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Food Security as defined by the World Food Summit is "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life" (1). Food security and preservation is a very contentious issue among many nations. Nations that are particularly interested in food security are emerging nations (2). These nations, known as the BRICS have very large populations and thus must support them with adequate amounts of food. The problem arises out of each nation's capability to do so effectively. Many of the emerging nations have a burgeoning middle class but many are well below the poverty line. As such, they may not have the means to provide for themselves the necessities of life. A subsequent increase in the price of food poses a significant threat to emerging nations who rely especially on imported goods and services (Refer to appendix for price volatility…
How do you define environmental science?
Environmental science is defined by dictionary.com as, "the branch of science concerned with the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the environment and their effect on organisms ("Environmental science," 2012)."
How does the relationship between science and technology affect environmental problems and solutions in today's society?
Science and technology have a profound impact on the problems and solutions of today's society. One such reason is that in order to enact environmentally friendly methods of sustainability, it must first be economically feasible for society in general. Society, at this point in human history does not have the necessary funding capacity to enact many of the environmental solutions currently available to civilization. For one, there is first an opportunity cost imbedded in the use of those solutions. For each dollar allocated to environmental solutions, there is a corresponding dollar taken away from other projects…
d.). This can be accomplished in many ways including availability of fertilizers and storage techniques so that available resources are not wasted.
Of particular concern is the continued focus of donors on health and education projects rather than agriculture. This may be attributed to the widespread attention that is paid by the media to illnesses and lack of education of underdeveloped nations. While education is extremely important and plays a significant role in increasing food security, by ensuring that farmers can utilize new technologies and giving people the education to succeed in the labor force, it is not the only factor that impacts food security. There needs to be additional attention paid to the link between education, increasing illnesses, and access to food (Smith, n.d.).
The food system is a complex issue that is influenced by an array of factors such as social, political, economic, and technical variables. Famine can…
Bellows, a.C., & Hamm, M.W. (2003). International effects on and inspiration for community food security policies and practices in the U.S.A. Critical Public Health, 13(2), 107-124.
Black, R. (2010, March 25). Food push urged to avoid hunger. BBC News. Retrieved from:
Ehrlich, P.R., Ehrlich, a.H., & Dailey, G.C. (1993). Food security, population, and environment. Population & Development Review, 19(1), 1-32.
Food security and economic growth interact in a commonly reinforcing process over the course of development. It is only in modern times that entire societies have achieved food security. Before that, it was only privileged members of society who were able to escape from chronic hunger and the constant threat of famine. ich countries have little to fear from hunger. Consumers often have a considerable buffer of non-food expenditures to rely on, even if food prices rise sharply. It is well-known that in a market economy, the rich do not starve. Wars, riots, hurricanes and floods can disrupt the smooth functioning of markets, and all in their wake can perish. ich societies usually have the ability to prevent or alleviate such catastrophes, social or natural. Food security in rich societies is simply part of a broader net of social securities (Timmer, 2004).
Using a demographic perspective would change the analysis…
Jenkins, J. Craig and Scanlan, Stephen J. (2001). Food Security in Less Developed Countries,
1970 to 1990. American Sociological Review. 66(5), pp. 718-744.
Timmer, C. Peter. (2004). Food Security and Economic Growth: an Asian perspective. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Web site:
West P.C. et.al, (2014). Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. Science Magazine. Vol. 345. Issue 6194.
The article centers on the leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. It is indicated that agriculture accounts for between 20% - 35% of the Green House Gasses (GHG) emission. Due to the need to produce more, agriculture is the major driving force for GHG emission, water quality degradation from soil loss and nutrient runoff as well as water use. This means there is need to have a small set of leverage points that would significantly improve efficiency and sustainability of food production. There is need hence to change crop allocation to directly feed people, reduce food wastage along the food chain and particularly during storage. It is by emphasizing on local and regional successes on the leverage points that there can be international and global impact…
Food Security and Feeling Secure in the World:
The critical links between food security and social justice
When evaluating the relative security of a nation, it is only natural to focus upon 'showier' aspects of security, such as the need to ensure that a nation's borders are protected from a military onslaught or terrorist attack. However, security must be conceptualized in a broader fashion to also include socio-economic equality and the right to feel safe and secure in one's person. The issue of food security and food distribution is an area of increasing concern in America and in the world at large. Food security affects the health of the nation and also the relative contentment of people and their belief in the ability to secure the American dream of social mobility. General issues of community health and hygiene are intimately related to food security, given that the concerns about access…
Access to healthy affordable food. (2014). Public Health Law Center.
Food security in the U.S. (2014). USDA. Retrieved from:
food increasingly popular a leisure activity. Background Information: Food people solely 'food fuel'. Food,, aspects a leisure activity: shopping [ farmer's markets], eating, cooking, reading, TV viewing, blogging .
