e. part-time or full time special classes or alternative day schools. (Crowell, et al., 2005)
VII. Various Strategies Required in Meeting Needs of All Students
The work of Parker (2009) entitled "Inclusion Strategies in the Visual Arts Classroom" states that all educators "…need to be aware of different strategies that can be used to meet the needs of all students. Depending on the disability, teachers can apply these strategies in their classrooms and instruction, no matter the subject area."
Parker goes on to state that educators must be aware of the following facts concerning the various types of disorders of special needs students: (1) auditory processing disorders; (2) visual processing disorders; (3) Organizational skills; and (4) social and behavioral skills. (Parker, 2009)
The work of Juncaj, Knapp, and Smith (2009) entitled "Inclusion of Special Education Students in the General Education Setting" states that those who support the inclusion movement suggest that "as regular and special education faculty work together, their work raises expectations for students with disabilities as well as student self-esteem and sense of belonging."
VIII. The Voice of Experience
The work of Sharman Word Dennis, an educator of forty years having began in 1968 states of inclusion as follows:
"In my work as an educational advocate, I observe the children who are "included" in the general education classroom. What I see as an advocate and educator is a child who is sitting in a general education classroom with 29 other children but the child is isolated. This child usually has a dedicated aide, a person sometimes trained, sometimes untrained. This aide is to work only with that one child. The result is that the child is often working one on one with the dedicated aide. The "dedicated" aide is often not helping to include the child in the activities of the classroom or the exchanges that occur between children in that class. There is often little or no communication between the general education classroom teacher, special education teacher and therapist. Therefore, the support to the child is often in isolation and therefore...
Schools are meeting the letter of the law but not the spirit of the law. Children are included yet isolated at the same time." (Dennis, 2010)
The work of Perles (2010) entitled "Inclusion for Special Education Students: Advantages and Benefits" states that there are advantages of inclusion which includes that "students with disabilities can be integrated socially with their peers…create long-lasting friendships…" with peers acting as role models for social skills." (Perles, 2010) Perles (2010) additionally states that "In a broader sense, students who are taught in an inclusion setting are more likely to build a society that is accepting of differences and able to respect people from diverse backgrounds." (Perles, 2010) Perles concludes by cautioning that it is important that the advantages of inclusion "…be weighed carefully against the possible disadvantages in specific situations." (2010)
Summary of Literature Reviewed
The literature reviewed in this study has informed this study that mainstreaming has both positive and negative affects on students with disabilities and their interaction with peers in the classroom. There is a need for additional study related to mainstreaming and the outcomes of students both in terms of learning and interaction with their peers.
Crowell, Amanda, et al. (2005) Special Education: Inclusion vs. Exclusion. Scott County High School. Online available at: www.otis.coe.uky.edu/.../getfile.php?...MICfinalgroupprojectspecialeducation.
Dennis, Sharman Word (2010) Inclusion and Mainstreaming -- They Should Work, but Do They? Internet Special Education Resources. Online available at: http://www.iser.com/resources/21st-sped.html
Juncaj, Blair, Knapp, Allison, and Smith, Kristen (2009) Inclusion of Special Education Students in the General Education Setting. 9 Apr 2009. Online available at: http://www.drchrustowski.com/InclusionPaper2009.pdf
Katz, Jennifer and Mirenda, Pat (2002) Including Students with Developmental Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Educational Benefits. International Journal of Special Education. Vol. 17, No. 2. 2002.
Perles, Keren (2010) Inclusion for Special Education Students: Advantages and Benefits. 14 Jun 2010. Online Bright Hub available at: http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles/66128.aspx
Qualls, Terra (2007) Mainstreaming…
There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review. Background and Overview. The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that
The academic and behavioral challenges presented by students with EBD affect the nature of their interactions with their teachers. Aggressive behavior patterns increase the likelihood that children will develop negative relationships with their teachers. Indeed, problematic relationships in kindergarten between students with behavior problems and teachers are associated with academic and behavioral problems through eighth grade. Henricsson and Rydell (2004) report that poor teacher -- student relationships tend to be
Of course, this study was conducted twenty years ago, and the inclusion movement has advanced considerably. Today, students are actually integrated into the classroom and also have the assistance of special education teachers present in the mainstream classroom. They also are more inclined to experience full inclusion instead of partial inclusion. Tarver-Behring, Spagna & Sullivan (1998) define full inclusion as "the existence of only one unified educational system from the
Inclusion on Autistic Children The inclusion of autistic children raises some important questions concerning the effects of inclusion, not only on the autistic child, but also on the entire classroom. Children with autistic spectrum disorders ranging from Kanners syndrome to Ausbergers Syndrome sometimes find external stimulation to be excruciating. We must then question the logic of placing them in an environment where their bodies must constantly result to the defensive
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died. Widowhood can