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This is the brief I had sent my teacher about my dissertation. I had also sent him a 1000 word draft which shall be part of the theory section of my dissertation. I shall attach this draft in the sources. My teacher made comments about the draft and the dissertation on the draft itself which you shall find at the end of it. Please read that carefully.

Brief as given to my teacher:
As regards the dissertation proper, I shall by discussing the focus on the English Premier League in India and its growing popularity (Shall have figures to back it up). I shall then go on to talk a bit about the history of football in India and the difference in football and cricket in the public imagination. The overall attempt will be to understand the representation of the EPL in India- not so much why it has become popular but rather who and what is behind this sudden growth and what is English football represented and thereby seen as in India today. An obvious comparison with the Indian local league can be made but I shall try and keep it to a minimum. (Is that what should be done?) I shall aim to discuss this topic through two trends-namely fans and media commentaries.

While talking about fans I shall focus on who chooses to get involved and how they do it. Here the points of class, race and gender shall come up. Are football fans in India using the sport for complex social purposes of their own. Has football become an aspirational symbol? (I would like to bring in branding and marketing here?)
Media commentaries: The notion of articulation (I have touched upon it in the draft) comes up here. Points that will come up in this segment will include the differences in the coverage between print and television as well as between hindi & english language media. These distinctions are important as they paint different pictures of the EPL and the local league. Here I shall bring up why i shall mainly talk about newspapers. The contribution of the media in changing the image of football and making it aspirational shall also come up. This is a major link with the section on fans. Here the class point is brought up again. Also important is how the readers of the papers are positioned by those writing the stories? There is an overlap here between real and imagined audiences.

I also wanted to bring up the Indian participation in the EPL (ownership, players..) raise the question if India is a global player now? Are Indians using the EPL to make a statement to the world....bring it up as a hypothesis.

In terms of sources, I will be using newspaper articles and editorials (The Times of India for one and I am yet to narrow down the others) I am also in conversation with a sports journalist friend of mine and shall be using what he says in the bit specifically of how the newspaper imagines its readers. I shall transcribe any conversations. For the bit on fans I am using fan sites and blogs. Also youtube videos for the tribute videos and other personal involvement that fans have with their teams. I can talk to a few people who are ardent EPL supporters but am not sure if its a good idea.

1000 word draft: To be attached

Comments by teacher: at the end of the draft. He has asked me to refer to a essay of his which i shall also upload.

As I am currently indisposed I need your help with the whole dissertation including research. The newspaper articles, tv clips and opinions can be found online. Any interviews that I can do I shall send to you. Please get started on this asap and I need it of the utmost quality!!!
There are faxes for this order.

Historical bachground
Demographics- size and age distribution of population, class structure, racial/ethnic groups, languages, religion, education
Political System- type pf government, major political parties, degree of free elections, relations w/neighbors and US, current and past conflicts
Economy- type, major productions, distribution of wealth, dependence on loans, debt, labor relations, amount of poverty
Human rights- status on international scale, types of abuses, who are victims, to what degree does US turn a lind eye on abuses
Environment- natural resources, pollution, level of environmental destruction

Online Portfolio

I need a creative writer that will "brand" my image. This will be for a weebly website.
Four sections:
Cover Letter
-One page cover letter, I want my cover letter to say I will be a recent graduate in May 2014 my interests are in Marketing and Human resources. My degree in Corporate communication will help me to succeed because ... and my time in the army has shaped me into a good candidate. talk about hard work ethic, leadership, detail oriented, and why you should choose me to work for your company in HR(the skills I have from a Corporate Communication degree), and because of leadership, fresh mind, and creativity.
&&&&&& if you an somehow fit in why my work in diversity has shaped me to be a beneficial part to marketing and HR in the future.
I am very busy with ROTC and my major. i have balanced it from freshman year to now.
*****Has to include why I am suitable for a management position

Career Experience
2 and a half pages between:
1what my brand is and who exactly i am and what I bring to the company.
2J and L Marketing and what i do as a Promotion Coordinator ( i get to work with BMW, Audi Mercedes, and patience in customer service)
*High responsibility and independent
*Customer service based
3-on life as a cadet (Cadet Company Commander next semester and in May Commissioning into the Adjutant General branch-- HR branch---why hire army hr)
4- on diversity and what it means to me! What I learned from my meaningful ARMY CULP Vietnam as an ESL teacher, work with multicultural mentoring at school, what the work means to me(working with students one-on-one to build confidence)
5Lastly why hire corporate communication major

Half a Page worth of direct quotes:
I will need four direct quotes about how great:
*RECENT SOURCES 2010 or Newer- But no block quotes 3 sentences or less for each point lister here.
1)RMU students are in the workplace/the RMU education and how happy employers are to have them/ Why you should hire RMU
2)Why you should hire Army veterans
3)A Quote about Promotion Coordinators and the customer experience with them/what young marketing professionals bring to the table
4) Quote about why diversity is good in the work place

i will use these as side quotes within each tab

this is my bio

Veronica Guilyard was born in John Hopkins Hospital March 6, 1992. She was born a month early and fought jaundice. Even as a baby, Veronica was a determined little girl. When she was ten years old she almost lost her father to diabetes. This tragic event challenged her family to become more active. Her love for her family has driven her to love fitness. Now at college, Veronica is a Corporate Communication major and ROTC cadet. Veronica is still that small determined little girl who shares her love for fitness teaching spin class. In the army, she has had the opportunity to represent the United States as an ambassador in Vietnam. Veronica was one of twenty-four cadets to help rebuild the first relations with the Vietnamese since the Vietnam War. She taught the Vietnamese officers English in their capitol, Ha Noi. From her new experiences she developed a love for global public relation and diversity. Since her trip to Vietnam she has become more involved in marketing and multicultural activities. The experience has inspired her to move forward in multicultural awareness. Veronica?s favorite word is ?diversity.? She was chosen by the President of Robert Morris to sit on the search committee for Robert Morris? very first Chief of Diversity and Inclusion Officer. She aspires to work a duel life in multicultural affairs as well as marketing and promotion.

