support your position.

5. Possible solutions (15%). This section should indicate several possible solutions of the issue and the pros and cons associated with each solution
6. Recommended solution and its implementation (15%). This section recommend a solution to the problem or issue. It should be specific, stating who, with whom, and in what sequence, should do what, how.

7. Justification for solution (15%). This section summarizes why the proposed solution will work. It should demonstrate that you have applied course concepts and research findings to arrive at a workable solution and implementation to the legal and ethics issue.

8. References/Bibliography (10%). You should document your references in this section and properly cite them throughout your report. (Not included in the paper length.)

You must use this format for writing your paper. Your sections 1-7 will be included in the page length. Any paper which goes over or under this page requirement will lose points. Your papers should be single spaced with double spacing between paragraphs and headings. Use an 11-12 font, and margins of no more than 1 inch, no less than .5 inch around. Read the ?paper tips? on the announcement page for more help on your paper. For a ?template? you can use to write your paper, which uses the correct margins, fonts, etc., go to the ?Legal paper format? connected to these guidelines. You don?t HAVE to use that template, but for your own ease in starting on your paper, it is there. Be sure to delete out any of the text I have included for your information.

The paper should develop on the following timetable:

IDEAS FOR PAPERS: The following should help get you thinking about a topic for your Legal and Ethical Issue paper. These are just suggestions and undoubtedly you will come up with better ideas based on your own work and personal experiences:

o How federal regulations and the rule-making are impacting your organization and what your organization to make the impacts more positive.

o How product liability and warranty laws impact your organization?s ability to take products to market and what your organization can do to manage its product liability exposure.

o How the law of contracts impacts the ability of your company to manage both customer and supplier relationships.

o How the law of agency impacts the organization chart and your organization?s ability to manage its employees.

o What kind of exposure your company potentially faces for discrimination and sexual harassment and what steps your company can take to lessen its exposure to discrimination liabilities.

o How intellectual property rights will be impacted by the open access of the Internet and how your company can protect its intellectual property in the age of information.

o How environmental liability impacts your organization and what are the appropriate legal and ethical steps a company must take to manage environmental liability.

o How will the Microsoft antitrust decision impact the disbursement of software in our economy and the opportunities or threats the Microsoft decision presents to your company.

o What kinds of consumer protection laws are important to your organization and how will your organization achieve compliance with all legal and ethical obligations arising out of relationships with its customers.

o How insider trading laws impact the securities industry.

o What kinds of liabilities are faced by directors and officers of a corporation and how can your organization assure legal and ethical conduct by its employees at all times.

o How your organization manages the legal and ethical dimensions of it global business, including the question as to whether an organization can maintain multiple sets of ethical rules.


Your Name

GM 520LU#
Faculty: Michelle Preiksaitis
Research Paper
Due: October 19, 2003

Facts statement:

(This section acquaints the reader with the context in which the problem is framed; i.e., a given legal and ethics issue of interest. Present key facts that are important in understanding the problem. Note: The paper must tie to one of our law TCOs (B-I) AND the ethics TCO (A). State your TCO(s) which you are tying into here. This section is worth 5% and should be 2-4 paragraphs. (Delete out these instructions before typing in your information under each heading.)

Problem Statement:

This section includes a concise statement of the major issue you are investigating. Your proposal, submitted in Week Two, can form the basis for this section. This section is worth 5% of your paper grade, and should be 2-4 paragraphs.

"Causes" analysis:

This section provides a detailed analysis of the causes of the legal and ethics issues in your paper. A major objective of this course is to identify corrective and preventive courses of action involving law and ethics from a management perspective and orientation. You should demonstrate that you are applying course material. 20% of paper grade- 1-2 pages.

Literature Review (15%). This section summarizes what is discovered in a search of the literature. This means reviewing, theories, concepts, references, and statutes discussed in class, but more importantly, reviewing what other writers report or how other cases are relevant to the issue you are studying. All sources cited should be included in the Reference/Bibliography section of the research report. This section only uses those items which actually "relate" to your situation. Think "stare decisis." You MUST use outside sources in your paper, and refer to them to support your position. This part of your paper can be ?its own? section, or can be located throughout your paper. However, it must exist. You must cite and use at least 15 RELEVANT sources in your paper, quoting from them or using them in your analyses.

Possible solutions:

This section should indicate several possible solutions of the issue and the pros and cons associated with each solution. Worth 15% of your paper grade, this is a very important section. It shows you have worked through the causes of the ethical dilemma, and have thought of ways your company/business can fix the dilemma. These solutions are detailed, organized, and ethical.

Recommended solution and its implementation:

This section recommends a solution to the problem or issue. It should be specific, stating who, with whom, and in what sequence, should do what, how. Worth 15% of your paper grade, this carries the prior section one step further. You pick out one solution and do into more detail, including the hows and wherefores of carrying out this solution. Go into the legalities of doing so as well as cost, ROI, etc.

Justification for solution:

This section summarizes why the proposed solution will work. It should demonstrate that you have applied course concepts and research findings to arrive at a workable solution and implementation to the legal and ethics issue. Also 15% of your grade, you should state the reason for why you picked this solution over the others stated in the ?possible solutions? statement, and further, you must pick one ethical model and justify your solution using the steps of the model. Are you letting half the workforce go to cut costs? Will that work? Will your company be able to make the remaining workers do 2 jobs for 1 cost, and still function? And what about the cost of letting the others go? Is that ethical? Moral? Will it hurt morale for the remaining workers, and public image for the company? Is that relevant? These are mere examples of some thoughts you will want to go through in making your decision.

References/Bibliography (10%).

You should document your references in this section and properly cite them throughout your report. (Not included in the paper length.) The final section, to get full credit, will use a consistent citation style, and if there are hyperlinks for citations, make certain that they work.

TCOs Selected:

A. Given an organizational requirement to conform business practices to both the law and best ethical practices, apply appropriate ethical theories to shape a business decision.

B. Given instances of federal regulation of business and commercial practices, determine the constitutional and regulatory bases for such regulation, and formulate a strategy by which an impacted business can influence or contest regulating outcomes.

I. Given specified circumstances of a business decision to expand to international markets, determine what international legal requirements or regulatory controls apply.
My Proposal for this paper:

Naomi Pettaway
September 14, 2003
GM520: Paper Proposal

HBA and the Building Trade: The Liabilities of a Professional Association

As the business ethics seems tossed about by thunderous blows upon the rungs of society, it seems that corporate business must consistently be regulated in order to ?act right? or suffer the consequence of failure. However, what do non-profit organizations and associations face as it comes to ethics? Are the challenges of private business and private associations the same? Webster?s Dictionary defines business as:
a usually commercial or mercantile activity engaged in as a means of livelihood : trade, line b : a commercial or sometimes an industrial enterprise; also : such enterprises district> c : usually economic dealings : patronage .
One can then compare business to association, which lists as ?an organization of persons having a common interest: society.? As the heart of the two (business and association) prove to be most different, one assembles for profit, the other to assist, it seems most interesting to discover what similarities the two might share in dealing with torts and product/service liability.

Marianne Jennings defines tort as a ?[p]rivate intentional or negligent wrong against an individual.? Webster classifies liability as ?obligated according to law or equity: responsible b: subject to appropriation or attachment.? Using the definitions of tort and liability, and applying the interpretation of Marianne Jennings and her writings in Business: Its Legal, Ethical and Global Environment and other external resources, a comparison of ethics in business and association shall be conducted. The two entities shall be categorically compared in appropriation, negligence, warranty and regulation of warranty, and product/service liability, tentatively. By comparing these two bodies, one may be able to surmise which proves the best and most positive contributory force to the American society and its economy, with little regulation and most ethical decisiveness.
My references were as follows:


An impoverished, yet wealthy society (May 2, 2003). Korea Herald Seoul Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:331965911).

Anonymous . (Nov 1999). Nonprofits' Insurance Alliance of California gets $5 million boost from Bill and Melinda Gates Fund Raising Management 30 (9), p. 12-13 (2 pp.). Garden City Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:48090856).

Anonymous . (Nov 2002). Philadelphia Insurance Cos. announces new coverage for workplace violence American Agent & Broker 74 (11), p. 92 (1 pp.). St. Louis Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:247920801).

Business Editors . (Dec 17, 2002). CT Homeowners Can Protect Assets Against Domestic Worker Lawsuits Business Wire New York Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:268186141).

CHARITIES COULD USE YOUR REFUND :[FINAL Edition] (Jul 21, 2001). Seattle Post - Intelligencer p. B3 Seattle, Wash. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:75837775).

CHARLES D. SNELLING Of The Morning Call . (Jan 26, 2002). Speak up to get Pa. tort reform :[FIRST Edition] Morning Call p. A33 Allentown, Pa. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:103204203).

Ellis & Rapacki LLP Distributes $19 Million In State's Largest Class- Action Settlement to 350 Massachusetts Hunger and Nutrition Organizations (Nov 20, 2002). Pr Newswire New York Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:241777521).

GatesMcDonald (Sep 15, 2003). Hoover's Company Capsules (Ga-Gl), p. 104885 Austin Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:168261841).

Jeff Wolf . (Mar 23, 2000). Internet pioneers to purchase PBA :[Final Edition] Las Vegas Review - Journal p. 7C Las Vegas, Nev. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:51944366).

John R. Owen III . (Apr 8, 2003). OPINION: Non-Profit Organizations Also in Need of Audit Committees Knight Ridder Tribune Business News Washington Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:322452941).

