Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, Wendy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in biotechnology: xenotransplantation as a case study in consent.
Health Law Journal. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:106026703&num=5&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH
This source discusses the benefits to individuals verses the risks to the general population of genetic engineering.
This article references 104 authors.
Cohen, Jane Maslow. (2001, May 01). Genophobia: what is wrong with genetic discrimination? University of Pennsylvania Law Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library...
It includes 104 references.
Dyer, Nicole. (2002, February 01). Superfood or double trouble? Genetically modified foods cook up a sizzling debate. Scholastic Choices. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:83040653&num=4&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH
This article discusses the pros and cons of genetically altered foods and crops.
Snider, O. Sue. (2005, June 01). Health professionals hold positive attitudes toward biotechnology and genetically engineered foods.
Journal of Environmental Health. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:133276616&num=15&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH
This source discusses the controversy over genetic manipulation of food through genetic engineering. This study surveyed the attitudes, and beliefs of physicians, nurse practitioners, and registered dietitians toward food biotechnology and genetic engineering. The article cites roughly thirty sources.
Tobey, Daniel L. (2003, January 01). What's really wrong with genetic enhancement: a second look at your posthuman future.
Yale Journal of Law & Technology. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:116289438&num=2&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH
This article presents a lengthy case against genetic enhancement, and particularly refererences Francis Fukuyama's work, "Our Posthuman Future." The article lists 167 cited sources.
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
Genetic Testing Prenatal diagnosis serves a variety of purposes and I believe in its fundamental purpose it is good. In some cases, prenatal genetic testing can lead to timely medical intervention to mitigate or eliminate disease such as with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or a-thalassemia. In some cases, prenatal diagnosis reveals a lethal condition, such as anencephaly, trisomy 13, or trisomy 18. The choice to do genetic testing in the beginning is
" The Ecumenical Review, 54. Kneen looks at agricultural genetic engineering and takes the view that because agricultural genetic engineering may help solve food shortage problems as well as enhance the environment, such activities should be looked at positively. Kneen puts good arguments together to make his points, but also writes from a biased viewpoint, so his article should be used in conjunction with other writers who are not quite so
Consider the use of genetic modification, for example, to modify genes not for life-saving procedures but for aesthetic changes. Remember that when one alters the DNA of a human being, even for a supposedly benign but necessary fashion, like making a short child taller, this DNA will be passed down to future generations of that child. This calls into question the ownership of the child's DNA. (Bereano, 1995) Modifying a
Brent Waters, in discussing the ethical debate of stem cells and how scientists retrieve them, considers the most important aspect of the argument is not doing the research but how cells are obtained. He draws a distinct line between sacrificing human tissue to save human being but that an embryo is more than human tissue. If the embryo is a fellow human being, "we should not kill one person
Organic Food Today's world is becoming increasingly more complex and fast-paced, which has caused many people to adopt a catch-as-catch-can attitude towards their food. We have become accustomed to receiving things instantly, hence the popularity of fast food restaurants, and we have also become accustomed to receiving larger portions of food. Food today is more processed, refined, pre-packaged, and instantly available than it ever has been at any time in
Cloning has become a very contentious subject. The issue of cloning has moved from the scientific arena into the cultural, religious and ethical centers of debate, for good reasons. The scientific implications of cloning affects a wide range of social and ethical concerns. The theory of cloning questions many essential areas of ethical and philosophical concern about what human life is and raises the question whether we have the right