Food as a Leisure Activity
Conditions in the contemporary society have made it possible for people to change their perspective regarding some concepts and things as simple as food have come to represent a leisure activity. Individuals are no longer interested in eating with the purpose to satisfy this need, as many people presently regard cooking and eating as an art. Moreover, one needs to focus expansively on these concepts in order to harvest all the benefits associated with making and eating food. Food has reached a whole new level in first-world countries, considering that the financial condition that people in these countries have virtually enabled them to see food as being more than just a necessity. Numerous individuals are actively…
Adema, Pauline, "Vicarious Comsumption: Food, Television and the Ambiguity of Modernity,"Journal of American and Comparative Cultures 23.3 (2000)
Allen, Gary J., The Business of Food: Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries, (ABC-CLIO, 2007)
Counihan, Carole, Food and culture: a reader, (Routledge, 2008)
Roberts, Kenneth, Leisure in contemporary society, (CABI, 2006)
food, memory Recipe
Food is a basic requirement in an individual's life, and most of the human activities are means of ensuring that there is food security for the entire society. Food varieties vary from one community to another, and various dishes are known to be served during certain occasions. Basically, in events planning, one of the weighty considerations made, is the type of food to be served during the occasion. Food is considered to be one of factors that are used to bring people together in families and in society (Berg 8).
Most families have set aside a particular time of the day or evening when they all gather for family meals. Some families find it difficult to gather around daily for family meals due to non-flexible daily schedules. Extended families organize occasional gathering for instance once a year with a solemn aim of having a meal together. On…
Berg, Grethe. The Importance of Food and Mealtimes in Dementia Care: The Table Is Set. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006. Print
food production and distribution in the world today?
Despite Malthusian predictions to the contrary, there is generally enough food currently available to adequately feed the world's six billion people. In fact, Searchinger (2011) recently observed that, "Economists have made such a fuss about how complicated the food crisis is that they have created the impression that it has no ready solution. . . . This view is wrong" (p. 14). Indeed, agricultural crop production has continued to keep pace with population growth, with record-setting grain production being achieved in 2010 (Searchinger, 2011). The real problems with food production and distribution in the world today relate to rising demand during a period when an increasing amount of food crops are being diverted for the production of biofuels. In this regard, Searchinger emphasizes that, "Since 2004, biofuels from crops have almost doubled the rate of growth in global demand for grain and…
Kaufman, C. & Heri, S. (2007). Liberalizing trade in agriculture and food security - Mission impossible? Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 40(4), 1039-1041.
Miller, C. (2003). In the sweat of our brow: Citizenship in American domestic practice during
WW II-victory gardens. The Journal of American Culture, 26(3), 395-397.
Searchinger, T. (2011, July). A quick fix to the food crisis. Scientific American, 305(1), 14.
Global Food System
Multinational agribusiness is thriving, yet nearly 40 developing countries urgently need food to feed their starving populations (Lean, 2008). Food security is being held hostage by giant food and biotech companies (Lean, 2008). Profits take priority over solutions for the expanding global food crisis, and farmers in the developing world are not benefitting from their labors (Lean, 2008).
The profits and earnings of giant agribusinesses have increased dramatically, pleasing shareholders commodities traders across the globe (Lean, 2008). Few programs of scale sufficient to assist hungry people are established and implemented by agribusiness. Programs that are developed are a step in the right direction, but are too small to have much impact -- many critics see these programs as a form of public relations to ease the collective conscience and to signal corporate social responsibility. Many highly profitable companies engage in Fair Trade practices that ensure farmers in…
Austin, J.E. & Reavis, C. (2002, October 2). Starbucks and Conservation International [Case]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School. Prod. #: 303055-PDF-ENG. Retreived http://hbr.org/product/starbucks-and-conservation-international/an/303055-PDF-ENG
Banco, J. (2010). Is fair trade really fair? Inspired Economist. Retreived http://inspiredeconomist.com/2010/09/03/is-fair-trade-really-fair/
Gonzales, D. (2014, March 31). Making the food trade work for all. Food for All. Huffington Post. Retreived http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-gonzales/making-the-food-trade-wor_b_5065465.html
Graef, F., Sieber, S., Mutabazi, K., Asch, F., Biesalski, H.K.,Bitegeko, J., Bokelmann, W., Bruentrup, M., Dietrich, O., Elly, N., Germerd, U., Grote, U., Herrmann, L., Herrmann, R., Hoffmann, H., Kahimba, F.C., Kersebaum, K-C., Kilembe, C., Kimaro, A., Kinabo, J., Konigg, B., Konigs, H., Lana, M. Levy P.C., Lyimo-Macha, A.J., Makoku, B. Mazoko, G., Mbagav, S.H., Mbogorou, W., Milling, M.H., Mtambow, K., Mueller, J., Mueller, C., Mueller, B.K., Nkonjan, E., Reif, B., Ringlern, C., Ruvyg., S., Schaefer, M. (2014, February). Framework for participatory food security research in rural food value chains. Global Food Security, 3(1), 8-15. Retrieved http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912414000029
Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.
According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…
AP. (2012). MTA chief says he opposes subway food ban. ABC News. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=resources/traffic&id=8543501
Prendergast, D. & Buiso, G. (2012). Pol push to ban eating in the subway. New York Post. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/pol_push_to_ban_eating_in_the_subway_ZvKq3qRxecSkAMTWoE6wmJ
S6312-2011: Prohibits the consumption of food in New York City subways. New York Senate.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://open.nysenate.gov/legislation/bill/S6312-2011
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Hepner, . (2001, July 6). A surge in growth for county. The Washington Times, 8.
Michman, .D. & Greco, a.J. (1995). etailing triumphs and blunders: Victims of competition in the new age of marketing management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
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Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). Reply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PRAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/ .