A Corporate Communication student and cadet commissioning in May 2014 with creativity, valuable coursework, and well-rounded work experience seeking a position in human resources.
Robert Morris University
Bachelor of Arts in Corporate Communication Expected 2014
Coraopolis, PA GPA: 3.6
University of Pittsburgh
Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Commission May 2014
Project Experience
RMU?s 1st Amazing Race Event Planning Fall 2013
? Coordinated directly with Make-A-Wish.
? Supervised the largest Make-A-Wish Event in RMU History.
Advertising and Communications Strategies Spring 2012
Marketing and PR Campaign Coordinator for American Natural Gas Association
? Conducted weekly meetings with research, campaign development and implementation, public relations
? Reported Progress weekly to American Natural Gas Association and Edventure Partners
Professional Experience
J and L Marketing Promotion Coordinator September 2012 to Present
? Work independently as a contractor
? Conduct sales meetings
United States Army April 2009 to Present
Cadet (4-year ROTC Scholarship)
? Detail-oriented
? Work effectively in teams during weekly PT, weekly Leadership Labs, and weekly 3 credit course
Army ROTC Culture and Language Program Summer 2012 Ambassador in Vietnam
? Selected to represent the United States Army
? Conducted English training as an English second language professor
Robert Morris University Multi-cultural Mentor February 2012 to Present
? Received Multicultural Mentor of the year 2012
? Duties include: peer-counseling, help foreign student emerge into American culture, prevent/alleviate students from feeling overwhelmed
RMU School of Business Social Media Student Coordinator February to June 2013
? Responsible for Robert Morris University school of business public image
? Management of all school of business Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, BlogSpot, and other social media
Robert Morris University Diversity & Inclusion Student Representative in 2012
? Nominated to represent Robert Morris Student body to all 90+ candidates.
? Assist in hiring new executive position at Robert Morris

Economics Country Analysis

I. Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Country Overview
Research and write an overview/introduction of your country including the following information/data below. I recommend you start by searching NYT + your country, Guardian + your country, Economist + your country.
(You may include additional information and a comparison of the U.S. The information below does not have to be in this order. Do not include Roman Numerals or letters; use headers instead.)
A. Very brief political and historic history. (Was it a former colony? A former Soviet-bloc country?)
B. Political System: Type of government such as democratic, dictatorship, etc., name of President and/or Prime Minister and how long in the position.
C. Economic System: Free market, Socialist, or Communist? What is the degree of government oversight and regulation? Are there public (government) run industries? How much does the government intervene in the economy?
D. Is the country considered a developed or developing country? Emerging economy? Former Soviet bloc country?
E. Size of economy in 2012 (or latest year available) in U.S. dollars.*
F. Population and size of labor force.
G. Primary language (if other than English); percent of English speakers; religion.
H. Average educational attainment (i.e. primary, second, college, etc.)
I. Distribution of family income - Gini Index (ratio)
J. Natural resources
K. Major industries (agriculture, manufacturing, and/or services such as tourism)
L. The impact of the global recession (2007-2013) on each country. Has the country?s economy recovered?

Current News
Search websites mentioned above and also the country?s newspapers and magazines.
II. Macroeconomic Analysis: Create Tables and Graphs of Data and then Analyze the Data
Macroeconomic data will be presented in graph, table, and chart format (as appropriate). Figures are to be numbered, with titles and years of data presented. Source of data is to be presented beneath the figure. Include a minimum number of graphs (5) that you created yourself in Excel, Power Point, or Word.
All data should be time series: 2001-2012 (or most current available).
Label and show units, axes, data values and data labels. Number all figures: (Figure 1: Title). Bottom line: Your analysis must be substantiated with data. You may use Power Point, Excel, or Word for tables, charts, and graphs to create these. Insert tables, charts, and graphs into the Word document. No bullets points: Write in complete sentences. (A) Economic Measures below is required, but you should be creative in including additional data that is relevant. For example, if your country is an African country such as S. Africa, you should look at poverty rates and cases of HIV/AIDS, percent of whites and percent of blacks and the difference in education and employment/unemployment between the two groups.
A. Economic Measures: The main factors to consider are:
1. Percent change in Real Gross Domestic Product (economic growth/contraction);
2. Percent change in Consumer Price Index (inflation/deflation); and
3. Unemployment rate (percent of labor force unemployed).
B. Budget Measures
C. International Trade Measures

III. Works Cited
Explain in 2-5 sentences why you chose the articles and websites under each citation and how you used
them in your analysis.

(MLA Format (See
? Format: The report should be typed in MS Word.
? Font: Palatino Linotype, 11-point font, single-spaced.
? Cover Page: Student Name, Name of Country Analysis, ECON 1101- 702, SP 2014.
? Include page numbers on each page (excluding cover page)

This paper will be graded on the following criteria:
(1) organization of paper and instructions outlined in this document
(2) quality and completeness of the analysis,
(3) quality and accuracy of the data collection efforts,
(4) overall quality of the presentation (appearance of text and tables, orderliness, etc.), and
(5) quality (grammar, spelling, clarity, etc.) of the writing effort. A paper with many grammar, spelling, and typing errors will get, at most, a "D" grade, regardless of the content. I strongly recommend that all students have their papers read by other people.

Please read and follow the instructions carefully. Also, provide a bibliography and a reference sheet.

The brief should be related to a Canadian issue. Issues can be homelessness, drugs, transportation, or even Canadian Foreign policy etc. Can the writer be kind enough to provide the specific policy brief topic he or she has chosen to complete this assignment.

The issue brief is short, neutral summary of what is known about a particular issue or problem. It is widely used in government and industry. A policy issue brief is about a public problem, one that may or already does affect, or is affected by, government. Analysts prepare such briefs for educated generalists (e.g.,) legislators, managers), who may know little of nothing about the topic, but need to have a general background, quickly.
The Brief needs to consist of clarity, conciseness, accuracy, relevance, writing style, organization, citation style, and strategic assessment of the issue.

Furthermore, the brief addresses: the major challenges, Puts forward practical solutions for each challenge, each recommendation is strategic and substantive, the submission is well organized along with ideas presented.
The policy or issue brief synthesizes a large amount of complex detail, so the reader can easily understand the heart of the issue, its background, the players (stakeholders) any recommendations, or even educated guesses about the future of the issue. It may have tables and graphs; it usually has a short list of references, so the reader knows something about the sources on which it is based, and where to go for more information. Often, the brief has its own brief, which is a one page executive summary that allows the reader to quickly grasp the essence of the report. Sometimes the executive summary is the only page a very busy deputy Minister or Minister has time to read.

Target Audience: Your target audience and the recipient of the brief is the Minister of another political person in charge of the chosen organization. You should identify who your target audience is on the title page.

Format: The following sections are typically included in a brief: executive summary, introduction, the policy/issues history/background, importance and context of problem, stakeholder analysis, analysis of the problem, fiscal implications, legislative requirements, proposed or possible solutions or options to consider, and recommendations for action.
- The executive summary should be no more than on page
- You may use bullets but make sure each bullet is clear to the reader. Do not leave the reader guessing to the meaning of your bullet.
- You may use subheadings.
- Clear, concise, and correct writing is essential.
- The level of writing should be geared toward someone who is intelligent but does not have specialized expertise. Concepts should be explained in simple language and avoid using jargon.
- You should have an executive summary. The executive summary should not be longer than one page
- Citation of sources is REQUIRED with page numbers. Please provide a references section that includes at least 5 sources ( this does not count as a page, in other words this is not page 1)
- The Bibliography is in addition to the eight page requirement


Issue: A clear statement of the public policy issue (in one or two sentences). It should succinctly state what the problem is in plausible terms and embody an easily understood solution.