Joseph J Perschy . (Jun 16, 2003). Packages make sense for non-profits National Underwriter (Property & Casualty/risk & Benefits Management Ed. ), 107 (24), p. 17 Erlanger Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:355222151).

Joseph Taylor: Area entrepreneur buys software for non-profit organizations; New grant program allows charities to automate routine tasks, boost online fundraising and improve service to donors (Aug 9, 2002). M2 Presswire Coventry Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:147637401).

Joseph Taylor: Non-profit organizations boost online fundraising - by phone (Aug 9, 2002). M2 Presswire Coventry Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:147637411).

KAMAL JABBOUR CONTRIBUTING WRITER . (Feb 5, 2001). STAGGER THROUGH LEGALESE :[Final Edition] The Post - Standard p. D2 Syracuse, N.Y. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:68243316).

KATHLEEN DOOLEY Staff writer . (Sep 15, 1999). Capital Risk enters into merger :[THREE STAR Edition] Times Union p. F3 Albany Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:44990212).

Kiely, Eugene . (Aug 4, 1999). MALLS CAN REQUIRE LEAFLETING GROUPS TO CARRY INSURANCE Record Bergen County, N.J. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.: 00-66251 ).

LINDA A. JOHNSON . (Aug 30, 1999). Birth control changes still on the horizon High liability costs, limited federal funding have slowed research :[All Edition] Milwaukee Journal Sentinel p. 3 Milwaukee Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:44351957).

Larry France . (Jun 2000). Employment practices liability insurance Rough Notes 143 (6), p. 50-63 (10 pp.). Indianapolis Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:54930290).

Linda Espenshade . (Mar 4, 2003). Bear market has retirement homes squeezing budgets, seeking revenue Intelligencer Journal Lancaster, Pa. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:299652281).

Nation's Largest Taxpayer Group Cautions Congress Against Government- Backed Terrorism Insurance Schemes (Oct 24, 2001). U.s. Newswire Washington Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:85710412).

New Products: Liability Insurance Available for Non-Profits (Jun 2001). Small Business Banker 2 (6), p. 24 New York Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:73510312).

STEVEN WALTERS . (Aug 9, 2001). Tax-exempt groups ask McCallum to veto provision:[Final Edition] Milwaukee Journal Sentinel p. 02B Milwaukee, Wis. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:77244472).

Ted Pincus . (Dec 3, 2002). Many companies seeking a new kind of director Chicago Sun - Times p. 49 Chicago, Ill. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:269040871).

The Bagley Group: CEO puts 'Million-Dollar Idea' up for sale; Proceeds to benefit all 50 states (Sep 4, 2002). M2 Presswire Coventry Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:159250691).

Tina Carlson, Reporter . (Apr 2, 2001). More Third Parties Means More Liabilities, Cautions Attorney Credit Union Journal 5 (14), p. 11 New York Retrieved September 29, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:70437218).

WHEN MANAGED CARE FAILS TO CARE :[METRO Edition] (Jan 8, 2000). Roanoke Times & World News p. A9 Roanoke Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:47787202).

Jennings, Marianne. Business: Its Legal, Ethical, & Global Environment. Mason: West Legal Studies, 2003.

Jennings and Smeltzer: "Why an International Code of Ethics Would be Good for Business."

If I come across any information that would be helpful, I will fax it. Thank you.

There are faxes for this order.

Gun Control vs. 2nd Amendment


Humanities Research Paper Assignment
For your humanities research paper, you will select a topic from the following discipline:
History: I want this paper to be about why we shouldn?t have gun control in the United States .I?m pro second amendment . I own many guns and think that we should be able to buy and store them in our homes.

Write a 1200-1700 (minimum; max of 2000) word paper (normally about 5-7 pages) that gives background on your topic, but moves beyond just providing information to analyzing, critiquing, evaluating, or interpreting (all of which are arguments, by the way). College instructors expect to see some critical thinking in the papers they assign, so you must learn to do more than just retrieve information and summarize your sources. Use the MLA documentation system found in the handbook on pages 629-652. Remember that whenever you use original source material in your paper, whether it is in the form of summary, paraphrase, or direct quote, you must cite your source properly using the documentation system appropriate to the discipline.
Find at least 8 sources for your paper; these should be from a variety of at least four different types of sources?references, periodicals, books, and web sources. One of the goals of this course is to teach you to use many different types of source information in your research.
When evaluating your essay, I will be looking for the following elements:
? a title that gives your reader a sense of what you are writing about
? an introduction that provides background on the topic being discussed
? a claim that expresses the main point you will argue in your paper (should be located in the introduction of the paper)
? a body that supports your claim using your sources, and which may include relevant details from your personal experiences with the topic
? a consideration of what others may have to say about your conclusions?what our handbook calls "counter-argument"
? a conclusion that offers your reader an answer to the "so what?" question?what have you learned about your topic, and what can your reader take away from this new understanding?
The first draft of the essay is due Monday, July 19th. Bring three copies of the draft to share with your group and receive peer response.

There are faxes for this order.

? The job role is an sales assistant at marks and Spencer
? Smart objectives can be made up in relation to the job role
1. E.g. You could increase the amount of hours worked monthly to help learn the skills and techniques required to become a supervisor.
2. Another smart objective could be concentrating on dealing with customers on the shop floor and learning and the importance of leading a team in an organisation.
? Long term SMART objective could be to become the store manager of marks and Spencer.
? You can measure your progression gradually
? The objective has to be achievable and realistic]
? I also needs and estimated time period.

.Assignment 2- Personal Development Portfolio (3000 words)
Your assignment for this module requires you to develop and produce a Personal Development Portfolio which identifies, demonstrates analyses and evidences your performance, development and learning in relation to a set of negotiated Aims and Objectives.

You will need to take a very structured approach to this assignment. Compiling a portfolio of this nature is a lengthy and ongoing process demanding good planning and organisational skills over the designated period.

An overview of the recommended portfolio writing process is as follows:

The first and perhaps most important task in this assignment is the setting of some Aims and Objectives. You are required to identify two Aims each with one SMART Objective, relevant to your job role and professional development needs.

You will then be required to start writing a Learning Agreement for each of your objectives. Each of these agreements must be supported by a range of supporting evidence relating to the various tasks and activities in which you have been engaged.

When you have completed the writing up both of your Learning Agreements, you can then write the final stage of your portfolio, the Critical Evaluation.

The next section in this Guide will take you through the Portfolio requirement in step by step and in great detail.

Getting Started on your Portfolio

?the Introduction!

Introduction Section

This first section of your Portfolio should set your work role, employment and employer in context.

Start by giving a brief description of your organisation. If you work within a particular
department/section then describe this briefly.

Explain your specific job role

What are your responsibilities and what are types of activities in which you are involved?

A copy of your job description and an organizational structure chart would both be useful additions to this section. The aim of this Introduction Section is to ?set the scen ?for the reader so that they will understand the content of your portfolio.

This section should end with a brief comment on how and why you chose your particular A&O?s and the final page in the Introduction section will be a copy of your agreed Aims and Objectives form.

Setting your Aim & Objectives!

As mentioned earlier, this is a task that you can be working on as soon as you start your module and have familiarised yourself with your job/department/company (if you are new to the job!).

When drafting some ideas for your Aim & Objectives it will be useful to think of what YOU want to achieve during your period of study on this module in terms of both your professional and personal development. You must also consider the job/role that you will be undertaking and the opportunities that will be open to you whilst working in this particular job. Your job description will be a useful tool to help you gather some ideas and then draft a set of Aims & Objectives that are both functional and personal. It is very likely that you will come up with lots of ideas (once you get going!) and that you will want to discuss your ideas with both your Tutor and your Employer. Your Performance Review/Appraisal (if you have one!) could be useful in coming up with some ideas.

Unless otherwise indicated by your tutor, you are required to identify and agree TWO aims. Each aim will then have one related SMART objective. In order to address your learning and development as broadly as possible, it is useful to have a different focus for each of your two aims.

What is the difference between an Aim and an Objective?
An Aim is a general statement reflecting the area /topic of your intention. In other words the aim states the overall purpose of what you want to achieve!

An Objective is a specific statement relating to a defined aim and describing how you intend to achieve your aim! It is likely that any aim will have several objectives.

It is a good idea to think of your two aims in terms of the following:

Aim 1

Your first aim should relate to your job role/function/workplace responsibilities

e.g. To develop my knowledge and understanding of various key activities within the sales department.

Aim 2tt

Your second aim should relate to your personal/professional development within the workplace.

e.g. To develop and enhance relevant business related skills.

Now that you have established two aims for your Portfolio, you need to decide on one SMART objective for each aim.

What are SMART objectives?

Each of your two objectives must be SMART!

If they are not, it is will be much more difficult to produce a thorough, detailed and successful Learning Agreement. Attention to detail and the phrasing of your objectives can make all the difference! The ways in which your objectives are expressed and the order in which they are done are also key factors to consider.

How do you ensure that your Objectives are SMART!

You must make sure that each objective:

When you have identified a set of Aims & Objectives that you, your tutor and your employer have agreed upon, these should be transcribed onto the Aims and Objectives? form included in the appendix of this Guide (or a similar document). If during the course of your work based learning your role changes significantly and you?re A&O?s become impossible to achieve you must consult with your tutor. Changing agreed A&O?s will only be considered in extreme circumstances.