Food and Beverage Management
Articles eview myriad of ingredients go into the stew that is successful food and beverage service, including: good equipment, good location, excellent product, pleasant atmosphere, quality middle-level management, forward-thinking administration-level hierarchy, and sincere / consistent customer service. And moreover, a vitally essential component which completes the recipe for food and beverage success is a terrific staff, which springs from the planning that goes into finding talent, followed by the training and maintenance of staff excellence through intelligent processes. This paper reviews those issues, and the research which delves into how notably competent H and hands-on management can bring - and keep - high-caliber employees on board successfully.
Article #1: "How the achievement of human-resources goals drives restaurant performance," by Daniel J. Koys, Cornell Hotel & estaurant Administration Quarterly
Attitude" has a different meaning in the 21st Century than it did in previous years. To often today,…
Kay, Christine; & Russette, John (2000). Hospitality-management Competencies.
Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41, 52.
Koys, Daniel J. (2003). How the achievement of human-resource goals drives restaurant performance. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44, 17025.
When Paul le Von took over the food service director (FSD) at St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City, he faced a number of challenges. Like other FSDs who are new to a job, le Von wanted to make numerous dramatic changes in a short period of time - renovating the facility, upgrading the menu, creating more responsive customer service - to show he was worth his salt. Also, he knew that in order to get the things done that were first on his agenda - such as a customer service overhaul "...a friendlier way of talking with customers, more like a waiter in a restaurant" (Bond, 2002) - he full cooperation with
Security and Safety in the Lodging Industry: The Use of CCTV Cameras and Proper Lighting
Security and Safety in the Lodging Industry
In the past, when an individual needed to access a lodging facility, they would only be torn between two things: food and the space. Today, however, security has become so much of a concern that clients first have to find out how secure the environment is and the safety equipment a lodging facility uses in order to determine how safe they will be during their brief stay. Hotels and lodges have to determine the most effective safety procedures and equipment to apply. The staff at Berryworth Inns cannot decide whether to install CCTV cameras or improve the hotel lighting. Gerald opines that CCTV will be more effective in deterring criminal activity, while according to Frank, the more lights there are, the fewer the criminals that will likely invade…
Cathy, A. (2002). The Safety and Security of U.S. Hotels. A Post-September 11 Report. The Cornell University Library. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from https://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/abstract-13616.html
XXX- Book sent as resource
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…
What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html
Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html
Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
However, as coffee creamer and margarine have demonstrated, there is risk of substitution even with long-established consumer staples.
The intensity of rivalry is becoming greater. Firms in both dairy and soy are fighting for market share, one because of market contraction and the other because of market expansion. Firms compete for shelf space at major retailers and because the products lack differentiation, firms in the industry tend to compete strictly on brand name, rather than product attributes. Overall, this leaves the industry moderately unfavorable. Soy is more favorable that milk generally, but milk is the much larger industry and for a sizeable, established player with strong distribution networks it is still a good industry to be in.
The regulatory environment is important to Dean. The federal government has a stake in agricultural industries because of the impact on the nation's food security. There are variety of programs and subsidies available…
The presence of a border, however, allows for that market to become closed. Nations that can feed themselves will continue to do so even if there is unmet demand elsewhere, because ultimately food is more important to survival than money. The value of money for survival, after all, is dependent on the ability to exchange that money for the means of survival. During the food price run-up in the spring of 2008 many nations restricted trade in key foodstuffs, a trend that is likely to escalate in the face of rapidly increasing demand.
In Monsanto's 2009 Annual Report the company points out that a farmer today must feed 130 people, whereas 30 years ago a farmer only fed 25 people. The company's mission, therefore, is predicated on increasing the yield of agricultural land in order to help meet the needs of a growing population. Innovation is at the core…
Monsanto 2009 Annual Report. Retrieved July 16, 2010 from http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2009/letter_to_shareowners.asp
Streitfield, D. (2008). A global need for grain that farms can't fill. New York Times. March 9, 2008.
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
This is only in the case whereby protein introduced possesses allergenic properties and is introduced to the edible part of the particular plant. Due to the difficulty of predicting allergens, there should be careful selection in gene donors so as to avoid widespread consequences.
Bacteria in the digestive tracts can pick up antibiotic resistant genes present in genetically modified foods and it may bring about an increase in the problem of bacteria adapting to antibiotics. It is believed that the dispersal of pollen and seeds from genetically modified crops to other crops and the surrounding environment might result in genetic and biological pollution bringing about a new breed of genetically engineered organisms which will lead to unknown problems. This pollution will eventually spread to the soil and eventually make every plant genetically modified.
Genetically modified foods are seen as a means of solving the problem of food security and…
GM foods. (2002). Retrieved on April 9, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/GMFoods/impactshumanco sumptionpros.html
Halford, N.G., & Shewry, P.R. (2000). Genetically modified crops: methodology, benefits, regulation and public concerns. Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org
Jefferson, V. (2006). The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food.
Retrieved on April 10, 2010, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+ethical+dilemma+of+genetically+modified+food-a0148957139
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle .
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle .
The book Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity makes a clear argument against the existence of "a world hunger crisis." Lappe and Collins support their main thesis that rather than a "global food shortage," we are facing an unequal distribution system. The book discusses the development of our current food production and distribution systems. It supports the idea that there is in reality enough food production to supply everyone on earth with an adequate amount of calories, but that there is much wasted energy in the production, packaging and distribution of food to certain parts of the world. The main thesis of the book is that there is actually no real food shortage, just an unequal distribution to certain parts of the world.
Lappe and Collins open Chapter four with the idea that in order to meet the nutritional needs of a society, a food production system…
Lappe. Franics Moore and Joseph Collins. Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. New York:
Random House, 1981.
Also, this should be seen as a short-term solution for people who are temporarily out of jobs in the U.S. And not as a long-term means to living comfortably.
Social Security Benefits
Social security benefits help many elderly and disabled people to live a reasonable life. In 2010, more than 53 million Americans received social security benefits that amount to a whopping $703 billion. Out of these, 34 million retired workers accounted for $40 billion and $1.7 billion went to 2.9 dependents of retired workers at an average amount of $1,170 per month. The eight million disabled workers and their $1.9 billion dependents received an average of $1,065 per month and this amounted to $8.5 billion and $0.6 billion respectively. The remaining $6.3 billion went to 6.4 million survivors at an average monthly benefit of $1,129. (Social Security Administration USA, 2010).
The Social Security Administration of the U.S. estimates that…
USDA Food and Nutrition Service. (December 2010). State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/snap/FILES/Participation/Reaching2008.pdf
DeParle, Jason. (November 28, 2009). Food Stamp Use Soars and Stigma Fades. New York Times.
Social Security Administration USA (2010). Fact Sheets. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ssa.gov/pressoffice/factsheets/basicfact-alt.pdf
Trumball, Mark. (2011, January 17). The Retirement Workforce. Christian Science Monitor.
industry develops and produces a vast majority of the nation's defense technology most of which is categorized and hence plays a vital role in the creation and protection of information that is a requirement of the security of the nation. Therefore industry security has an important role to play when it comes to achievements of the nation. These achievements are variable ranging from supply of motor vehicles to production of food products. A major decrease in the business settings and financial areas has a huge effect on how this industry continues to carry out its functions properly (Defense security service, 2012). This paper will look at the various responsibilities of organizations that are in industrial security must address and identify the causes and effects of industrial loss.
The establishment of the National Industrial Security Program was in order to ensure that the U.S. defense industry that was cleared…
Department of Homeland Security, (2005). Industrial Security Program. Retrieved April 16, 2014 from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/foia/mgmt_directive_11035_industrial_security_program.pdf
Defense Security Service, (2012). Industrial Security. Retrieved April 16, 2014 from http://www.dss.mil/isp/
restaurants and bars fail is that owners and operators fail to implement a food and beverage control system. Without one, they have no way of knowing if anything is missing or if costs do not measure up to standard. A control system is a necessary and beneficial tool in maximizing profit and keeping waste and pilferage to a minimum.
One of the most critical aspects of food and beverage control is profit planning. In the final analysis, the profit generated must be sufficient to keep the business running and the owner pleased with the investment.
Three ratios are extremely important in profit planning:
Operating Ratio = Net Income efore Taxes / Net Sales: This ratio is commonly known as net profit to net sales. The higher this ratio is, the better. For example, in full service operations with an average check of less than ten dollars, the median…
Profit By Inch." Nation's Restaurant News. 1999.
Gordon, Robert. Brezinski, Mark. The Complete Restaurant Management Guide. 1998.
Miller, Jack. Hayes, David. Food and Beverage Cost Control, 2001.
Dittmer, Paul. Principles of Food, Beverage, and Labor Cost Controls. 2002
Food Justice Movement and Its Themes
Intersectional Theory is the study of systems that intersect in terms of power structure dichotomies -- oppression vs. hegemony -- and approaches this intersection from the standpoint of focusing on how various variables (such as gender, age, class, etc.) interact with cultural, ecological, environmental, economical categories in different ways. In the food justice movement, "the social relations of food have been organized along lines of gender" with women predominantly in the role of food preparer, thus projecting woman's role in the world "in deep, complex, and often contradictory ways" (Allen, Sachs, 2007, p. 1). Yet, with the globalization of food through the rise of multinationals, the powerful role held by women in food preparation and production has been taken from them and placed in the hands of the corporations (Shiva, 2009, p. 17). Food simultaneously elevates and impoverishes women in terms of the social…
Allen, P. & Sachs, C. (2007). Women and Food Chains: The Gendered Politics of Food.
International Journal of Sociology of Food and Agriculture, 15(1), 1-23.
Patel, R. C. (2012). Food Sovereignty: Power, Gender, and the Right to Food. PLoS
In "McDonald's in Taipei," u describes the radical changes to Taiwanese culture that took place during the 1980s. The introduction of American fast food to Taiwanese markets symbolized the nature of the changes to Taiwanese culture that ensued. McDonald's is not singularly to blame for the decimation of the diversity of traditional Chinese food from the mainland, but prior to its introduction, there was a cornucopia of independent eateries boasting food from various regions. However, u also discusses the symbolic role of McDonald's in Taiwan in relation to the development of Taiwanese national identity.