Background: Definition of the public policy issue, identification of major historical and current indicators, why and how did this happen? Is this a problem that can be solved and who should solve it?

Consultation: Who was consulted in the preparation of this policy brief? Why? Identity the major groups, their basic positions and existing and potential conflicts. Include the results of significant studies regarding this issue and recent newspaper and/or editorial comment on the issue.

Options: An identification of three, or more, approaches, one of which could include doing nothing. A brief summary of the implications for implementing each option should be presented.

Implications: What are the implications of doing nothing or implementing a new initiative? Are the implications different, or more pronounced for one group over another. Consider implications in the following areas (where applicable): sustainable development; political; social; regional or local, federal and international; other government agencies

Recommended options: An identification of the recommended option and why.

Fiscal Implications: Are there fiscal requirements for this recommendation? If so, how much? This fiscal year? Subsequent fiscal years? Has the Ministry of Finance been consulted? Where will the money come from to fund this initiative? Will this be new money or a reallocation of existing funds? Can funds be levered from other sources?

Legislative Requirements- Identification of relevant regulatory organizations ( if applicable) and relevant legislation, current policies, etc. Will the recommendation that will resolve this issue involve legislation or regulatory change?

Please remember that in policy or issue writing, the goal is not to be exhausting or overly-idealistic or theoretical, but realistic, practical, concise, persuasive, balanced, and applied. The goal is to present doable options that might lead to action or change in strategy on the issue or problem you are addressing.

Links to assist you:

Thank you

Analyze the policy implications in the legal field of the H-1B visa problem and solutions (looking at Bill Gates proposal for how to remedy the H-1B shortage found at

Ways to do this include discussing the act that created the H-1B visa program in more depth, discussing the congressional history of the H-1B visa program and proposed solutions, and analyzing the H-1B visa issue in the context of the policies underlying immigration law and/or administrative law. For example, the author should include the language, or the main points, of the act that created the H-1B visa program and discuss whether the way the program is currently administered does or does not jive with the act.

Another example is that, even though the congressional history may indicate that the H-1B cap is an arbitrary number, the author may describe this circumstance and then discuss why it doesnt further the policies of immigration and/or administrative law. The author can then reincorporate these policies when discussing the Bill Gates solution by analyzing how the solutions uphold these legal policies better than setting arbitrary caps.

After any source, whether a direct quote or just an idea from a source, please include in parenthesis directly after the author name and page number in source where the assertion/ quote can be found.

Comparative focus across more than one Southeast Asian national literature. Do a close reading of Tai History and Philippine history, Such a close reading will require that they argue for a particular reading of this chosen object of study and show how it reflects, articulates. Write a focused, cohesive essay on a sustained and well-supported argument. To support your arguments, students should place particular emphasis on the uses of history, language and imagery. This assignment will allow you to synthesize what you have learned thus far into a comprehensive argument about a specific topic, moving between the reading skills you have acquired and the kinds of persuasive writing strategies you want to develop, and using them to make larger connections and draw more important and significant conclusions which support your central claim.

Please use the following and summarize the major points of the Article

The Avalon Project at Yale Law School

Washington's Farewell Address 1796

Friends and Citizens:

The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made.

I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both.

The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea.

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire.

The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.

In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people. These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion.

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole.

The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted. The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.

While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other.

These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal. We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands.

In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured ? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens?

To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests.

However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.

Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property.

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally.

This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy.

The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty.

Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.

It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another.

There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume.

It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at any time yield.

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.

It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric?

Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate.

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it 7 It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices?

In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim.

So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification. It leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation.

As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils 7 Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter.

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests.

The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel.

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice?

It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.

Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated.

How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them.

In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it.

After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness.

The considerations which respect the right to hold this con duct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all.

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations.

The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers.

Geo. Washington.

18th Century Page Washington's Papers Avalon Home Page

1996 The Avalon Project.
The Avalon Project : Washington's Farewell Address 1796 was last modified on: 05/21/2007 16:49:21

Assassination (killing of leaders in wartime apart) is like terrorism, in that it is a loaded, and neither satisfactorily defined nor construed term. In plain language, assassination is unlawful killing with intent, and legally speaking, it is murder. Murder is forbidden by the great monotheistic religions, most teachings of which have passed through morality and theology, and eventually manifested as national and international law. Assassination (or murder, depending on the choice of words) is irreconcilable with religion, morality, law, and democracy. Yet, Statesmen resort, from time to time, to ordering assassinations. Analyse and present a solution to this age old dilemma. Reason your arguments.

Title: Moral, Legal, Political and Practical Dimensions of Assassination. Cite examples.

Objectives: This Assignment, in accordance with Undergraduate academic endeavours, provides an opportunity to sharpen and evaluate Students academic self-discipline, research & analysis skills, on the topics of Intelligence and Assassination. The Assignment is driven and tested by self-led research, within and outside of the course materials, which is then analysed and presented in a paper.

Type: This Assignment consists of a paper on the topic of Assassination. Based on your required reading so far, course materials and self-led external research, produce a research-analysis paper.

Title: Moral, Legal, Political and Practical Dimensions of Assassination. Cite examples.

Format: This Assignment requires 10 to 12 pages (approx. 6000 to 7200 words*) plus a title page. Format: font: Ariel size 10 or Times New Roman size 12. SINGLE LINE SPACING. Page size: US letter size or A4. MS Word document. Paper layout: portrait or landscape as required. Title Page required to show Students name and number, Assignment title, and course number. Papers may be illustrated with graphics, title and sources cited, additional to the 10 to 12 pages of text. Since this is not prose or straight text, but research-analysis, Students must use paragraph headings to portray substantial changes in subject / topic, to mark significant transitions between topics.
*A page of text is about 600 words, so a 10 page (the minimum) paper amounts to about 6000 words. Check the word count in your paper by going (when the paper is open in MS Word) to File, Properties, and Statistics.

Course Value: This Examination counts for 30% of your APUS Final Course Grade.

Research: Students must lead their own research. They may research for any material, but are advised to seek at least two confirming sources, in cases of doubt or question.
Short of collaboration, you are highly encouraged to use initiative in your research and that includes contact with Libraries, Media, Police, Military, Language, Medical and other sources as you see fit. The answers to all Examination questions are in the public domain.