So, now with you?re A&O?s agreed, you can start planning how who are going to achieve your objectives. It is a very good idea to start logging and recording various aspects of your work; your experiences and activities. It is also a good idea to start gathering relevant evidence so that you have lots to choose from when you are writing up your
Learning Agreements; you can then select the ?best bits? when you are compiling your portfolio later in the process!

Learning Agreement
A Learning Agreement is a written agreement that you make in relation to each of your objectives. You can think of it as a tool to help you to plan, describe, assess and reflect upon the various activities, and learning experiences that you encounter when working through and hopefully, achieving your objectives.

The agreements have a very structured format with defined headings. Although the structure and headings will be identical for both agreements, the content will of course be unique to each agreement.

Each agreement will have two distinct stages: a Planning Stage and a Reflective Stage.

Within each agreement you will need to identify and then supply ?evidence? to support and prove that you have undertaken the tasks, activities or developments that you have included in your agreement.

Learning Agreement Structure

So, each of your Learning Agreements will have two distinct stages. The Planning Stage and the Reflective Stage.

The structure and headings within each of your two Learning Agreements are identical.

The first six headings make up the Planning Stage of your agreement and this stage can be written as soon as your A&O?s have been agreed.

These headings are as follows:

1. The Objective
2. Activities Required
3. Skills Required
4. Resources Required
5. Criteria for Success
6. Planned Evidence

The key to writing an effective Planning Stage is to be very, very specific and detailed under each of the six headings. Write every relevant idea/ aspect/step required in order to work through to achieving your objective.........nothing is too small, insignificant or irrelevant!

You may find it useful to write this stage of your agreements in a bullet point/list style within the headings.

The final three headings make up the Reflective and Analytical Stage of your agreement. You will only be able to write up these sections when you have achieved your objective (or otherwise!) or when you have done as much as possible by the portfolio submission date.

These headings are as follows:

1. Skills Developed
2. Evidence Submitted
3. Achievement

The key to writing an effective Reflective/Analytical Stage is to be as honest and detailed as possible in reflecting upon your performance and the achievement and challenges that you encountered during the process. (see Section 7 WBL and the Importance of Reflective Learning) This process is designed to get you to think about your abilities, attributes and skills, as well as any areas that may need developing and enhancing! It is quite possible to write an excellent Learning Agreement, despite not achieving the objective by demonstrating an understanding and insight into your development and learning during the course of the journey! There are Learning Agreement worksheets included in the appendices for your use.

Here is a reminder of how each agreement should be structured and more information on what should be contained within each section.

The Learning Agreement ? Planning Stage

Objective: Copy the objective in question from your Aims and Objective form.

Activities: What tasks, actions do you think that will you need to undertake in order to succeed in the objective? Be very detailed and do not leave out what you consider to be ?the obvious.? List all the tasks and activities you can think of.

Skills Required: How many different skills can you identify that you think will be required in working to achieve your objective. Consider the various tasks/activities that you have identified above and think about all the skills required in undertaking these effectively. These may include skills about which you are already confident or skills that you know you will need to develop/improve upon.

Resources Required: What resources do you think will be required in order to achieve your objective? These may be simple or complex but list as many as you can and again, do not forget to mention the obvious e.g. time and people!

Criteria for Success: How do you think that will you know when you have achieved your objective? How will you measure your level of success?..? or otherwise?

Planned Evidence: What type of evidence do you think that you will be able to submit in support of your work/progress in meeting this objective?

Learning Agreement ? Reflective Stage
This stage of your Learning Agreement should have a very different tone and style from the preceding Planning Stage. You cannot use descriptive lists/bullet points in these section as you need to adopt a much more analytical and reflective style of writing. There may be opportunities within these sections to include some links to relevant academic theory/model. Making links between academic theory/understanding and your workplace experiences is a valuable facet of work based learning.

Skills Developed: What skills have you actually managed to use/develop in the process of undertaking this objective? These may include: all of the skills that you identified in the Planning Stage or just some of them or none of them or several that you did not even think of at that stage. Reflect upon this when describing how you used the skills.

Submitted Evidence: Describe and explain the relevance of the evidence you have actually submitted to support the claims you have made. Ensure that if possible, you have a balance between product and testimonial evidence as appropriate. Number each piece of evidence cited appropriately.

Achievement: Analyse your achievement and assess your performance in working through and achieving /or otherwise this objective. Grade yourself honestly using the standard CAF A+ - F- system. This should focus your mind!

Evidence - what kind of evidence should I plan to collect and provide?

There are two main types of evidence that you are likely to use within your agreements; product evidence and third party or witness testimony evidence.

Product evidence includes documents such as emails, letters, reports, minutes of meeting, performance review/appraisal documents. In fact any ?product? that is available as a natural consequence of a particular task or experience that you have included in your agreement will be appropriate evidence.

There will be some situations or experiences which will not naturally provide product evidence; these are likely to be ?behavioural? situations. E.g. You may wish to demonstrate that you have behaved in a particular manner in a specific set of circumstances. In this type of situation you must try to obtain witness testimony evidence. This will require you asking a relevant individual/s who witnessed you dealing with the situation, to write a brief, descriptive statement. This statement should describe the situation in question and verify your behaviour e.g how you dealt with the situation, what skills/ attitude/behaviour you exhibited. All Witness Testimonies should be signed, and dated.

The Critical Appraisal
The final stage of your Personal Development Portfolio is the Critical Appraisal. The term ?critical? in an academic sense means to make judgements about information and to evaluate the quality of the information.

You are required to look back at your experiences in relation to the assessment required for this module. Think about the task of deciding upon and negotiating a useful set of Aims & Objectives set at the start of the module. How did you feel being asked to identify specific Aims and Objectives? Was it a simple or quite a difficult task? Why?

How did you respond to working in a very structured approach with the Learning Agreements? How well do you think that you have used your agreements as tools to identify and then reflect upon your learning throughout this module? Would you consider using this approach again in the future?

Was identifying, collecting and logging the Evidence a simple task or did it present you with any challenges?

What about your Reflective Practise? Have you developed your reflective and analytical skills during this process? Was this a comfortable or challenging process? Did you gain any valuable insights through this process about your development needs for the future?

Ask yourself the question, given the chance to start this module again, ?what would I do differently??.and why??

This final section in your portfolio might give you another opportunity to identify and comment upon any links that you have been able to make between the world of work and the world of academic theories/models. E.g In one of your agreements, you may have described an experience that involved, team working, a particular communication styles or a particular management/leadership style. All of these subject areas have a considerable level of academic underpinning and are examples of opportunities to demonstrate your academic knowledge/reading and to quote/refer to theoretical models/ideas!

Evidence Log
The very final section in your portfolio will be the Evidence Log. Each piece of evidence that you have mentioned in the ?Submitted Evidence? section of your agreements should be simply numbered as cited in the agreement and filed at the back of your portfolio in numerical order.

So, your completed portfolio should be structured and submitted in a folder as follows:
1. Introduction Section (including a Job Description)
2. Aims and Objectives Form
3. Learning Agreements (1and 2)
4. Critical Appraisal
5. Evidence Log

Assessment Criteria

The Personal Development Portfolio will be assessed against the following criteria:
? Extent to which the student writes a clear and well written Introduction section placing their employer and job role in context
? Extent to which the student negotiates and produces a set of two relevant Aims for their portfolio.
? Extent to which the student produces one relevant SMART objectives for each of their Aims
? Extent to which the student completes both the Planning and Reflective Stage for each of their two Learning Agreements using the prescribed headings
? Extent to which the student uses their Learning Agreements as tools to effectively plan and then reflect upon their experiences, learning and development
? Extent to which the student includes a supporting log of relevant evidence
? Extent to which the student writes their Critical Appraisal in a reflective manner reviewing their development and learning via the portfolio task
? Extent to which the student makes reference to relevant academic theories/models/links

There are many factors that could potentially impact the value of a security.The text provides several key economic factors to be considered when making investment decisions. Chose two and, in your own words, describe how these economic factors will impact the value of a security. one reference

There are many theories that attempt to explain stock market behavior. Chapter 9 discusses market anomalies that contradict the efficient market hypothesis. Choose one, and then locate an article in the ProQuest database that discusses this anomaly. Summarize your findings and discuss whether or not it refutes the anomaly or supports it. one reference

2.Kiplinger (2013). Tools . Retrieved from

This week we will discuss and analyze common stocks. Gitman & Joehnk (2011) posits that stock analysis is usually done in a top down order: economic analysis, industry analysis, and fundamental analysis. Financial analyst will use various models and tools to better understand the "goodness" of an organization. Often time the type of analysis performed is categorized into three types?traditional, technical and some combination of the two.

Economic analysis usually takes into account both the economic conditions and the stock market. To make sense of it all, it is important to understand the relationship between some key factors that affect the economy. These key factors include governmental rules and regulations, Federal Reserve policies and their expected impact, fiscal policies, inflation, spending and foreign net export balance. Factors that impact industry analysis include issues like technological advances, catastrophic events (terrorist attack), and oil supply and demand?thus prices

Fundamental analysis is the analysis of a specific company, key financial statements are required which include balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows. This type of analysis is also referred to as "Ratio Analysis." Ratio analysis provides insights into the performance of a company by focusing on historical trends, industry, and competitors norms (Gitman & Joehnk , 2011).

Technical Analysis is the forecasting of future stock prices movements based on understanding previous past price movements. Technical analysis does not result in absolute predictions about the future but rather assist investors forecast?what is most likely to happen to price change over time. Technical analysis utilizes a wide range of charting techniques that show price and movement over time.