According to u, Taiwanese identity has formed largely in response to its need to politically and culturally distance itself from mainland China. As Taiwanese people sought new ways of expressing its food culture as being distinct from the mainland cuisines that once flourished there, it turned to the indigenous foods of the island as well…
Kottack, Conrad P. "Rituals at McDonald's."
Wu, David Y.H. "McDonald's in Taipei."
Internalization of Fast Food Business
Internationalisation of Fast-food Business
PEST Analysis for India
PEST Analysis for United States
Comparison between the two Countries
Changes in the Global Environment due to Financial Crisis
Impact of Financial Crisis on Internationalisation
Fast food has transformed the eating habits of the entire population, whether they are resided in UK, U.S., Asia or any other country. The changing trend of the eating habits evidently exhibits that fast food industry is one of the industries that have developed over the time. Even though fast food consumption has shown an increasing pattern of factors that has affected the health in many ways such as increased overall calorie intake, contribution to weight gain, and elevation in the risk for various diseases, yet, the consumption trend at the same time has represented an escalation in the recent years (Parsa & Kwansa,…
Brauch, H.G. 2009. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts. Springer. Wurzburg.
Griffin, D. 2010. Business with a Purpose: Starting, Building, Managing and Protecting Your New Business. Easy Brain Labs Inc. USA.
Haberberg, A. & Rieple, A. 2007. Strategic Management: Theory and Application. Oxford University Press. New York, USA.
IMF. 2008. IMF Survey. International Monetary Fund. USA.
Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.
Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.
Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.
As with many consumer-oriented businesses, fast food restaurants need to maintain a strong but unobtrusive security profile. Their structures and access points need to remain accessible while still preventing malicious behavior. This security survey of a fast food restaurant provides an example of how to perform a total security audit, identify weaknesses and risks particularly with regards to customer and employee safety, and offer suggestions for improvement.
Property and Perimeter
The outermost boundaries of the fast food restaurant are the limits of the company’s locus of control. There is a lot the fast food restaurant can do to improve its perimeter security, without deterring customers. In fact, making upgrades to the perimeter security can serve a dual purpose as improving aesthetics. The current perimeter is empty, dark, and exposed. These weaknesses open the possibility for criminal behavior, as the access points are “obscured by low light,” (Locknet, n.d., p. 1).…
Operation of the Homeland Security Council
Creates the Homeland Security Council and sets down is functions.
This directive creates the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and lists its functions. The purpose of the HSC is to synchronize homeland security-related efforts across executive departments and agencies of all levels all through the country, and to put into practice the Department's policies by way of eleven Policy Coordination Committees.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3: Homeland Security Advisory System
Creates a Homeland Security Advisory Board to issue security threat levels. There are five threat levels, each identified by a description and corresponding color. From lowest to highest, the levels and colors are: Low = Green; Guarded = Blue; Elevated = Yellow; High = Orange; Severe = ed. The higher the threat level is, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack. isk includes both the likelihood of an attack taking place and its potential…
Homeland Security Presidential Directives. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/editorial_0607.shtm
production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.
The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).
This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…
Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1
Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .
Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.
Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…
Krull, a.R. (1995). Controls in the next millennium: Anticipating the it-enabled future. Computers & Security, 14(6), 491-491.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to security: Operations and management. (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
SP's Special. (2012, India's slybird MAV maturing fast. SP's Aviation,
Sproule, C.M. (2002). The effect of the U.S.A. patriot act on workplace privacy. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 65-73.
Food security is a critical issue for any food & beverage company. It is self-evident that food is the business for such a company, so any macro-level issue regarding food is inherently important, but there are specific considerations that drive the relevance of food security.
First, food security reflects on the long-run sustainability of the business. It may sound silly to say it, but food companies need food in order to survive. They need to grow it, process it, package it and sell it. So at the supply chain level, threats to food security need to be taken seriously. The world today is just now starting to legitimately look like a zero sum game with respect to many resources, food being one. If the world needs to produce much more food than what has been produced in the past, but as much as a quarter of agriculture land is already…
AP (2011). UN: Farmers must produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed population. The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/nov/28/un-farmers-produce-food-population
Satran, J. (2013). Water scarcity must be addressed urgently to avoid food shortages, Nestle CEO Paul Bulcke says. Huffington Post Retrieved December 11, 2014 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/26/water-scarcity-nestle-ceo-paul-bulcke_n_2768390.html
Wheeler, T. & von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science. Vol. 341 (6145) 508-513.
In this regard, Neely advises that a "Menu has to deliver the desired target food margin percentage whilst offering a variety of tastes across a range of price points, and conform to the expectations of the brand concept" (252).
Storeroom Control. Clearly, without adequate security procedures in place, a hotel's storeroom can turn into a major center for pilferage and other shrinkage. Key control is essential to this security if electronic locks are not in place (Sunstrom 59). If physical keys are used, or a combination of approaches is elected, Sunstrom recommends that the key numbering system follow that recommended by the American Hardware Association (AHA). Under the AHAs system, the grand master key is designated with a single upper-case letter; the next level of master keys would be the previous letter designation and another letter. Change keys (these are single keys that operate a single door) are designated with…
Atkinson, Sally and David Butcher. (2003). "Trust in the Context of Management Relationships: An Empirical Study." SAM Advanced Management Journal 68(4):24.