Citation of Information Sources:
For those students who are not entirely certain as to how to cite their information sources, or which method they wish to use, I recommend the Turabian method. A very short simple explanation / examples appear at:

Papers not properly citing and linking sources precisely to text will be returned for amendment.

It is mandatory to list your research information sources (books, journals, articles, websites, tv / radio / video presentations etc) according to proper source citation practices:

Do not cite Wikipedia, or other unreliable websites that are clearly not reviewed for content or accuracy.

CAVEAT: The information cited in your paper must be in the public domain, with no exceptions.

Culture has been referred to as the silent language of overseas business. Discuss how the languages of time, space, things, friendship, and agreements influence negotiating styles in multinational and global markets.

This essay will focus on the Asian ESL students(college and high school), and their struggle to adapt to the American way of learning. The paper will discuss the issues Asian students face:
- difference in culture/family value;
- difference in teacher-student roles;
- difference of respect for instructor/tutor authority;
- difference in language/grammer;
- difference in pop culutre;
- how do these factors affect Asian ESL students?
- what are some of the ways American schools/instructors to lessen the burden of the transition?

The format of the paper should be informative, but not a typical "research paper".

Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang: An

please follow the outline for most content. Major focus on Sino-XInjiang relation after 1990s. This is a term paper to apply IR theory into hot discussed topic.
Literature review (400 words):
a)What is security dilemma? (Realist opinion, roughly mention,)
b)What is internal security dilemma? Apply it into Xinjiang case(Development of security dilemma, apply it into ethnic conflict within state, such as Barry Posen, Paul Roe, etc)

How does the internal security dilemma work in Xinjiangs issue? (2400-2600 words)
1) Chinas security concern: sovereign, military, and societal (China feel weak and unsecure in these three aspects), here in Xinjiang issue, major societal security vs identity (200-400 words)

2) How policies, migration, cultural influences strengthen the Party-state position in Xinjiang generate greater societal insecurity to Uyghur.-->1400-1600 words
a) Xinjiang policy: strict hard policy, no true autonomy, and assimilation to Han Chinese. Political and economic disparities
b) Migration of Han Chinese: Bingtuan
c) Cultural: education only in mandarin, get rid of ethnic language
e) Religious repression of Uighur Muslims
f) Environmental degradation and water scarcity
Result: Xinjiang identity feel threated, disparity between Han and ethnic Uyghur

3) Position and strategies that the Uyghur have used to address their societal insecurity (600-800)
A) Internationalization: attract to international attention: the most important strategy. How Xinjiang issue affects international relationship? (China- Central Asia, China-US)
B) Passive reliance/Protest, riot, violence
C) Law: UN human right, right of self-determination
D) History: Xinjiang only became to part of China after 1950s.

4) How these identity security measures heighten the Chinese political military and societal security concerns, thus complete the cycle of security dilemma? (600-800)
a) Stability first policy always
b) Post-911 anti-terrorism /Shanghai Cooperation Organization/War on Terror: Many Uighurs view the Chinese as colonizers, and this is bound to lead to further armed insurgency
c) International relation: internal event, no interference
d) The Xinjiang Military Region, and not the Nanjing Military District, has now become the premier information warfare test center for the PLA.

5) Can security dilemma be solved? Options for future Xinjiang (400-600)
a) Independent or China Win? Independent is impossible: Xinjiang plays important role in geopolitical security and energy security to China.
b) Real autonomy/power sharing: SAR like HK? Unlikely
c) Adjust ethnic policy: easing policy? Probably the best to loose ethnic conflicts.

need footnote and 30 citations.

Turkey Textiles Turkey Is a

This is a research project about Turkey for INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS class.. Do this research considering only Turkey. While considering the business part focus on the textile & fabric side of turkey. While explaining the labor and everything consider it. The main point of the research is that business(textile) so you dont have to go over the other businesses while considering international business. However you should also state that since Turkey surrounded by 3 seas, there are so many business are involved internationally. It is very important country for trading etc etc. You can state them but dont go very deep into those as much as you go in the use of fabric and textile.
Answer every question below. Make sure you make it really clear. I will do a presentation of this research + I also need the paper but you can write the essay part by part assuming that you are doing a presentation.
While considering the business part focus on the textile & fabric side of turkey. While explaining the labor and everything consider it.
Do not use Wikipedia as a source. Make citations and put url to every webpage that you used. Do not use books as a source. I put 9 sources but use more if needed.
Please make sure you are clear and since my English is my second language do not use difficult words.

+If you can, you can also talk a little bit about Chobani brand of yogurt, which is actually Turkish brand with Turkish owner but sells yogurts by saying a greek yogurt. You can talk about that and explaining why the owner wanted to say greek instead of Turkish.

Develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts of international business.
e. Determine the impact of geography on international business to include areas such as climate, time zones, distance, topography, and social, economic, and natural resources.
f. Explain the role of international business at local, regional, and national levels citing examples at each level and how each level affects the world economy.
g. Analyze the potential impact (on a community, region, state, and country in which it is located) of a domestic company involving itself in international trade opportunities.
Analyze various factors and influences affecting the international business environment.
a. Identify international cultural differences in food, dress, language, gift-giving, social behaviors, and major holidays of various cultures and discuss how they are celebrated as well as their impact on the business community.
c. Identify and differentiate between types of governments and political environments and determine the impact of the government on international business through the use of barriers, tariffs, quotas, and taxation policies.
f. Define terms such as GDP (GNP), balance of trade, foreign debt, and cost of living...etc.
g. Analyze the availability of resources (natural, human, and capital) in a country and the economic potential of the country to improve its quality of life by engaging in international trade.
h. Identify the economic systems used to decide what to produce, how it is produced, and for whom it is produced in a country.

Determine characteristics of various organizational structures in the international business environment.
b. Determine social and cultural influences on the form of business ownership used or required in different countries.

Determine the importance of market research, product development and pricing strategies in successful international marketing strategies.
b. Identify characteristics of international consumer markets and commercial markets including social, cultural, and political factors that would affect international marketing.
c. Explain how the marketing research process, including secondary data and primary data collection, differs in an international application.
d. Create a data collection survey instrument for an international marketing research study based on knowledge of social and cultural factors in a specific foreign market.

Unit Understandings, Themes, and Concepts:
Understand the cultural, geographic, economic and governmental differences in various countries and how these differences affect international business.

Primary Learning Goals:
Determine the impact of geography on international business to include areas such as climate, time zones, distance, topography, and social, economic, and natural resources.
Identify and differentiate between types of governments and political environments and determine the impact of the government on international business through the use of barriers, tariffs, quotas, and taxation policies.
Analyze various factors and influences affecting the international business environment.
Determine social and cultural influences on the form of business ownership used or required in different countries.