A technical analyst has a lot of information about the price of most securities?stock etc. but has very little understanding or need to understand the security/stock. Technicians or technical analysts as they are referred, are primarily concerned with two things: current price and the history of price movement?

The objective of technical analysis is to forecast the direction of the expected price of a security/stock. Focusing on price only, technical analysis represents an understanding of trends and trends only associated with stock change, up or down. The underlying assumption is that securities/stocks tend to follow a pattern both in the short and long run. Traditional analysis is concerned with why the price is what it is or stated differently ?value.? Technical analysts are less concern with the why but rather the what; why the price went up or down is a function of supply and demand the rest is not relevant but not significant in the decision to buy or sell given current trends.

It is important to keep in mind that the analyst does not come up with new numbers, but rather a general overview. The focus at this point is one of understanding past performance. As we continue this journey we will look at forecasting and start assessing potential opportunities or concerns.

Zipcar Entrepreneurship

Select an entrepreneur who has had measurable success with at least one venture.

The situation involved could be a new business venture, a new product or a new process but it should represent a significantly new direction for the entrepreneur and/or the organisation.

Write a report about what happened and how it confirms or disconfirms the principles in the textbook, emphasising:
- the historical background and environmental conditions that led to its emergence.
- a description of the approach, attitudes and behaviour towards the innovation.
- the strategies that were employed and which ones contributed most to the innovation's success.

The textbook is Entrepreneurship 9th Edition by Donald F. Kuratko

Webmd Web Portals Like Webmd,

Navigate through the Website as a consumer making purchases, joining chat or discussion rooms. Make a detailed list of the specific legal and regulatory issues in the B2C site. Navigate through the Website as a buyer looking to put your companys information onto the website. Make a detailed list of the specific legal and regulatory issues in the B2B site for hosting your content on and describe what was found and how it relates to the lecture.

Lecture 4

The Internet was created for government purposes known as ARPANET. The designers had no intention of it becoming a commercial place to perform business transactions. Because of this security was never considered being a U.S. government network.

In the past few years the Internet has seen a growth of new e-businesses. Many of these businesses may not be viewed as legal or ethical. Some examples of these businesses are:

On-line Gambling
Prescription Medicine
Adult Entertainment

The U.S. Government has made On-line Gambling illegal. Many of these businesses setup their web and transaction servers in countries that permit On-line gambling such as Aruba, the Bahamas, and the Caymans. Unfortunately, U.S. regulation has not updated the Wire Act to include transactions over the Internet. It is this loophole that companies are taking advantage of. One of the next pieces of legislation to be created in Congress is an update to the 1999 Telecommunication Act that will address these types of activities.

A question is raised. Should U.S. regulation affect businesses outside of the U.S.? Many people view gambling as a legitimate form of business as seen in places such as Las Vegas and Atlantic City. Who is to say what is legal and what is not?

Prescription medicine has grown dramatically over the Internet primarily due to the high cost of non-generic drugs. Many companies have set-up storefronts to sell their medicine. In the U.S. prescription drugs have to be issued by a licensed doctor. To support this law, companies have hired real doctors to write prescriptions immediately over the Internet to full-fill this requirement. These doctors have not seen these customers nor have they fully evaluated their medical condition. Many times a few simple questions are asked prior to creating the prescription. Is this legal? Is this right?

Along with the many positive events the Internet has brought, there have also been some negative affects. One of these affects is SPAM (not the food you eat). Many of us have un-willingly approved third party customers to send us this mail when we have purchased items or registered on-line. Is this legal? An ethics question is raised when a child mistakenly views a pornographic picture for an adult content website. In the U.S. pornography is enforced until the age of 18 in most states. Is the law broken?

As you can see many of us will have different views as to what we believe is ethical and in some cases even legal. A better question needs to be asked that if we believe that laws need to be written to prevent such activity, how is it enforced. This class does not have the answers to these questions, but only raises the questions for discussion.

Below is support information for this weeks lecture. It is to be used as a guide.

Identify the legal, ethical, and regulatory issues of eBusiness

I. Identify the legal, ethical, and regulatory issues of eBusiness

Intellectual Property


Principles of Right and Wrong used by Individuals
Value Judgements about what Behaviour is Good or Bad
Ethical Issues can be categorized as follows:
Privacy the collection, storage and dissemination of information about individuals
Accuracy authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information collected and processed.
Property ownership and value of information and intellectual property.
Accessibility right to access information and payment of fees to access it.

Ethical & Legal Issues
Many of the ethical issues are encountered in the legal aspects of e-commerce. However, There is a difference between the two.
An unethical action is not necessarily illegal.

Ethical Issues of E-Commerce
Electronic commerce policies may include:

A clear, explicit statement of the organizations privacy policy
A policy statement addressing situations in which a persons permission must be secured before his/her ID, photo, ideas, or communications are used or transmitted
A clear policy stating how the company will inform customers of the intended uses of personal information gathered during an online transaction and how to secure permission from customers for those used
A statement that addresses issues of ownership with respect to network postings and communications
A policy of how the company monitors, or tracks, user behaviors on the Web site.

Legal Issues - Setting up a Website
Choosing a Domain Name
Ensure that other trademarks are not infringed
Distinguish the domain name by including type of service/product.

Selecting the content of the web site
Documents and trademarks may be protected and rights must be acquired.

Protect the content of the site and trademarks.
Decide whether to allow employees to set up their own Web pages on the company intranet.

Decide on standards of acceptable text and graphics.

Ensure that the content standards are explicitly clear and are consistent with other company policies on sexist and racist behavior.

Encourage employees to think about who should and shouldnt have access to information before posting the information on the Web site.

Remember that Web site content policies are an extension of other Netiquette guidelines, social etiquette, and common decency.

Legal Issues Advertising

Advertisement and Contractual Content
The content of the advertisement becomes part of the contract unless specifically excluded

Product Quality and Performance
The product must perform as per described by the seller.
Further information
Should be provided to encourage trust and confidence, e.g details of professional bodies, VAT Reg. No.
This information should be available on the site as soon as the consumer enters the site:
Description of goods and services
Delivery costs
Get out clause
Legal Issues - The Contract

The minimal scheme that matches the best practice and the proposed directive on e-commerce is:

e-catalogue, presented by the e-supplier.
first click, drag or similar action for ordering one or more products.

recapitulative page (Brief summary).
second click, drag or similar action for acceptance.

acknowledgement of receipt from the e-supplier
Shortening this process could be acceptable, only for professional purchasers, by prior agreement.


The Safari text discusses some issues regarding privacy that we should be concerned with:

There are valid reasons to be concerned about privacy on the World Wide Web:

Cookie software: A site visited by a user can add a small text file to the visitor's browser that identifies the user to the site. The cookie is used for password authentication so that people are not required to type in passwords each time they visit sites to which they subscribe. They are also used, if a site has the person's e-mail address, to send personalized research or news leads to users based on their cookie. Sites can track customer behavior based on cookies. The cookie, however, does not divulge site users' e-mail addresses. Those are provided voluntarily via on-line registration, purchases or contests.

On-line registration and ontest forms: Telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and home and business addresses are collected from on-line forms to various sites. These are frequently put into demographic databases and sold to direct marketers.

Powerful databases: Companies such as Lexis/Nexus and Database Technologies offer on-line services where, for a fee, direct marketers purchase personal data about consumers.

The "wired" universe: The rise in communicating computers makes databases available to anyone with a modem and a PC. People buy access to lists or they hack into computers containing personal information. As systems acquire more sophisticated security, hackers increase their own break-in capabilities. In 1996, hackers broke into the Department of Defense's computer system. Consumers are aware that computer systems are vulnerable to hackers and are leery of leaving private information on the Internet.

But what is Privacy? According to
Privacy is defined as, privacy: 1. In a communications system or network, the protection given to information to conceal it from unauthorized persons having access to the system or network at large. Synonym segregation. 2. In a communications system, protection given to unclassified information, such as radio transmissions of law enforcement personnel, that requires safeguarding from unauthorized persons. 3. In a communications system, the protection given to prevent unauthorized disclosure of the information in the system. Note 1: The required protection may be accomplished by various means, such as by communications security measures and by directives to operating personnel. Note 2: The limited protection given certain voice and data transmissions by commercial crypto equipment is sufficient to deter a casual listener, but cannot withstand a competent cryptanalytic attack.

Many people have the following view of privacy when using the Internet:

Right to be left alone when surfing
Privacy: people have the right
- Not to receive unsolicited commercial messages. (What about SPAM???)
- To object to the processing of his or her data for commercial purposes.
- Personal data can only be collected if consent has been obtained.

There are others legal issues that need to be addressed when building your website. Many of these legal issues are applicable to advertising and print media. Many of you may have heard of these issues, below is a brief description:

Intellectual Property:
Intangible creations protected by law

Trade Secret:
Intellectual work or product belonging to business, not in public domain

Statutory grant protecting intellectual property from copying by others for 28 years

Legally registered mark, device, or name to distinguish ones goods

Legal document granting owner exclusive monopoly on an invention for 17 years


The legal issues of the Internet are to be resolved by U.S. court judges. Their judgments can only be enforced within the United States. Because the Internet is global, restricting web sites from other countries that do not comply to US laws will be difficult to enforce. For example, an Internet surfer can telnet (log-in) to a different companies server and view illegal content or perform illegal activity that technically is not illegal where that server resides.