Baird, Douglas G. And Robert K. Rasmussen. (2003). "Chapter 11 at Twilight." Stanford Law Review 56(3):673.
Baum, Joel A.C. And Paul Ingram. (1997). "Chain Affiliation and the Failure of Manhattan Hotels, 1898-1980." Administrative Science Quarterly 42(1):68.
Beaudry, Mark H. (1997, March). "One for the Road." Security Management 41(3):79.
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Kudler Fine Food's Frequent Shopper Program
Kudler Fine Foods is a specialty food store located in the San Diego metropolitan area. Currently, they have three locations (La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas). Kudler offers a wide variety of baked goods, fresh produce, meat, seafood, condiments, packaged foods, cheese, specialty dairy products, and fine wines.
Kathy Kudler, the owner of Kudler Fine Foods has requested that we create a frequent shopper program to reward customer loyalty. Kathy Kudler is always looking for new ways to expand and market her company. She believes that the frequent shopper program would be a great way to meet those goals. There are many potential legal, ethical, and information security concerns related to the development of the Kudler Fine Foods Frequent Shopper Program.
Description of the Frequent Shopper Program
The main objective of the frequent shopper program is to track purchasing behavior at the customer level…
University of Phoenix. (2012). Kudler Fine Foods. Sales and Marketing. Retrieved July 11, 2012 from University of Phoenix, BSA310 website.
A model for investment justification in information. (2001). International Journal of Information Management, (), 349-364. Retrieved from http://www.umassd.edu/media/umassdartmouth/businessinnovationresearchcenter/publications/it_justification.pdf
Whole Foods Market
Significant key points
Key financial indicators
Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.
SWOT and TWOS analysis
TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix
Pros and Cons
Evaluation and control
The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.
The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and…
Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Form 10-k annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934. Retrieved from Whole Foods Market website: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company Info/PDFs/2011_10K.pdf
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South-Western Pub.
Lederer, M., Schott, P., Huber, S., & Kurz, M. (2013). Strategic Business Process Analysis: A Procedure Model to Align Business Strategy with Business Process Analysis Methods. In S-BPM ONE-Running Processes (pp. 247-263). New York: Springer.
Ngai, E. (2009). RFID in operations and supply chain management: research and applications, edited by T. Blecker and GQ Huang.
However, a closer review would reveal that threats arising from human migration patterns are sufficiently different from those associated with numerous other aspects of societal change to be considered a single issue.
The appropriate response to mitigating the risks of natural disaster, climate changes, and energy needs are very different from those that are appropriate to address the risks from terrorism targeting energy production facilities and infrastructure. Similarly, while organized crime does encompass many individual crimes, some of those crimes (such as international human and drug trafficking) must be addressed in completely different ways from the perspective of human security and not crime control. Ultimately, the broadening of the threat landscape is necessary to address all of the contemporary risks to human security apart from other closely linked crimes from a criminal justice perspective.
Burgess, J. Peter. Non-Military Security Challenges in Contemporary Security and Strategy 2nd edition, Craig A.…
Burgess, J. Peter. Non-Military Security Challenges in Contemporary Security and Strategy 2nd edition, Craig A. Snyder (ed.) Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke,
2008, pp. 60-78.
PESTLE analysis: Fast food industry
The recent backlash against unhealthy eating could prove to be difficult for the fast food industry. There are calls to limit the marketing of fast food products to children and to limit the sale of fast foods in schools. Given that children are such an important driver of sales, this could curtail the efficacy of many fast food campaigns, particular those with tie-ins to children's films and television shows. Campaigns like Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" campaign underline the importance of healthy eating and eating minimally processed foods. Although President Obama and the First Lady have been photographed eating burgers and they say that they are not against all fast food, the overall emphasis on the administration has been on restricting access to 'junk food' (Michelle Obama loves fast food, 2010, Slashfood).
The economic uncertainty in America has proved to be…
David, Brennan & Christopher Carpenter. (2009). Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99 (3). Retrieved:
Fast food nation: The sequel. (2009). The Guardian. Retrieved:
Kotler Fine Food
Innovation is a continuous process, which requires individual and organizational creativity. The process demands for individuals to come up with authentic ideas to rediscover the meaning, identity, and the purpose of innovation (Kelly & Littman, 2001). Internal learning and communication reflects individual and organizational creativity. Creativity is essential for any organization in the course of fulfilling their objectives as seen in the case of Kotler Fine Foods.
Creativity fills the void and necessitates the platform for communication between individuals in an organization. In turn, new ideas are discovered which also impart new knowledge. With reference to Kotler Fine Foods, creativity has created the urge to explore different types of foods and wines. Consequently, individuals obtain knowledge on various types of foods and wines that are new to them. Creativity creates new depth, time, space, and pace through continuous innovation.
Creativity identifies with the…
Kelley, T. & Littman, J. 2001. The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America's Leading Design Firm. New York: Doubleday
Patterson, C. (2006). Individual and Organizational Creativity. New York: Ashgate Publishing Limited
Williams, R & Edge, D. 1996. "The social shaping of technology." Research Policy. (25)6: 865-901
profiled for this exercise are Whole Foods and Trader Joe's. Whole Foods is based in Texas and has spread across the country as a retailer of organic, gourmet and natural foods. The company has expanded into Canada and the United Kingdom. Whole Foods also made a major move in the United States when it acquired Wild Oats, which was its major competitor at the time. The deal ran into trouble with the Federal Trade Commission but was ultimately allowed to go through, since there is nothing stopping other grocery stores from selling the same type of foods (Gogoi, 2007).