Essential Questions:
How does geography impact international business?
How do politics affect international business?
How does the government affect international business in a country?
How does the culture of a country affect international business in the country?
What social and cultural influences affect the forms of business ownership used in various countries?

SECOND PART MAX 250 WORDS (so I am adding +1 page to the other essay. Answer the questions about Turkey. In this part you can use Wikipedia and do not make this part in an essay format.
THANKS! Let me know if you have questions.

Complete the following:



Area comparative

Land boundaries

Coast Line



Natural Resources

Natural Hazards
Environment??"Current Issues

Click on People??"list the information on the following:


Age Structure

Median Age: total


Death Rate

Sex Ratio

Infant Mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate

HIV/AIDS, people living with HIV/AIDS


Ethnic groups and percentages

Religions and percentages


Click on Government??"complete information on the following:

Government type


National holiday


Legal system


Executive branch

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Flag description

Click on Economy??"list information on the following

Overview of economy

Population below poverty line

Labor force

Labor force by occupation

Unemployment rate


Agriculture products


Export Partners

Import Partners


Economic aid recipient?


Exchange Rates

Click on Communications??"complete the following:

Telephone System

Radio Stations

TV Stations

Internet country code

Internet users

Click on Transportation??"list information found

Click on Military??"answer the following:

Military branches

Military manpower (military age)

Military manpower (availability)

Hospital Administration

Assignment: Have an introduction and conclusion included. Please read the article below, and respond to the following questions:

1. What do you think about the Market Orientation of the community hospital?
2. What do you think created the change?
3. How the quality of service changed and why?
4. If you would be the CEO of the hospital how you would approach the marketing issues?

A neighorhood of nations
Marketing Health Services; Chicago; Winter 2001; Melinda Dunham Noonan; Ruth Savolaine;
Volume: 21
Issue: 4
Start Page: 40-41
ISSN: 10941304
Subject Terms: ObstetricsHospitalsDemographicsMinority & ethnic groupsMarket researchMarket strategyCompetitionMarket segmentsGuidelinesCommunity relations
Classification Codes: 9190: United States8320: Health care industry7000: Marketing9150: Guidelines2400: Public relations
Geographic Names: United StatesUS
The challenge of engaging a community in the opening of a birthing center becomes even more daunting when community members speak 40 different languages. One midwestern community hospital not only took on this challenge, but also turned it into one of their greatest marketing success stories. Service area analysis identified the following ethnic populations: 72.2% non-Hispanic white, 7% African-American or black, 0.5% Native American, 11.2% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 9.1% other. Hispanics were included among the multiple ethnic background populations and accounted for 18.9% of the service area. However, ethnic descriptions of the service area failed to describe the unique features of the service area. Among the Caucasian population, recent immigrants from the Middle East and Eastern Europe predominated. The hospital''s goal was to increase the market share for obstetric services in a highly competitive market. To do this, it developed marketing strategies to raise awareness of the new family birthing center in these ethnic communities by adopting several objectives.
Full Text:
Copyright American Marketing Association Winter 2001

Serving a multicultural community requires a marketing melting pot.

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The challenge of engaging a community in the opening of a birthing center becomes even more daunting when community members speak 40 different languages. One midwestern community hospital not only took on this challenge, but also turned it into one of their greatest marketing success stories.
Defining the Market
Thirteen hospitals within a 10-mile radius of the primary service area provided obstetrical services, and an estimated 24,274 women of childbearing age lived in the primary service area. Another 134,055 of them lived in the secondary service area. The number of childbearing age women residing in the primary and secondary service areas was expected to decline by 7% over the next four years.
Service area analysis identified the following ethnic populations: 72.2% non-Hispanic white, 7% African-American or black, 0.5% Native American, 11.2% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 9.1% other. Hispanics were included among the multiple ethnic background populations and accounted for 18.90 of the service area. The percentage of Asians in the service area was quadruple the state and national populations, and the percentage of Hispanics in the service area was double the state and national populations.
However, ethnic descriptions of the service area failed to describe the unique features of the service area. Among the Caucasian population, recent immigrants from the Middle East and Eastern Europe predominated. The Asian immigrants came predominantly from Korea, Pakistan, India, and the Philippines. To narrow the market for ethnic childbearing women, researchers reviewed obstetrical discharge data and asked physicians to identify the major ethnic and cultural groups of their patients.
Using this technique, researchers were able to estimate the following major ethnic and cultural groups utilizing obstetrical services: Korean (23%); Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern (29%); Assyrian (6%); and Hispanic (13%). Research into cultural considerations for these groups identified a significant subgroup of Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern patients that were Muslim. Four target ethnic markets were defined: Korean, Middle Eastern, Muslim (Middle Eastern, Pakistani and Indian), and Hispanic (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban).
The hospital''s goal was to increase the market share for obstetric services in a highly competitive market. To do this, it developed marketing strategies to raise awareness of the new family birthing center in these ethnic communities by adopting the following objectives. Difference services from competitors with the following:
* Graphic images and color coding for directional sinage within the facility
* Multilingual and color coding for directional sinage within the facility
* Multilingual and multicultural physicians (male and female), nursing staff, cultural liaisons, and interpreters
* Culturally diverse artwork throughout the facility
* Large state-of-the-art labor-ry-recovery-postpartum rooms with jacuzzis and room for fily members
* Ethnic menus, microwaves, and refrigerators for patient use
* Spanish, Korean, Arabic, and Hindi language childbirth preparation classes taught by Hue. Korean, and Indian nurses
* Family-centered program of care
* Superior quality measures (e.g., low cesarean section rates and successful vaginal birth after cesarean initiatives)
Enhance its marketing presence in the following ways:
* Creating a new maternity services "brand" for the hospital (the graphic image of infant footprints)
* Aggressively marketing and promoting the new features and benefits of the hospital''s maternity services
* Reinforcing the unique positioning of its culturally sensitive family-centered maternity care
Grand opening events included a series of receptions for the Korean, Middle Eastern, and Muslim (Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern) populations. Korean physicians and nurses planned the Korean reception with the assistance of the marketing staff. On the evening of the reception, five Korean obstetrical and neonatal nurses dressed in traditional Korean gowns and led Korean-language tours of the facility. Korean food was served and gifts were distributed to the more than 400 guests. A program of dance and chamber music provided by Korean dancers and musicians followed the reception. The uniqueness of the event captured extensive Korean television coverage.
The Middle Eastern, Muslim (Middle Eastern, Pakistani, and Indian), and Hispanic receptions were similar in structure. Each event was planned with the help of bicultural and bilingual nurses and physicians and included facility tours, ethnic foods, and culturally appropriates gifts and entertainment. In total 2,700 individuals attended the events.
The Family Birthing Center has experienced 25% growth per year for the last three years following the opening of the center. Patient satisfaction has improved consistently and quality measures have remained above national averages, which is evidence that serving ethnic markets appropriately is an excellent business development strategy.

China Entry Into WTO

Research paper: Please address benefits and detriments to China and international community. Sources may be from other languages, but both citations and quotations must be translated into English. Please, include annotated reference page. Following is guidance on this research paper, please, consider:
1. Abstract/summary
2. Introduction
3. Body of the paper
4. Conclsuion
5. Annoted reference page

Apple expansion into Myanmar


This week students will review and revise their Week 3 Research Analysis for Business Signature Assignment based on economic analysis. Students will also expand their Week 3 analyses to evaluate the challenges of expanding their chosen company\'s production to a foreign market.

About Your Signature Assignment
This signature assignment is designed to align with specific program student learning outcome(s) in your program. Program Student Learning Outcomes are broad statements that describe what students should know and be able to do upon completion of their degree. The signature assignments might be graded with an automated rubric that allows the University to collect data that can be aggregated across a location or college/school and used for program improvements.

Assignment Steps
Resources: Tutorial help on Excel? and Word functions can be found on the Microsoft? Office website. There are also additional tutorials via the web offering support for Office products.

Revise your Week 3 assignment, Research Analysis for Business,This assignment report should only include one conclusion, so you will need to rewrite the conclusion you included in your Week 3 assignment, Research Analysis for Business.

Select a foreign market in which to expand your chosen product (APPLE)

Prepare a minimum1,750-word report addressing the points listed below. The use of tables and/or charts to display economic data over the time period discussed is highly encouraged, you may submit any economic data in Microsoft? Excel? format in a separate file. You may use the U.S. Department of Labor\'s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), U.S. Dept. of Commerce\'s Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the Federal Reserve of St. Louis\'s FRED data, the CIA World Fact Book, World Bank data, and World Trade Organization, or other appropriate sources you might find on the Internet or in the University Library.

The new sections of your report should:
Evaluate current global economic conditions and their effects on macroeconomic indicators in your selected country. Provide forecasts for population growth, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, GDP per capita growth, export growth, and sales growth.
Evaluate any competitors\' existing production in the chosen country.
Assess sales forecasts in the selected country by using the Federal Reserve of St. Louis\'s FRED data, the CIA World Fact Book, World Bank data, World Trade Organization, or other appropriate sources you might find on the Internet or in the University Library.
Categorize the type of economy that exists in your selected country as closed, mixed, or market. What is the difference between these types of economies and how might this affect your expansion?
Assess how your chosen country\'s current credit market conditions, especially interest rates and the availability of financing, affect demand for your product or service and your planning or operating decision for your production in that country.
Analyze the role of the selected country\'s central bank on that country\'s economy.
Compare the availability, education, and job skills of the work force in the selected country. Discuss any additional challenges of international production, such as political stability, availability of government financing or other incentives, threat of capital controls, and exchange rate risks.
Explain any additional supply chain challenges you anticipate if attempting to make your product in your chosen country and selling the product in other countries.
Based on the data gathered and analysis performed for this report write a conclusion in which you:
Create business strategies, including price and non-price strategies, based on your market structure to ensure the market share and potential market expansions and explore global opportunities for your business in a dynamic business environment and provide recommendations.
Develop a recommendation for how the firm can manage its future production by synthesizing the macroeconomic and microeconomic data presented.
Propose how the firm\'s position within the market and among its competitors will allow it to take your recommended action.
Recommend strategies for the firm to sustain its success going forward by evaluating the findings from demand trends, price elasticity, current stage of the business cycle, and government.
Recommend any comparative advantages your company will have over competitors currently operating in that country, and defend your position, either for or against, expanding your company\'s production into your chosen country based on your research.
Integrate with the Week 3 Individual Assignment (APPLE),The final report should be a minimum of 2,800 words.
Cite a minimum of three peer reviewed sources
Include all peer-reviewed references and government economic data sources/references from Week 3.
Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines.

A paper/analysis on subjects relating to the Emerging Markets or the International Monetary System is a requirement for this paper. The paper will be 16 pages with FIRST TWO WILL BE AN OUTLINE OF THE PAPER, double spaced with sources credited at the back of the paper.

The topics will be those issues/companies/countries comprising what is considered to be either large emerging markets (issues/investments confronting Globalization and the International Monetary System), (Capital Adequacy, Free versus fixed currency systems, nationalization of natural resources, Foreign Direct Investments etc.)

The paper will include the threats/risks/opportunities that these countries or issues present to the industrialized world from a financial perspective and in particular the United States.

Country analysis will include but not be limited to:

Brief introduction (One Page only)

Geopolitical relevance

Internal budget issues


Monetary Policy

Exchange mechanisms (floating/pegged/rolling pegs etc)

Debt structure

Foreign Direct Investment Flows

Government Support Programs

External trade flows

Hard/soft currency trading partners

Infrastructure support

Investment in infrastructure and debt repayment load

Government interference

Legal structure

Formal/informal trade barriers

Some of the Sources to Reference from:

Pakistan Ministry of Finance:


State Bank of Pakistan Annual Report:

if you go to State Bank of Pakistan main page you will top left corner "Economic Data" it may have info to.

Pakistan has been working with IMF to help meet its monetary obligations. There should be loads of reference on that to.

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

An analysis on Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations focusing on a specific economic policy(i.e international trading,foreign policy, wages of labour) and agreeing or disagreeing strictly based on the context of the book. I would like the paper to focus on Smith's conemporary view of foreign and international commerce, if possible.

This paper must be 8 pages with bibliography on the 9th page, all the paper and works cited in MLA style. It must be written in size 12 font and double spaced. There is no limit on the number of parenthetical citations being used. No footnotes are needed. A total of at least10 sources MUST be used. You can have 11 sources if needed. Only three are allowed to be internet sources. Two can be from field research, such as a survey or interview. The rest of the sources must come from magazines, journals, periodicals, books. I need to argue the point (it is a Persuasive paper) on why the use of clean, renewable energy is needed to be implemented. My THESIS is based on this:
(from my research paper proposal- please do not write "I feel"... "I think"... or "I believe"... or any other first person narrative in the paper)"The three major points I will make will show how clean energy usage will work for us and not against us. First, it will provide a better environment and mitigate global warming. Second, it will help the economy by providing more jobs. Third, it will lower the cost of fuels needed to run our industrialized nation, thereby reducing our dependence on foreign oil which has caused grave matters of national security and war between the U.S. and the Middle East".
The opposition, or other side, also needs to be mentioned in the paper. the opposition listed in my proposal was:
"In opposition, I will provide information on how it is seen by some that there are reasons for concern in switching to clean energy usage. I will also show how they feel the there is no real threat in global warming as well as their thoughts on Americas dependence on foreign oil."