It is up to the individual to control what they wish to see and do on the Internet. Until there is a global acceptance on policy, only the surfer can control what is legal and ethical.

There are faxes for this order.

Write a 4 page article review on the attached article from Harvard Business Review. A 2-page synopsis of the article plus a 2-page analytical report comparing/contrasting the content of the article to selected principles, concepts or theories (chapters 1 through 7)in the text book: Management of Organizational Behavior, 9th Ed., by Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson. (ISBN 978-0131441392).

Sources cited should be article from Harvard Business Review and the text book: Management of Organizational Behavior, 9th Ed., by Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson. (ISBN 978-0131441392).

Merger Activity Due in Large

there is my proposal and in the second part you will find what you need to do thanks

first part

Table of Content

1. Titlepg2

2. Introduction.pg2

3. Research Aim, Questions and Objectives..pg2

4. Literature Review...pg3

4.1. The types of Merger and Acquisitionpg3
4.2. The reasons for the companies to merge.pg3
4.3. Overview of Merger and Acquisition activity in United Kingdom..pg4

5. Methodology pg4

5.1. Research Approach.pg5
5.2. Research Design..pg6
5.3. Method of data collection.pg6
5.3.1. Documentary data...pg6
6. Markov-Switching Model of Merger waves...pg7
7. Resources..pg7
8. Discussion of access and ethical consideration.pg7
8.1. Access..pg7
8.2. Ethical consideration.pg7

1. Title

A"The reasons behind waves of Mergers and Acquisitions in United Kingdom

2. Introduction

The main goal of companies nowadays is to maximize the shareholders value. One of the easiest ways to achieve this is through merger or acquisition. Merger is defined as the process where the shareholders of two or several companies decide to merge into a single company. Acquisition is defined as the process where the shareholders of one company buy the ownership of another company or its assets. The increase in merger and acquisition (M&A) activity has generated a new phenomenon, which is merger wave. This phenomenon has been first observed in United States, then in United Kingdom and recently in other European countries. This dissertation will focus on the merger wave in the United Kingdom.

3. Research aim, Questions and Objectives
The basic aim for this dissertation will be to identify the causes of waves of M&A in UK. This research is relevant as it will improve our understanding of merger waves as the factors which triggers the waves are not fully understood although different theories have been identified. In addition, this research will create greater awareness about the history of merger waves in UK.
Based on the research aim, we have framed the following research questions and objectives for this dissertation.

Research Questions Research Objectives
What are the different types of M&A? To identify the types of M&A
Why do companies do merge? To identify the reasons of merge
What are the different M&A waves in UK? To identify the M&A waves which happened in UK
Is there a relationship between these M&A waves? To compare these waves

4. Literature Review
The scope of the literature review is to examine the types of merger and acquisition. To study the motivations for companies to merge and acquire in the UK. Finally the literature review will look at the different wave of M&A in UK and evaluate them.

4.1. The types of Mergers and Acquisitions
There are various types of merger and acquisition. The classification has been done on the basis of functional relationship between two companies and the economic impact of the merger on their operations (Tanriverdi, H & Uysal, V: (2010).
There are three main types of merger. First, the horizontal merger is when two companies from the same industry which are currently in direct competition merge together. It has as advantages to generate substantial economics of scale and result in decrease in the number of competitors in the industry Pawaslar, Vardhana: (2001). The other type of merger is the vertical merger which take place when a company, and perhaps one of their suppliers, join together to be able to offer a contiguous, non-interrupted supply of merchandise to their companies (Craig W. Fontaine, 2007). Finally, the conglomerate merger is when two companies from different industry merge together.

4.2. The reasons for the companies to merge
Merger and acquisition have kept the interest of a lot of academia during this recent year. As they can be really beneficial for the companies involved in these processes. However it is important to note that the merger or take-over activities are not always benefits for the companies. There are different motives behind the mergers and acquisitions. According to Trautwein (1990) the motives can be categorised in different theories, to know efficiency theory, where merger is planned and executed to achieve the synergy, which can be financial, operational or managerial synergy. For example, if a particular company is very good at marketing strategies while some other company is good in operations. If the expertises of both are put together, it produces synergy. This produces a new firm with more powerful features than the individual firms had before. However although the operational and managerial synergies are really benefits for the firms, they have been the object of several critics. According to Kitching (1967) and Porter (1987) these synergies are evasive concepts that are often claimed for merger but seldom realized.
Another theory developed by Trautwein (1990) is monopoly theory, for which the reason to merge is to achieve market power. The monopoly position will allow the firm to reduce the competition, control the market price and cross-subsidize its products. Although providing some advantages to the company, it is important to note that this monopoly theory cannot be applied in horizontal acquisition. In addition, A"under the monopoly theory the competitors stock should rise under an announcement and drop if the merger is challenged (Trautwein, 1990, p5). For Jensen (1984) since the competitors stocks do not fall on the two latter events, the monopoly theory should be rejected. Therefore, the monopoly theory although being cited as one of motive for merger, it faced a lot of critics which weakened this theory.
According to Ravenscraft and Scherer (1987) the fact the managers have better information about the targets value firm than the stock market can be a motive of merger. This is considered as a valuation theory. A"Bidders' managers may have unique information about possible advantages to be derived from combining the target's businesses with their own (Trautwein, 1990, p5). However this theory can only holds in an imperfect market, as in the perfect market all the information are available to the market and no one can take advantage from the information as the price of a company reflects the truly value of the market. Therefore although this theory is relevant, it conflicts with the financial market perfection.

4.3. Overview of M&A activity in the United Kingdom
Mergers and Acquisitions are not a new thing in the United Kingdom. Five different waves have been identified since the late 19th century. The first real wave was in 1960 and coincided with the internationalization of the world economy, the British government decided that the large firms were needed in order to compete effectively in international stage (Owen, 2006). To achieve this, a lot of companies were encouraged to merge. In other hand, the post-war reconstruction had a bg role in this first wave. The second wave peaked in 1972 and was characterized by horizontal mergers (Sudarsanam, 2010) the reason of this wave was the soft legislation which encouraged the merger. The third wave was in 1980, Prior to this time the waves had been mostly about increasing the size of companies but in the 1980s the emphasis changed to the control of corporate assets as a commodity (Owen, 2006). The main trigger of this wave was the Big Bang deregulation of financial services sector in the City of London (Sudarsanam, 2010). In 1990s the UK experienced its fourth merger wave which was also trigger by the deregulation of British industries. The fifth UK wave in addition to the characteristic of fourth wave (deregulation) had the privatization of firms as important stimuli of the wave.

5. Methodology

The methodology will identify the intended research approach and outline the research strategy chosen. The first part of the methodology will develop an appropriate research approach, strategy and design for the dissertation. Providing an overall explanation of methods chosen, whilst giving justification for these choices. The second part, will demonstrate more explicitly the different data collection methods intended in order to achieve the research objectives.

5.1. Research Approach
There are two research approaches that can be taken, the deductive and the inductive approach. To begin with deductive approach, which is the development of theory that will be tested, this approach is applied the most of the time for scientific research. It is considered as the top to down approach:





Then, the induction approach which is focused on building theory. It is considered as the down to top approach:





As the research objective of this study is concerned with the cause of merger wave in the UK. This dissertation will require an inductive approach, because it will allows us to observe the factors preceding the waves, identify the types of M&A during these waves. However this approach can lack of objectivity and validity. Therefore in order to meet these issues related to validity and objectivity. This dissertation will use also the Markov- switching model of merger waves considered by Town (1992) which provide a better portrayal of M&A than simpler formulation.

5.2. Research Design
The way, we are going to answer research questions should be related to the purpose of research. A study can have different purposes such as exploratory, descriptive or explanatory.
The research purpose of this dissertation will be exploratory. Which is a valuable means of finding out what is happening, to seek new insights, to ask question and to assess phenomena in a new light (saunders, p139). This type of research design was chosen as it will allow us to review the work of academic in order to identify the relevant factors that influence the merger wave. And also enable to make a comparative analysis of different waves.

5.3. Method of data collection
There are two types of data: secondary data and primary data. For this study, we are only going to used secondary data. The secondary data is data which has already been collected for some other purpose other than the one under consideration (Webb, 2002). It can be used to provide a backdrop to primary research. Secondary data sources can help avoid unnecessary primary research and can be used to guide researchers throughout primary data collection (Webb, 2002). The secondary data which will be relevant for this study are documentary data.
Documentary data
Journals articles, organisations websites and other published materials which adequately covered the research, will be call frequently to form the literature review for this dissertation. The different journals: the journal of Applied Behavioural Science, journal of Financial Economics, International journal of Industrial Organization, journal of Applied Financial Economics, Quaterly journal of Economics journal of Economic Perspectives will play an important role in the development of review and understanding of the subject on which the research objectives are based.
The websites of Office for National Statistics and Thomson Financial will relevant in the collection of data in order to achieve Markov-Switching model analysis. The work of academia such as Sue Cartwright and Cary Cooper (1996) will be relevant in the identification of reasons of mergers. Gerald Adolph et al (2009) work on the explanation and examination of wave will be useful for this study.

Advantages and disadvantages of secondary data
In the case of this study the main advantages of using secondary data are:
?' The saving in resources, time and money
?' A large amount of data can be overviewed quickly and compared.
As disadvantages:
?' Data should be evaluated carefully due to the fact there are not always of high quality and relevant for research question

6. Markov-Switching Model of Merger Waves
The literature has advanced the idea that mergers follow a wave pattern. We take this casual impression to suggest the presence of two distinct states of merger activity, high and low (Halbheer et al, 2009). We will develop different assumption such as
Assumption: Each period t is accompanied by an unobserved latent state variable. This will be tested by Markov-switching model.

7. Resources
Different resources will be needed in order to achieve this dissertation. The main ones are teesside main library and Business School library, which offer a vast range of books and journals articles related to our research objective. As other important resource is personal computer associated to the internet and Microsoft word program, as it will allow us to get access to some relevant websites and also allow us to type our research. Finally, the time can be considered as crucial factor for this research as we have a time limited to achieve this research.

8. Discussion of access and ethical consideration
For the success of research project, we are going to look at access and ethical consideration.
8.1. Access
As our research will mostly be based on secondary data, gaining access to these data will not be a problem due to our free access to the library and some websites with which the Durham University is registered. However it is important to note that some organizations websites are not free, which can be a barrier to access some data.

8.2. Ethical consideration
Research ethics refer to the appropriateness of our behaviour in relation to the rights of those who become subject of our work (Saunders et al, 2009, p187). As we develop our data collection techniques, we need to consider whether our research method is likely to cause any physical or emotional harm. As example of harm: no respect of cultural values, the no respect of work of academia. In order to deal with ethical issues, as our dissertation is mainly based on secondary data, we will require the consent of the other party before to use the secondary data

second part

Overview of the Project? (8000 words excluding references, bibliography and appendices)
The Project is a piece of work in which you demonstrate your ability to investigate a topical business/management issue or problem which is closely related to your programme of study. Within the project you collect, analyse and evaluate relevant information, draw supportable conclusions based on your findings and make appropriate recommendations.
As such your project could be:
A workplace or organisation-based project
If you can negotiate sufficient relevant access to an organisation, this is possibly an ideal basis for your project as it is a ready and valuable source of primary, live evidence.
Other primary research project
Rather than focussing on a workplace for your project, you may still wish to undertake a project which generates significant and valuable primary research. If you can identify access to the relevant area ofyour research and data sources, this could be a good option for you.

Regardless of which style of project you undertake, your final work needs to demonstrate that you can:
Plan and manage the implementation of your research
Understand the principles/theory underpinning the issue or problem that is being investigated
Identify how to investigate an issue in order to reach a reliable view
Present data and other information in a clear and logical manner using quantitative and/or qualitative methods as appropriate
Critically analyse, interpret and evaluate data and other information
Develop concise and logical arguments
Draw relevant and valid conclusions and make recommendations which are appropriate to the issue or problem


In pursuit of these objectives, your project must contain the following sections and content
An abstract or brief summary
An introductory section outlining the nature and context of the chosen issue or problem
A literature review
A research design (explaining how you have approached the task)
A number of development sections (analysis of findings)
A conclusion and recommendations
A reflection on the research project process

In producing and presenting your Project you must meet the following requirements:
Presentation of the Final Project
It should be typed or word-processed, on A4 unlined paper, on one side only, using Arial font size 12
There should be good margins all round. Remember to allow sufficient space on the left hand side to allow for binding
There should be double line spacing throughout, except where there are long quotations indented in the main text when single spacing is acceptable
Pages should be numbered consecutively through the main text, including tables/charts/ diagrams which are not embodied in the text. Page numbers should be located centrally at the bottom of the page
Any large charts or diagrams should be reduced to A4 size if possible, otherwise folded to A4 size with an allowance for binding
Project Contents
The Project should be 8000 words in length, excluding appendices. The final document should comprise the following headings and content:

Suggested approximate word count of 300 words. A summary of the project aim, research design and methods, findings, conclusions and recommendations. The summary can only sensibly be written after you have drafted all the main chapters.

An optional (unmarked) section in which you can give thanks those who have advised, supported or inspired you.
List in numerical order the headings of the chapters and sub-headings of the main body of the Project with the numbers of the pages on which these chapters and sections begin. You must list all appendices providing details of reference number/letter, title and page number.
List separately, after the Table of Contents, any tables, figures, diagrams or other items used in the main body of the text. List in numerical order and give the title and page number upon which it appears.
The Table of Contents is easy to add at the end, but if you are having difficulty getting started you might want to do the contents page first using the standard chapter headings and add the page numbers later.

Suggested approximate word count of 400 words. A summarised description of what is being studied (e.g. company, industry and/or theory " but do not simply cut and paste from a company website!). Identify the audience, i.e. who the project will be useful to and why it will be useful to them. You should put your project into context, explaining why the project area is important. It will be helpful to identify in this chapter main themes or problems your project is investigating and state why this is an appropriate project for you to carry out. Avoid too much general background information, which may distract your reader from the main issues in the project but ensure that a full context has been given.

Suggested approximate word count of 100 words. Clearly stated and logically derived aim and objectives. It must be clear from your aim and objectives that the project is appropriate to your programme of study and that achievement of the objectives will satisfy the project aim.
Suggested approximate word count of 2,000 words. A discussion of definitions, themes, concepts and debate relevant to your study.

- Select and critically analyse published theory and research which is relevant to your topic. You must cite academic sources to support your discussion.
- Use headings and subheadings to structure your discussion.

This section explains how the literature shaped and influenced your study. You should discuss how you propose to deal with any conflicting issues raised by the literature.
Suggested approximate word count of 1,500 words. Explanation of and rationale for the research design, methods of data collection and analysis, and the range of information sources used. Cite academic references (e.g. textbooks and sources included on the reading list) to justify and enhance the validity of your choices.
- Research design
- Primary and/or Secondary data collection sources, populations, samples.
- Methods you used to collect the data
- Methods you used to analyse this data
- Project management and control:
Resources and associated costs (if any)
Possible limitations (e.g. access, ethical issues, time constraints)
Measures taken to ensure that your project is completed to time and quality
You will have proposed an approach and identified data collection techniques as part of your research proposal so you should be able to draft this chapter at an early stage as this serves to outline your research plan. You should critically reflect on the methodology you have used and include a discussion of why you have chosen the particular approach and techniques. You must include a discussion here of how you will deal with issues of a confidential or ethical nature.
This chapter is a key chapter for the assessors because it explains the methods you have chosen and, in particular, why you have chosen them. Your reasoning should be justified and supported by relevant reading from research texts.

Suggested approximate word count of 2,000 words. This section should analyse the findings of your research. The exact structure is not prescribed and should be
appropriate to context/fit for purpose. The issue to keep in mind is that there should be a logical flow that makes your project easy to read and understand.
Results should be presented with a full discussion and interpretation. It is insufficient just to say what your findings are - you need to analyse what they mean within your work context and fully interpret them. Where you are presenting a lot of numerical data it is important to include a visual representation (e.g. graph) of major results.
Even if your findings are of a qualitative nature you should consider breaking up the text and perhaps emphasising a major point by use of a diagram (e.g. a flow-diagram to illustrate a change or implementation process). You may not refer much to the research literature at this point, but may draw on some subject based reading to support or interpret your findings.
Suggested approximate word count of 600 words. A summary of key findings providing an explanation of their significance
- Logically derived from the foregoing analysis
- Understanding of the significance of the foregoing analysis
Remember that your conclusions must be clearly drawn from your findings. Address the aim and objectives you set earlier in the Project. A common mistake is to include entirely new material in the conclusion. This is not appropriate.
The conclusions should arise logically from what has gone before. This may not be the longest chapter but it should be clear, succinct and encapsulate theimportant issues and findings.
Suggested approximate word count of 600 words. Recommendations for action must be included. These should be expressed in a clear and practical manner. These should be directed to your audience/stakeholders (organisations, managers, researchers) and address issues such as strategy, management decisions, and further research.

Suggested approximate word count of 500 words. A personal reflection on the research project process and on the limitations of the foregoing analysis (how might these limitations affect your results?)
- Did the process of undertaking the project deviate in any way from the proposal? If so, why?
- What did you learn from the process of this research project?
- What are the limitations of the research and how might these limitations have affected the results?
- What might you do differently if conducting future research and/or if you were to do the research again?

In order to write this section effectively it is recommended that you maintain a Project Log Book throughout the duration of your project.
The Appendices should contain supporting documentation, such as detailed results or tables of statistics that support the analysis, but which are too detailed to be contained in the main text. It is important that they complement the main text.
Note that the word count applies to your project chapters not the appendices. You can therefore use the Appendix Section to support and evidence the depth, as well as the breadth of your learning and activity throughout the course of your project. However, you should not include large amounts of additional information in the appendices as they are used to illustrate the discussion, not to compensate for a limited word allowance.
Clearly sectioning and labelling the contents of your Appendix enables you to illustrate and support the material that you refer to in the text of your project in the previous chapters. Contents of the Appendix Section might include, for example a copy of the questionnaire used in a survey or supporting data for quoted results.
Each Appendix should be on a separate page, designated in sequence as Appendix A, Appendix B etc., listed in the Table of Contents and referenced within the main text. Remember to provide references for sources of material used in the appendices where appropriate.
When choosing what to include in the appendices consider the following criteria:
Timely: recent and current
Appropriate: illustrates the points you are making
Relevant: clearly linked to the project
Ethical: you have permission to use it and no- one is compromised by its inclusion
Authentic: real, rather than invented to illustrate the purpose
Annotated: the reason for inclusion is explained
Confidentially protected: protect names of your organisation or individuals and gain their permission to use the example

It is often useful to include entries from your Project Log in the Appendices.

The purpose of the Appendices are to illustrate your project process and are not there to compensate for a limited word number.
Here you must list all the sources you have referred to or quoted in the text. Use the Harvard format. Failure to include a source referred to risks being classed as plagiarism, which is a serious disciplinary issue. The reference list must be one list in alphabetical order by the authors surname (Harvard format).

Please note:
In addition to marks for the quality of content your Project will also be marked on the basis of referencing, bibliography, structure and quality of presentation:

- Adherence to specified criteria for presentation
- Evidence of an appropriate structure
- Correct spelling and grammar and appropriate narrative style
- Evidence of proof-reading to eliminate typographical and other errors
- Correct referencing (Harvard style)

Intoduction to Marketing ( this is for diploma level college)
Students will choose a product and identify the company that provides this product ( I was thinking of Coke or Nike running shoes which ever you think is best for the research).

Then carry out the following Part 1) no more than 1200 words.

Collect and present info on the internal market:-
Core activites, customer base, business values & current business direction
Current marketing performance
Current capabilities and resouces are identified.

Collect and present info on the external market business environment:-
trends and developments are described and their impact on the business are identified from primary or seceral secondary sources..Primary may be observation or survey.

Indentify the legal ethical and enviromental constraints of the market and their effect on the business

Formal report format all sources and info acknowledged in footnotes and bibliography Primary and seconadry data to be placed in appendix.

Part B

Consumer Behaviour report , using the same product as above write and present a consumer behaviour report folowing tasks:-
Identify the market/market segment for this product
Identify the features of the product
Assess the influences on consumer behaviour and estimate their impact

Recommend and justify a focus of appeal for the marketimg mix for this product

Part B no more than 1000 words.

"AC562 Auditing:Oper & Intrnal Persp"


Sometimes fraud is discovered by chance instead of deliberate effort. In the $4 million embezzlement fraud by an employee of a magazine publisher, more than one coincidence brought down the perpetrator.
A popular magazine and large direct-mail publishing house decided to outsource much of its direct-mail operations to specialized mail vendors. The company began converting its plant in Pleasantville, New York, from a direct-mail-order factory to an office complex. Part of the office complex construction involved building an auditorium that was to be identical to another auditorium in historic Williamsburg, Virginia. Terrence McGrane had just begun his third day on the job as chief internal auditor. In an effort to get to know his new company, he had scheduled a series of interviews with all the vice presidents. His first interview was with the vice president of administrative services, Harold J. Scott, who was in charge of many construction projects and maintenance services. Because of the massive renovation project, it was not unusual for hundreds of invoices to be forwarded to Scott.
Coincidence one: McGrane stopped by the accounts payable department and retrieved a series of recently submitted invoices for various trade expenses related to the auditorium construction project. ?One of the things I wanted to accomplish was to understand how the accounting codes worked?what was capitalized; what was expensed; how it was recorded, etc.? So he grabbed a stack of processed invoices with accounting codes and went up to the construction site to meet with the vice president for an hour-long interview.
As the two walked around the grounds, McGrane asked the vice president if he could explain the accounting codes to him: ?He stared at the [top] invoice for approximately 30 seconds and said: ?That is not my signature on the invoice!?
As he looked through the stack, he found what appeared to be about three or four other forgeries. He was completely baffled.?
The initial investigation revealed that all of the forgeries were in the painting division, budgeted at approximately $500,000 a year. The company employed only one person to oversee the painting operations in its facilities department: Albert Miano.
Miano, a 35-year-old from New Fairfield, Connecticut, earned about $30,000 a year. It was his job to coordinate time-and-materials contracts with the scores of painters, carpenters, electricians, and plumbers who toiled daily on the renovation, repair, and construction of the building complex. As facilities supervisor, Miano regularly forwarded invoices to the vice president of administration services for approval.
Miano launched his scheme by crafting false invoices for the jobs done by the painters. He took a copy of a trade invoice from an existing painting contractor and, using his home computer, created a replica into which he would record slightly different hours for the trade contractors? work.
McGrane related a probable scenario of how Miano executed his scheme. ?Let?s say he knew that during the month of February, as an example,? McGrane said, ?there were twenty-seven painters on the grounds during the course of one week.? Miano also knew the total number of hours and the volume of materials used in that time. ?He would create invoices that were similar in nature, but record only eleven painters on the grounds,? McGrane said. Miano would not reinvoice exactly the same work done during a week, but he would make it look so similar that no one?s suspicions were ever aroused. Effectively, there were no work orders on the ?phantom work? he created on these invoices. Miano always listed fewer painters on the false invoice than the actual number who had worked that week, and he registered less time for their services than they had actually worked.
As part of his job, he regularly brought the trade invoices into the administrative VP?s office for signature approval. After delivering a stack of these invoices, he would return to collect them within the next day or two and deliver the approved invoices to the accounts payable department. ?It was this opportunity,? McGrane said, ?that this individual was allowed to go and collect the approved invoices and insert his own replicated fraudulent invoices as approved. This was the first piece of an ?electronic circuit? that allowed him to commit the fraud.? The second piece of the circuit for the fraud to ignite, McGrane said, was allowing this same employee to transport the invoices to the accounts payable department, and ultimately to collect the check.
After seeing how easy it was to slip in his own false invoices in the stack of approved ones, Miano became bolder in his scheme. He began calling accounts payable, claiming that a carpenter or painter had arrived on the grounds and needed his check ?immediately.? To keep the project flowing, the employees in the accounts payable department accommodated him. Many employees knew and liked Miano, who had worked for the company for nearly 15 years.
Eventually, this routine became so familiar to employees in accounts payable that Miano did not even need to make up an excuse to pick up checks. Each time he would collect them, he stashed the check for the false invoice in his pocket. When he returned home to New Fairfield, Connecticut, he took the check to his bank, forged the contractor?s name on the back, then endorsed it with his own name and deposited the check.
McGrane explains that Miano was able to pull off the scam due to failure of internal controls and employees not following standard accounting procedures. ?For any business transaction, the invoices should be dispatched independently to the approving authority. Once signed, the approved invoices should be sent independently to accounts payable. When the check is prepared by accounts payable, they should mail it directly to the third party. Under a strong internal control system, the employees and/or contractors should not be allowed to come in and collect checks directly. Direct contacts with accounts payable personnel make it too tempting for someone to try to misappropriate funds.?
Accounts payable also failed to combine the invoices into a single check?they wrote a check for each invoice. ?Had they combined it,? McGrane said, ?his false invoice would have been added into the legitimate painter?s monthly invoice summary, and the money would be mailed to the legitimate contractor,? McGrane said. Accounts payable neglected to study the invoice signatures for forgeries, and the accounting department dropped the ball by not perusing processed checks for dual endorsements, another red flag for potentially misappropriated funds.
Miano?s first transaction totaled $1,200. His second transaction jumped to $6,000?his third, $12,000. His largest single transaction came to over $66,000. Miano refined his strategy by pacing, on a parallel basis, a certain amount below the total due the painter. ?If the painter submitted an invoice for $20,000 a month,? McGrane said, ?Miano would submit an invoice for, say, $14,000. If the painter submitted a $6,000 invoice, he?d submit one for $3,000.? The individual invoice amounts, because of the continuing construction, would not have alarmed even an auditor.
Miano?s behavior at the office was the same as ever. He dressed the same way, drove the same car to work, and shared little of his private life with other workers. He had not taken a vacation in over four years, and his boss thought he should be promoted (a move Miano resisted, for reasons now obvious). After hours, however, Miano was a different person.
Coincidence two: McGrane?s secretary was not only on Miano?s bowling team, she was also his neighbor. They saw each other regularly at the local bowling alley. She took notice when Miano?s behavior became somewhat extravagant. At first he took to buying the team drinks, a habit most appreciated by his teammates. However, the secretary began wondering where all the money was coming from when he showed up in his new Mercedes (one of five cars he bought) and talked about a new $18,000 boat. He also invested in real estate and purchased a second home costing $416,000.
McGrane?s secretary approached Miano one night after he had spent some $800 on drinks for the team. ?Did you win the lottery, or what?? she asked. He explained that his father-in-law had recently died and left a substantial inheritance to his wife and him. Miano?s father-in-law was actually quite alive, but no one ever bothered to check out the claim. No one suspected Miano of doing anything sinister or criminal. All of his associates considered him ?too dumb? to carry out such a scheme. One person described him as ?dumb as a box of rocks.?
Coincidence three: After four years without a vacation, Miano took what he considered a well-deserved trip to Atlantic City. But he wasn?t there long before he was called back to Pleasantville. One can imagine his chagrin at having to leave the casinos and boardwalks and head back to the office. Little did he know that things were about to get a lot worse.
Upon his return, Miano found himself confronted by the auditor, the vice president, and two attorneys from the district attorney?s office. He readily admitted guilt. ?He said he had expected to get caught,? McGrane said. ?He did it strictly based on greed. Miano claimed there was no one else involved, and the sum total of his fraud was about $400,000.? But the internal audit found that Miano had forged endorsements on more than fifty checks in those four years, totaling $1,057,000. Ironically, the auditors could only identify about $380,000 spent on tangible items (boats, cars, down payment on a home, etc.). The investigators could not account for the other $700,000, although they knew Miano had withdrawn at least that much from the bank.
Miano served only two years of an eight-year sentence in a state penitentiary. At the time of his indictment, his wife filed for divorce, claiming she knew nothing of her husband?s crimes. Miano told a reporter in jail that the loss of his family and the public humiliation had taught him his lesson.
?For a nickel or for $5 million, it doesn?t pay,? Miano said. ?You enjoy the money for a while, but you lose your pride and your self-respect. It ends up hurting your family, and no money can ever change that.?

Discuss the coincidences involved in this case study. Use the 2009 Global Fraud Survey for references concerning perpetrator, size of fraud, detection, and controls.

Gender and Consumerism

The relashionship between gender and consumerism is a significant element of the course called Bringing the mall home. Using at least 3 examples support from the texts discuss an aspect of the relationship between masculanity, femininity and youth of consumerism in the late 20th century.
Use at least 4 examples from the readings below and at least 2 different sessions.
Make Citations with the page numbers Thanks.

Thomas Hine

Galbriath the dependence effect in the consumer society reader
Jean Baudrillard, Consumer society in consumer society in American history pg 33-56,+Consumer+society+in+consumer+society+in+American+history&source=bl&ots=4l4De7cuYd&sig=2AFNLNnw6PqtArH6cRJnhNlQ9-Y&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TexFUbuTFLLE4APt2YGgBA&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Jean%20Baudrillard%2C%20Consumer%20society%20in%20consumer%20society%20in%20American%20history&f=false
malcolm Gladwell the Coolhuntin the consumer society reader pg 360-374
Czujszentmihalyi Chapter 1 people and things in the meaning of things pg 1-19

Colin Campbellconsuming goods and the good of consuming in consumer society in American history pg19-31
Michael Schudsondelectable materialism: in consumer society in American history pg 341-358
James Twitchell Two Cheers of Materialism in the consumer society reader og 281-290

Juliet B. Schor, empowered or seduced in Born to buy pg 177-188

Pretty in Ping-dvd

Toy Story 3-dvd

Send me if you finish it early Thank you so much. Write it with easy words since english is not my native language.

This is a 20-page report that tells the reader the powerful techniques of consumer/social psychology that ad agencies use to influence people to buy. It should NOT be the least bit CRITICAL of the practice, but instead, should teach the reader about the POWER and effectiveness of the techniques. The focus is on PRINT advertising: newspaper and magazine ads, brochures, sales letters, emails, web sites. Not broadcast (tv, radio, cable).

As this is the 2nd report prepared by Essaytown on this topic, no introduction is needed, as this new 20-page report will simply amend the first report already completed. This new report should be written on a conversational, but pithy HIGH SCHOOL level.

This new report should simply pick up where the last one left off.

All the info needed will be in the reference material provided via email. Simply cull the report for TECHNIQUES and write about them. Most techniques are in bold for easy recognition.

Here?s the simple format:

NAME OF PSYCHLOGICAL TECHNIQUE #1?Description of what the technique is. How it works and its effects on the consumer. Give a brief example of how a company would use it, e.g.: ?If WidgetCo wants to influence consumers to prefer their product over the competition, here?s how they?d use this technique?.?.


One sentence lead-in to Technique #2

NAME OF PSYCHLOGICAL TECHNIQUE #1?Description of what the technique is. How it works and its effects on the consumer. Give a brief example of how a company would use it, e.g.: ?If WidgetCo wants to influence consumers to prefer their product over the competition, here?s how they?d use this technique?.?.

One sentence lead-in to Technique #3

NAME OF PSYCHLOGICAL TECHNIQUE #1?Description of what the technique is. How it works and its effects on the consumer. Give a brief example of how a company would use it, e.g.: ?If WidgetCo wants to influence consumers to prefer their product over the competition, here?s how they?d use this technique?.?.

And so on, for the rest of the report.

Each technique should cite the authority/psychologist/researcher/book who developed/researched it, and any dates associated with the experiment(s), if this info is provided in the reference material provided. In other words, emphasis should be to back up these psychological concepts with credible reference citations. Citations should be worked into the body of the text, not written as footnotes.

No recap is needed at the end of the report. All that is needed is the intro, as described, and the list of psychological concepts and how they are used in advertising, also as described, along with citations. The report should simply end with the last technique.

The reference material provided should be sufficient. The researcher simply needs to cull the applicable principles from the material, and present them in the format described. The goal is to cull as many techniques as possible from the reference material that will fit in the report.

Again, this is not a CRITICAL report, and there should be no judgment as to morality, legality, or ethics.

It should be written in an easy-reading, instructional, how-to style?non academic!? pithy? in the manner of a consumer magazine, but not be ?chatty?, but direct and to the point. The goal is to actually TEACH the reader how to APPLY the techniques to their own business advertising.

IMPORTANT: By accepting this custom-writing assignment, Essay Town, its affiliates, representatives, and heirs, agree not to sell, trade, give away, display as a sample, or otherwise make the writing completed for this assignment available for viewing at any time, in whole or part, to any party other than Drew E. Whitman, for any reason whatsoever. Drew E. Whitman shall own all rights to the completed work. IF THIS IS NOT ACCEPTABLE, CONTACT DREW IMMEDIATELY AT: [email protected]. NON-ACCEPTANCE OF THIS AGREEMENT SHALL DECLARE THE ORDER FOR THIS CUSTOM WRITING ASSIGNMENT NULL AND VOID WITH FULL REFUND OF THE WRITING FEE DUE.

Research Brocade Communications System, Inc. as a publicly traded company and then download the annual report for the most recent year reported for use in this assignment.

1. Analyze the companys mission and vision statements against the performance of the organization. Then, evaluate how well the company lives out its mission and vision statement. Provide support from the organizations performance in your evaluation.
2. Assess how the organizations strategic goals link to the companys mission and vision.
3. Analyze the companys financial performance to determine the link between the companys strategic goals, strategy, and its financial performance. Detail your findings.
4. Conduct a competitive and marketing analysis of the organization to determine strengths and opportunities.
5. Apply the appropriate strategy (low cost, differentiation, or niche) that will maximize the organizations return to shareholders. Provide a detailed rationale for the reason you chose this strategy and state the expected outcome(s).
6. Create a detailed scenario in which a merger or acquisition would be a viable strategy to implement. Consider who the merger or acquisition would involve, the market conditions making it a good choice, and the type of strategy that would make it a success.
7. If you were a leader in this organization, determine the appropriate rewards that would best motivate employees toward achieving the desired strategy. Review the financial performance of the company to ensure the rewards are appropriate. Justify your selection.
8. Evaluate how the companys current strategy supports or discourages ethical business behaviors (or perhaps both). Discuss how you arrived at your assessment.

Please answer each question in section individually with inline citation and list references.

Section 1
Corporate Ethics Tactics
1. Operating a business in an ethical manner takes time, effort and commitment. What are the key elements to a company having successful organizational ethics? What can we do as managers to encourage ethical behavior and to raise ethical standards in our organizations?

2. Examine how we (as an organization), go about developing a code of ethics. Who or what are the major influences?

3. Answer with Rebuttal Pro or Con
Developing a code of ethics is extremely important in any type of business or association. The reason for having a cod of ethics or code of conduct that is followed by everyone is so there are set guidelines of appropriate and inappropriate actives or actions in the workplace. This is used to ensure that there isn't harassment, fraudulent actives or anything that could negatively impact other workers experience or the business activities. Major influences of this in my opinion comes from top level management so that they protect their company and its workers and keep everyone on the right path and do everything by the book.

Application of Ethical Decision Making

In Chapter 3 of the Business ethics text, select one of the following:
Reading 3-1, pages 125-130, ?Business and Human Rights?; or, Reading 3-2, pages 130-131, ?The Caux principles for Responsible Business?; or, Reading 3-4, pages 137-142 ?It Seems Right in Theory but?? Suppose that an organization (yours or one that you have researched) called upon you to develop a position for the organization on the issue you have chosen.
What arguments would you raise in order to defend your position? At least one citation to each of the Rhode text and the Hartman text is required.
Carmeli and Sheaffer (2009) should be consulted and cited.
Stevens (2008) discusses ethical codes as effective isruments for influencing behavior.
References must be listed according to APA format.
1. Textbooks
Hartman, L. P., DesJardins, J. R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Preface: Why a Decision Model?
Chapter 3: Philosophical Ethics and Business
Rhode, D. L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral leadership: The theory and practice of power, judgment, and policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 0787982822
Chapter 1: Making Sense of Moral Meltdowns
Chapter 2: Three Practical Challenges of Moral Leadership
Chapter 3: Ethical Judgment and Moral Leadership
2. Articles
Carmeli, A., Sheaffer, Z. (2009). How leadership characteristics affect organizational decline and downsizing. Journal of business Ethics, 86(3), 363-378. (Document ID: 1701752801).
Morrison, J. (2010). Responsibility, ethics and legitimacy of corporations. Journal of Education for Business, 85(5), 307-309. (Document ID: 2117219231).
Stevens, B. (2008). Corporate ethical codes: Effective instruments for influencing behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 601-609. (Document ID: 1441916531).

Recommended Readings
1. Articles
Fang, Miao-Ling (2006). Evaluating decision-making of individual employees in organizations-An integration framework. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 8(2), 105-113. (Document ID: 957238951).
Kelman, S. (2006). Downsizing, competition, and organizational change in government: Is necessity the mother of invention? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(4), 875. (Document ID: 1152546651).
Marks, M. L. (2007). A framework for facilitating adaptation to organizational transition. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 20(5), 721-739. (Document ID: 1369356871).

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