Trader Joe's is a competitor to Whole Foods, but one that remains only in the United States and it has typically expanded by building new stores. The company does not just have natural foods but it competes for roughly the same customer base as Whole Foods, and most customers of one…
CBC. (2013). Trader Joe's loses fight with Vancouver's Pirate Joe's. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/trader-joe-s-loses-fight-with-vancouver-s-pirate-joe-s-1.1912400
Gogoi, P. (2007). No Wild Oats for Whole Foods? Business Week. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from http://www.business week.com/stories/2007-06-06/no-wild-oats-for-whole-foods-businessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Loeb, W. (2012). Aldi's Trader Joe's is a winner. Forbes. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/walterloeb/2012/05/17/aldis-trader-joes-is-a-winner/
Moore, A. (2007). Whole Foods to acquire rival Wild Oats. MarketWatch. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from http://www.marketwatch.com/story/correct-whole-foods-to-acquire-rival-wild-oats-for-565-million
Sources of Information for a Porters Five Forces Analysis on Kraft Foods
To undertake a Porters Five Forces analysis it is necessary to identify potential sources of information that will give the required information. The Five Forces analysis will require an assessment of the five areas; degree of rivalry among competitors, threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, and availability of substitutes. This process can be examined by looking at the sources which may be used for a Porters Five Forces analysis of Kraft Foods, a firm that competes in the food industry. Each of the forces will be considered separately.
Degree of rivalry among competitors
Source 1; CSI Market; UL is http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KFT
This is a very useful web site which has the primary aim of providing information to potential investors. The page on Kraft Foods is particularly useful in assessing the firm's position…
Baertlein, L, (2014, Sept 30), Kraft challenged by "healthier" macaroni and cheese brands, didReuters, accessed at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/30/us-kraft-macandcheese-idUSBREA2T09C20140330
CSI Market (2014), Kraft accessed at http://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=KRFT on 7th Sept 2014
Food and Drug Administration, (2004), accessed at http://www.fda.gov/Food / on 7th September 2014
K-Mart, (2014), accessed at http://www.kmart.com/en_us/grocery-pet.html on 7th Sept 2014
Specifically, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is one of the premier law enforcement organizations in the world. However, it was conceived, designed, and structured more for the purpose of investigating past crimes and apprehending and prosecuting criminals. For example, the FBI is, by design, a decentralized agency so that field offices in different states can pursue independent investigations. In the field of counterterrorism, the exact opposite structure is required: the counterterrorism mission demands a highly centralized structure whereby intelligence collected from many different locations and by many different agencies and entities is funneled into an integrated analysis center (Larsen, 2007). In many respects that deficiency still pervades the national homeland security mission, as evidenced by the failure of authorities to identify the perpetrator of the Northwest 253 plot on the basis of information that had previously been made available to the national counterterrorism and intelligence infrastructure.
Weapons of Mass…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
DHS-FEMA. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management: Introduction to Emergency Management. Accessed online December 28, 2009, from:
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…
Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
COUNTE-TEOISM AND THE DEPATMENT OF HOMELAND SECUITY
Counter-terrorism is popular as antiterrorism and incorporates techniques, practices, strategies, and tactics that militaries, governments, corporations and police departments adopt in attacking terrorist threats and acts either real or imputed. Both governments and insurgents use terror tactics. It is clear that some insurgents do not terror as tactics while others opt not to apply as other tactics have better outcomes for their particular contexts. Individuals may engage in acts of terror, as it was the case with Oklahoma City bombing (Katherine, Darmer & osenbaum, 2004). Where the terrorism acts are part of broader insurgencies, counter-terrorism forms an integral element of security doctrines. However, economic, political, and other measures focus on insurgencies as compared to specific terror acts. The United States uses foreign internal defense doctrine in its military programs to support other nations while attempting to suppress lawlessness, insurgency, or subversion and…
Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson.
The richest country in the world should not have any members of its population who have to worry about food. There is plenty of food available to feed the population and the failure to do so is immoral.
Healthcare costs in the United States have grown out of proportion relative to other advanced nations. The average cost of care in the United States is much higher than any other country in the world however the outcomes the system produces are ranked around the thirtieth position. Many U.S. citizens are unable to pay for healthcare and have to visit the emergency room (ER) for even fairly minor issues even after reforms. This cost gets passed on in the entire healthcare system and produces much inefficiency in the system. In 2007, 62.1% of all U.S. bankruptcies were related to medical expenses and 78% of these bankruptcies…
ProCon. (2014, February 5). Should All Americans Have the Right (Be Entitled) to Health Care? Retrieved from ProCon: http://healthcare.procon.org/
William, D. (2014, June 15). $40-BILLION MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM PROVES UNRELIABLE. Retrieved from LA Tmes: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-missile-defense-20140615-story.html#page=1
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…
Andreas, Peter. "The escalation of U.S. immigration control in the post-Nafta era." Political Science Quarterly v113, n4 (Winter 1998):591
Art, Robert and Jervis, Robert. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Bush, George H.W. "Address to the Nation Announcing the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Saudi Arabia," The White House, Washington, D.C., August 8, 1990 and George H.W. Bush "Remarks and an Exchange With Reporters on the Persian Gulf Crisis," Kennebunkport, Maine, August 11, 1990 http:bushlibrary.tamu.eduWeb accessed on 10 April 2003.