Here is a list of some of the sources to be used that were found via internet through my school library's online database:
#1.)AL General
AT ENERGY: Renewable power, alternative fuel measures early losers.
AU David R. Baker
CT San Francisco Chronicle
DE Alternative fuels
DE Renewable energy
DP Nov 5, 2008 pA10
IC 22 Utilities
LW A10
ND 20081105
PB San Francisco Chronicle
PT Newspaper
RM COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning
SN 1932-8672
SU Alternative energy sources
XX 475

Source: San Francisco Chronicle, Nov 5, 2008 pA10.

Title: ENERGY: Renewable power, alternative fuel measures early losers.
Author: David R. Baker

Subjects: Alternative energy sources
SIC code: 2900

Electronic Collection: CJ188434835
RN: CJ188434835

Full Text COPYRIGHT 2008 San Francisco Chronicle

Byline: David R. Baker; Chronicle Staff Writer

Two state ballot measures that would dramatically expand California's use of
renewable power and alternative fuels appeared headed for defeat Tuesday

Proposition 7 would force California's electrical utilities to get 50 percent
of their power from renewable sources by 2025, a big jump from the state's
current goal of 20 percent by the end of 2010. And Prop. 10 would offer
rebates for cars and trucks that burn natural gas or alternative fuels, with
the money coming from $5 billion in state bonds.

Both were losing by double-digit margins late Tuesday.

"People do want more clean, renewable power in California," said Jim
Metropulos, senior advocate for the Sierra Club, one of several environmental
groups that opposed Prop. 7. "I think people in California were able to see
that Prop. 7, the way it was written, was not going to work."

Both propositions touch on issues dear to Californians: energy and global
warming. But both measures provoked fierce resistance, much of it from

An odd alliance of big electric utility companies and environmental groups
fought against Prop. 7, saying it was so badly written that it would actually
slow the development of renewable power, not speed it. And critics blasted
Prop. 10 as a money grab by Texas oil tycoon T. Boone Pickens, whose company
Clean Energy Fuels sells natural gas for use in vehicles. The company provided
almost all of Prop. 10's $22.5 million campaign fund.

"This has proved that one special interest, no matter how rich it is, can't
hoodwink Californians into passing a measure that just lines that interest's
pockets," said Richard Holober, executive director of the Consumer Federation
of California.

Supporters of each proposition, however, described their measures as the kinds
of big,bold steps needed to help California fight climate change and wean
itself off imported oil.

Prop. 7 would have forced California utilities to increase their use of
renewable power by 2 percentage points each year. By 2025, 50 percent of the
electricity they sell to customers would have had to come from such sources as
the sun or the wind. The process for granting government permits to renewable
energy projects would have been streamlined.

Critics said that under the proposition's complex language, smaller renewable
energy projects would not count toward the 50 percent goal. Many renewable
energy developers joined the opposition as a result.

Prop. 7 supporters, however, insisted that their opponents misread the measure
and that smaller projects would indeed count. Supporters portrayed the
opposition campaign as a front for utility companies that don't want to use
more renewable power. Utilities were the largest contributors to the $29.8
million campaign against Prop. 7, with San Francisco's Pacific Gas and
Electric Co. spending $13.9 million to defeat the measure.

E-mail David R. Baker at [email protected].

#2.) petroleum democracy ownership
We Want Independence, But Mainstream Politicians Don't
foreign oil Middle East The Highest Patriotism Lies in Weaning U.S. From Fossil Fuels

A vital part of America's anti-terrorism strategy is to end U.S. dependence on foreign oil -- but neither the Democrats nor the Republicans seem to be aware of this.

Here is an interesting editorial by Robert Redford; it originally appeared in the Los Angeles Times and is being circulated by
by Robert Redford
The Bush White House talks tough on military matters in the Middle East while remaining virtually silent about the long-term problem posed by U.S. dependence on fossil fuels. Failing to rein in our dependence on imported oil gives leverage to undemocratic and unstable regimes. Wasteful consumption of fossil fuels creates political liabilities overseas, air pollution at home and global warming. The rate at which the United States burns fossil fuels has made our country a leading contributor to global warming.

The Bush administration's energy policy to date -- a military garrison in the Middle East and drilling for more oil in the Arctic and other fragile habitats -- is costly, dangerous and self- defeating.

Despite the absence of leadership on energy security in Washington, some local efforts are paying off. Last year, San Francisco voters overwhelmingly approved a $100-million bond initiative to pay for solar panels, wind power and energy efficiency for public buildings. The measure was supported not only by the environmental community but also by the Chamber of Commerce, labor unions and the American Lung Assn.

San Francisco's first solar project, a $5.2-million energy- efficiency upgrade at the Moscone Convention Center, was dedicated last month. What's the straight economic benefit of this particular project? Plenty. The upgrades and the panels combined will cut energy consumption in the building by as much as 38%, and the project will pay for itself from energy savings. The net savings to taxpayers after det service is subtracted are projected to be more than $200,000 a year.

American rooftops can be the Persian Gulf of solar energy. After Australia, no developed nation on Earth gets more annual sunlight than the United States. In addition, wind is now the fastest-growing energy source worldwide and one of the cheapest. But wind and solar power generate less than 2% of U.S. power. We can do better.

We can increase auto fuel economy standards to 40 miles per gallon. The technology to achieve that goal exists now. Phasing in that standard by 2012 would save 15 times more oil than Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is likely to produce over 50 years. We could also give tax rebates for existing hybrid gas-electric vehicles that get as much as 60 mpg, and invest in mass transit.

These measures would keep energy dollars in the American economy, reduce air pollution and create jobs at home.

The benefits of switching to a mostly pollution-free economy would be considerable, and the costs of failing to do so would be steep. Prolonging our dependence on fossil fuels would guarantee homeland insecurity. If you are worried about getting oil from an unstable Persian Gulf, consider the alternatives: Indonesia, Nigeria, Uzbekistan.

If we want energy security, then we have to reduce our appetite for fossil fuels. There's no other way. Other issues may crowd the headlines, but this is our fundamental challenge.

Big challenges require bold action and leadership. To get the United States off fossil fuels in this uneasy national climate of terrorism and conflict in the Persian Gulf, we must treat the issue with the urgency and persistence it deserves. The measure of our success will be the condition in which we leave the world for the next generation.

Weaning our nation from fossil fuels should be understood as the most patriotic policy to which we can commit ourselves.


Robert Redford is an actor, director, entrepreneur and environmentalist.
#3. In regards to foreign oil and how it is felt to be linked to the national security issue and war in the Persian Gulf. in regards to wars over foreign oil.
AL General
AT Time for national standards.(NEWS)(power production from renewable energy
CT USA Today
DE Electric power generation_Laws, regulations and rules
DE Electric power generation_Production management
DE Renewable energy_Usage
DP Oct 20, 2008 p12A
GN Colorado_Energy policy
GN Texas_Energy policy
IC 22111 Electric Power Generation
IC 22 Utilities
IC 4911 Electric services
LW 12A
NA Editorial
ND 20081031
PB USA Today
PT Newspaper
RM COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning
SN 0734-7456
SU Electric power production_Laws, regulations and rules
SU Electric power production_Production management
SU Alternative energy sources_Usage
SU Laws, regulations and rules
SU Production management
SU Usage
SU Energy policy

Source: USA Today, Oct 20, 2008 p12A.

Title: Time for national standards.(NEWS)(power production from renewable
energy sources)(Editorial)

Subjects: Colorado - Energy policy
Texas - Energy policy
Electric power production - Laws, regulations and rules
Electric power production - Production management
Alternative energy sources - Usage
Locations: Colorado; Texas; United States
SIC code: 4911; 2900

Electronic Collection: CJ187463189
RN: CJ187463189

Full Text COPYRIGHT 2008 USA Today

In west Texas, where oil derricks might outnumber liberals, the notion of
producing electricity from renewable sources such as wind is surprisingly

It started back in the mid-1990s, when Texans realized they had become net
importers of fossil fuels, a blow to the state's wildcatter image. Worse yet,
the state had some of the poorest air quality in the nation.

In 1999 that led the state, under then-governor George W. Bush, to set power
production targets for energy generation from renewables, which turned out to
be mostly wind. The experiment went so well that in 2005, Texas upped its
renewable goal again, this time vowing to produce enough clean power by 2015
to equal 10 large coal plants -- a target the state expects to surpass by the
end of this year.

Similarly, Colorado started with a goal of getting 10% of its energy from
renewables, then the state upped it to 20% by 2020 when that goal was easily
reached. Better yet, the state's utilities -- forced to look for new sources
-- turned to homeowners who installed solar roof panels or other alternative
energy generators. That's an extraordinarily efficient system because energy
is wasted when electricity has to be delivered over vast distances.

Texas and Colorado are among 27 states that have set enforceable standards for
power production from energy sources such as wind and solar. On Nov. 4, voters
in two more -- California and Missouri -- will have a say on renewable energy
initiatives. That is great news for energy independence -- just not quite
enough of it.

Setting an aggressive national standard could dramatically accelerate the
trend, as could tax incentives that would encourage homeowners to invest in
generating their own power.

Opponents say national standards, such as the 25% of power from renewable
energy by 2025 supported by Barack Obama, are either unrealistic or best left
to the states. John McCain supports renewable energy but has not proposed

Despite the success stories from Texas and Colorado, though, there are good
reasons to embrace a national standard. Most of the 27 states have set
standards only high enough to boost power from renewable sources to about 7%
of production by 2020.

That number could rise sharply if homeowners see profit in powering their
homes with wind or solar energy, which tax deductions and the ability to sell
energy to utilities could do. Prices for solar and wind equipment are likely
to drop as rising demand lets the nascent industries in those fields achieve
economies of scale.

There are other incentives, as well. With the introduction of mass-produced
plug-in cars scheduled for 2010, the nation's electrical grid is likely to
take on an increased burden, pressing power prices upward.

Meeting that demand with alternative energy not only would save consumers
money, it also would mitigate global warming and enhance national security by
reducing reliance on foreign oil.

With oil and natural gas prices falling, national standards would help ensure
that all the momentum toward renewables isn't thrown to the four winds.
#5.) Energy Policy: Let's Not Repeat the Mistakes of the '70s
renewable energy

also called alternative energy
usable energy derived from replenishable sources such as the Sun (solar energy), wind (wind power), rivers (hydroelectric power), hot springs (geothermal energy), tides (tidal power), and biomass (biofuels).

At the beginning of the 21st century, about 80 percent of the world's energy supply was derived from fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are finite resources; most estimates suggest that the proven reserves of oil are large enough to meet global demand at least until the middle of the 21st century. Fossil fuel combustion has a number of negative environmental consequences. Fossil-fueled power plants emit air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and toxic chemicals (heavy metals: mercury, chromium, and arsenic), and mobile sources, such as fossil-fueled vehicles, emit nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. Exposure to these pollutants can cause heart disease, asthma, and other human health problems. In addition, emissions from fossil fuel combustion are responsible for acid rain, which has led to the acidification of many lakes and consequent damage to aquatic life, leaf damage in many forests, and the production of smog in or near many urban areas. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main greenhouse gases that cause global warming.

In contrast, renewable energy sources accounted for nearly 20 percent of global energy consumption at the beginning of the 21st century, largely from traditional uses of biomass such as wood for heating and cooking. About 15 percent of the world's total electricity comes from large hydroelectric power plants, whereas other types of renewable energy (such as solar, wind, and geothermal) account for 3.4 percent of total electricity generation.

Growth in wind power exceeded 20 percent and photovoltaics grew at 30 percent annually in the 1990s, and renewable energy technologies continue to expand. By 2007 more than 60 countries had adopted policy targets to increase the proportion of energy they derive from renewable sources. The European Union (EU), which produced an estimated 6.38 percent of its energy from renewable sources in 2005, adopted a goal in 2007 to raise that figure to 20 percent by 2020. The goal includes plans to cut emissions of carbon dioxide by 20 percent and to ensure that 10 percent of all fuel consumption come from biofuels. In the United States, numerous states have responded to concerns over climate change and reliance on imported fossil fuels by setting goals to increase renewable energy over time. For example, California has required its major utility companies to produce 20 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2010.

Noelle Eckley Selin
To cite this page:

* MLA style:
" renewable energy ." Encyclopdia Britannica. . Encyclopdia Britannica Online. .
* APA style:
renewable energy . (). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved , , from Encyclopdia Britannica Online:
#7.)Works Cited

Quinn, Barbara. "Rethinking Renewable Energy." Pollution Engineering 40.4 (Apr. 2008): 27-27. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 6 Nov. 2008 .

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The major assignment for this course is an original research paper (roughly 20-25 pages in length) that examines some aspect of United States foreign policy with respect to a…

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3 Pages
Research Paper

Global Business Strategies A) First

Words: 1065
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Pretend that this question answered 4 different students: "In your opinion, what can the senior management (including the CEO) do to ensure that their company enjoys success when setting…

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3 Pages

Statement of Purpose for a MA in Communications

Words: 987
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

My personal statement: I am applying to a communications program: The Master of Arts in corporate communication is designed to prepare both aspiring and practicing corporate communication professionals to plan,…

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