Global Warming Information." Global Warming. 2004. http://www.globalwarming.org
Hedging and Its Importance to the Securities Markets
In simple terms, hedging is a form of insurance. It is a mechanism used to help shield investors and companies from the negative occurrences within the ordinary business environment. If properly hedged, when negative events do affect a business or individual, the damages incurred will be significantly less. A common example is that of insurance on an automobile or house. In the event of a catastrophic wreck or fire, and depending on the level of insurance purchased, an individual can recover the value of the lost car of home. In exchange for this reassurance, the individual would be required to pay monthly premiums whether or not the event actually occurred. In essence the individual is hedging him or herself against the likelihood of an event that would negatively impact the value placed on the particular car or home. Similarly, companies also hedge…
Globalization on Human Security
The study is supposed to evaluate whether globalization is a force that contributes to or enhances human security or is it a force that has contributed to human insecurities. The study is important so that we can determine whether globalization is the key to future human security especially in the developing world. The study will explore security from a human perspective as opposed to the state perspective and to illustrate this perspective I will be drawing on case material from Papua New Guinea (PNG) with the objective to generate a debate on how globalization impact human security. This case study makes for an informative reading if human security is affected positively or negatively by globalization
To start off, it is important we ask ourselves; what is globalization? Is it inevitable or irreversible? Globalization has come to mean so many things to different people and so it…
Battersby P. & Siracusa J (2009) Globalization and Human Security, Rowman & Little field
Caroline T & Wilkin P. (2011) Globalization, Human Security and the African Experience (eds) Boulder; Lynne Reinner Publications, 199. 211
Crowley J. (2007) Rethinking Human Security; Hallmark
Firth, S. (2007).Pacific Islands trade, labor, and security in an era of globalization [Supplemental]. Contemporary Pacific, 19(1), 111-135.
M1D1: Concept of Homeland Security Enterprise
HSE (Homeland Security Enterprise) was designed to better coordinate the resources of all law enforcement functions that fall under the auspices of the DHS. DHA strives to provide law enforcement agencies with "the tools to identify and combat threats in their communities," including access to its information (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). "Because state and local law enforcement are often in the best position to notice the first signs of a planned attack, homeland security efforts must be integrated into the police work that they do every day, providing officers on the front lines with a clear understanding of the tactics, behaviors, and other indicators that could point to terrorist activity" (Strengthening the Homeland Security Enterprise: Progress Report 2011, 2011, DHS). DHS has created 'fusion' centers "to train state and local law enforcement to recognize behaviors and indicators related…
SSA Status eport
The author of this report has been asked to do an analysis of the Social Security program as it exists in the United States. First, there will be a look at how Social Security was initially envisioned and planned by President Franklin Delano oosevelt. Second, there will be an analysis done of what is projected to happen with Social Security over the next twenty to thirty years. Third, the author of this report will provide two recommendations that will help improve the viability and existence of Social Security over the next generation. Finally, there will be an evaluation of how these recommendations can be implemented given the contentious political environment that exists right now. While petty fights and demagoguery will surely get in the way, the Social Security system is in bad long-term shape and needs to be properly fixed and adjusted immediately.
According to a…
History.com. (2015). FDR signs Social Security Act - Aug 14, 1935 - HISTORY.com.
HISTORY.com. Retrieved 17 July 2015, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-signs-social-security-act
Reuteman, R. (2010). Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social Security?. CNBC. Retrieved
17 July 2015, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/34941334
Change is an inevitable aspect within the society. It is imperative to embrace positive change and shun that which is deemed negative and disparaging. Every individual has a role to play within the community. However, such change has created a sense of disconnect and lack of engagement amongst individuals within the community. For instance, despite the positive change instigated by technology and the internet, it has created increased online engagement but a false one at that owing to increased lack of actual engagement. In the same way, change has created a lack of understanding on sustainability and the role that persons in the society play in it. The key argument made by this essay is that the opinions of people regarding community and their place in the world change when they begin to grow their own food.
The perspective of an individual concerning the community together with the role that…
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The objective of the article is to question the credibility of the decision adopting by the Bush's administration on North Korea due to claims that it (North Korea) was constructing a Uranium plant. Based on the universal structures of thought by Elder and Paul, it is apparent that the question at issue in the presented case is the credibility of the decision taken by the U.S. government towards North Korea. The U.S. believed that the North Korean state was in its quest of building a nuclear power plant secretly without the awareness of the U.S. As such, it promoted to U.S. To adopt sanctions against the North Korea such as suspending its deals with the state. The U.S. depended on unreliable information since up-to-date it has not verified the existence of a Uranium plant in North Korea as speculated by the report.
The decision adopted…
Another Intelligence Twist. (2007, March 2). Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101507.html
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline
Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security
Methods of the Government Interventions
Impacts of Government egulation on National Security
Failure to comply to related cyber regulations
Meeting the minimum requirements.
Exceeding the Minimum equirements
The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…
Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College
Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall