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Positive Psychology / Positive Relationships
Marriage and ell-Being
In the book, Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Flourishing, 2nd Edition, the authors explain that "…frequent findings in the literature on subjective well-being" reveals that there is a strong link between "marriage and self-reported happiness and life satisfaction" (Compton, et al., 2012, 103). The authors insist this is true no matter what age groups are involved in the research; studies referenced by Compton (Argyle, 1987; Diener et al. 1999; Myers, 2000) show that "…married people are consistently happier and more satisfied…" with their lot in life than single people are (103).
In fact, Compton asserts that "…marriage is the only really significant bottom-up predictor of life satisfaction" for males and females in matrimony (103). hen a couple enjoys "quality" in their marriage, that situation is what Compton calls "…a significant predictor of subjective well-being" (103). That said, Compton adds that…
Cherry, K. (2010). Attachment Styles. About.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
Cohen, O., Geron, Y., and Farchi, A. (2009). Marital Quality and Global Well-Being Among
Older Adult Israeli Couples in Enduring Marriages. The American Journal of Family
Therapy, Vol. 37, 299-317.
In conclusion, although positive psychology has been accused of naive optimism, the truth is that research in the area can have a real impact upon people's mentalities and lives. Its character is more descriptive than prescriptive. Its purpose is to prevent rather than to heal. In order to achieve this purpose it relies upon strengths, such as optimist, a state of mind which can be learned and measured. Although there are many skeptics, research in the filed has demonstrated that there is a connection between optimist thinking and our health, whether physical or mental. Some might argue that such connection is not a direct causal relationship, yet they can not deny the fact that positive facts do have a real impact upon the functioning of the individual. Perception and self-awareness are other mechanisms which positive psychology believes to be important as far as the construction of optimist thinking is concerned.…
Danner, D., Snowdon, D, & Friesen, W. (2001). Positive emotion in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 804-813.
Diener, E. & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 3, 181-85.
Fredrickson, B.L. (2004) the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, published August 17, 2004 by the Royal Society, Retrieved June 29, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693418/pdf/15347528.pdf
Gable, S.L., Haidt, J. (2005). What (and why ) is positive psychology? In Review of General Psychology, vol.9, no.2, 103-110 Retrieved June 29, 2010 from http://www.changeforchildren.co.uk/uploads/positive-psychology-what-and-how.pdf
Positive Psychology is a scientific study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive (Positive Psychology Center, 2007). It was founded on the belief that people want to lead fulfilling and meaningful lives, to understand what is best within themselves, and to have better experiences with love, work, and play. Positive psychology is concerned with positive individual traits, emotions, and institutions. It involves the study of contentment with the past, present happiness, and hope for the future, as well as strengths that foster better communities to live in.
The good life is as genuine as what is bad, is not the absence of what is problematic, and requires its own explanation (Peterson, 2008). Happiness leads to desirable outcomes and, coupled with character strengths and good social relationships, acts as a buffer against the damaging effects of problems in life. Crisis reveals in individual's character. Realizing the…
Positive Psychology Center. (2007). Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania: http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu
Peterson, C. (2008, May 16). What is Positive Psychology and What It Is Not? Retrieved from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-good-life/200805/what-is-positive-psychology-and-what-it-is-not
In an introduction study, they set up cross-cultural sameness of fifty daily events. In the chief study, people in the United States, Korea, and Japan filled out day after day surveys on the fifty actions and daily happiness for twenty one days. The multilevel random coefficient model examination showed that the within-person connection between optimistic events and daily happiness was considerably stronger amid Asian-American, Korean, and Japanese participants than among European-American's and the within-person connection between optimistic actions and daily happiness was considerably weaker amid people high in worldwide life happiness than amid those low in worldwide life happiness. The conclusions show a weaker consequence of optimistic actions on daily happiness among people and societies high in worldwide happiness.
The authors established that the strength of optimistic actions was stronger from Asian-Americans, Japanese and Koreans that for European-Americans. They also established organized individual disparities in the influence of optimistic actions…
Oishi, Shigehiro, Choi, Dong-Won, Diener, Ed, Kim-Prieto, Chu and Choi, Incheol. (2007). The
Dynamics of Daily Events and Well-Being Across Cultures: When Less Is More. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93(4), p.685-698.
Seligman, Martin E.P., Steen, Tracy A., Park, Nansook and Peterson, Christopher. (2005).
Positive Psychology Progress. American Psychologist, 60(5), p.410-421.
Another near-contemporary of ogers and Maslow is Albert Bandura, whose social learning theory is more part of the behaviorist school than the humanist, though these are not as dissimilar as is often thought (Bandura 2010; icks & Wandersman 1982). Ultimately, though Bandura's work is most famous for explaining aggression and other behavior developments, it is truly concerned with how people develop into functioning and satisfied human beings (Bandura 2010; Bandura 1978). Even in seemingly opposed theoretical schools, then, the development of psychology during the twentieth century was leading inevitably towards positive psychology along several different channels (Sandage & Hill 2001).
For decades, obert Sternberg has been a major luminary in the realm of psychology, and though his most prominent theoretical contributions have been in the area of intelligence testing, measurement, and definition, his overarching approach to psychology can also be seen as having a largely humanist bent (Sternberg 2001; Salovey…
APA. (2011). Positive Psychology. Accessed 23 February 2011. http://www.div17pospsych.com/
Bandura, a. (1978). Social Learning Theory of Aggression. Journal of Communication 28(3): 12-29.
Bandura, a. (2010). Addressing Population Growth: Social Cognitive Theory Goes Global. The Australian Humanist 97: 3-5.
Engler, B. (2009). Personality Theories: An Introduction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
I go on this run religiously, with very little variance. In fact, I never change the route. The only thing I change with respect to the run is whether I start eastwardly up the block or westwardly up the block. In a sense, deciding whether I run the route "forwards" or "backwards."
What's interesting is that I don't really enjoy running. I like it, but I don't love it. What I actually enjoy is the routine of things. I enjoy knowing that when I go to be on Sunday night, Tuesday night, and Wednesday night, I have to wake up the next morning, at 7:00 AM, and go for a run. In short, it's not the activity I enjoy; it's the schedule.
So, as it relates to maximizing vs. satisficing, I don't mind having many choices or very few so long as I know that I have scheduled some time…
The paper was then set to focus on determining the reach and effectiveness of marriage interventions. This initiative could be used to understand the effectiveness of marriage therapy as a form of marriage intervention.
The study was undertaken on 876 couples who had experienced marital conflict at one point in their marriage. The study was quantitative in nature but was vulnerable to the fact that response from correspondents couldn't be verified. It was established that couples who had premarital education were less likely to experience marital problems. Marriage therapy was also established to be a strong and effective form of marriage intervention (Doss, 2010).
This article was aimed at establishing procedures used by most couples in marriage preparation. The problem of study involved the failure of most couples to undertake marriage preparation in modern society. The study was done on 350 couples who had undertaken marriage preparations before…
Doss, B. (2010). Expanding the Reach and Effectiveness of Marriage Intervention.
American Psychological Association, 58(5), 224-230.
Fowers, B., & Olson, D. (1986). Predicting Marital Success with PREPARE: A
Predictive Validity Study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 12(4), 403-
Applying Positive Psychology Principles in the Workplace
At its most basic level, the field of positive psychology seeks to better understand what is right about people rather than what is wrong, and there has been a growing body of scholarship devoted to its main tenets during the quarter century since its introduction. The research to date confirms that the practice of positive psychology can produce a number of important and valuable outcomes, including improved mental and physical health and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to provide a recapitulation of the major principles and concepts learned during the completion of the Positive Psychology course followed by an explanation about their respective importance. Further, a description concerning what changes this author expects to make in the future is followed by a discussion of the evidence in support of the key tenets of positive psychology. Finally, a summary of the…
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality (independently published September 25, 2020). In Park & Peterson, 2008.
Mukund, B. & Singh, T. B. (2015, June). Positive psychology and mental health. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 197-201.
Nathawat, S. S. (2018, July). Measures of positive psychology. Development and validation. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology,43(2), 334.
Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2008, December). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 85-89.
Seligman, M. E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000, January). American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.
Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421
Shrestha, A. K. (2019, June). Developing positive psychology as a universal science: Cultural and methodological challenges. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology,10(2), 83.
Stebleton, M. & Peterson, M. (2007, Spring). Unfolding stories: Integrating positive psychology into a career narrative approach. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 23(1), 9-14.
educing Stress Using Positive Psychology
This paper will show that as a Sergeant Major combining Positive Psychology with the MT Competencies of Self-Awareness, Self-egulation and Mental Agility will assist with reducing stress in high tempo organizations. As the Army embraces esilience and Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness (CSF2), Sergeant Majors must be knowledgeable of the factors and the benefits of these programs in order to facilitate the implementation of reducing stress and achieving results that are positive. Implementation of this will help with the leadership challenge of reducing stress. The association between positive psychological constructs and increased stress resistance implies that increasing such factors could potentially lead to an increase in resilience (Lester et al., 2011)
The occupation of the U.S. army across different regions in combative situations for long durations has caused the senior leadership to take up issues of mental strengths in soldiers so that they are…
"Training; Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness," Army Regulation 350-53, (2014).
Casey, G.W., Jr. (2011). Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A vision for psychological resilience in the U.S. Army. American Psychologist, 66, 1-3.
Cornum, R., Matthews, M.D., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2011). Comprehensive Soldier Fitness. Building resilience in a challenging institutional context. American Psychologist, 66, 4-9.
Lester P.B., Harms P.D., Herian M.N., Krasikova D.V. & Beal S.J. (2011). The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program Evaluation Report #3: Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Master Resilience Training on Self-Reported Resilience and Psychological Health Data.
Positive psychology is a relatively new orientation in the field of psychology that focuses on human strengths and virtues. This discipline was introduced by Martin Seligman in 1998 to provide a different approach to psychology i.e. The shift from a negative approach to positive aspects of human life. Since its introduction, positive psychology has continued to experience significant growth and development that is mainly attributed to the increased attention on positive aspects of life.
Based on the specific components of positive psychology, I have identified my personal psychological strengths. These strengths were identified through the use of VIA Classification of Strengths from Pennsylvania State University. The identification and assessment of personal psychological strengths was also based on existing literature on positive psychology. Through the use of the tool, my personal psychological strengths include the character strengths of hope, transcendence, creativity, open-mindedness, and love of learning. I identified these personal psychological…
Biswas-Diener, R., Kashdan, T.B. & Minhas, G. (2011, April 6). A Dynamic Approach to Psychological Strength Development and Intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106-118.
Compton, W. & Hoffman, E. (2013). Positive psychology: the science of happiness and flourishing (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Flow and the foundations of positive psychology: the collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. New York, NY: Springer Science.
Drucker, P.F., Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Davidson, D.J. (2006). A life worth living: contributions to positive psychology. Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
According to the essay by Maddux, this is a counterpoint to traditional clinical psychology because it alters the language of treatment, placing it in terms of personal well-being rather than clinical illness. (p. 14)
This view is further supported in the essay by Baltes et al., which articulates that "the argument of proponents of positive psychology is that the primary focus of 20th-century psychology was too much on treating the dysfunctional and that this emphasis resulted in a neglect of the search for optimality and the conditions of excellence, individually and collectively." (p. 328)
The perpseictive expressed here as well as the generally array of subjects touched upon throughout the text has helped to support a basic premise of this text that Positive Psychology may be uniquely beneficial in improving emotional adjustment.
Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective…
Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.
Colapinto, J. (1982). Structural Family Therapy. Originally published in Arthur M. Horne and Merle M. Ohlsen (eds.)., Family counseling and Therapy. Itasca, Illinois: F .E. Peacock.
Cutuli, J.J.; Chaplin, T.M.; Gillham, J.E.; Reivich, K.J. & Seligman, M.E.P. (2006). Preventing Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms in Adolscents with Conduct Problems. New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 282-286.
McConnell, R.A.; Sim, a.J. (2000). Evaluating an innovative counseling service for children of divorce. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 28(1).
Freud and Positive Psychology
Positive Psychology and Freud
Many people today would have people believe that Freud's only contribution to positive psychology would be his demonstration of what not to do and how not to view the human psyche. In other words they mistakenly take all the stereotyped Freudian standards, without regard for his whole contribution to psychology, which does actually offer a great deal of positives, and equates it to negative and problem-based standards. Yet, in truth Freud offered a few things up to positive psychology which cannot be extricated. Freud first contributed to positive psychology by theorizing the perception is not necessarily reality. What I mean by this is that he was one of the first to assume that people don't always know the reason they act or think as they do. This assumption, though surrounded by negative connotations today, was extrapolated on by other theorists who decided…
Fear of Success through Positive Psychology
Perhaps we are blinded to the survival value of positive emotions precisely because they are so important. Like the fish who is unaware of the water in which it swims, we take for granted a certain amount of hope, love, enjoyment, and trust because these are the very conditions that allow us to go on living. They are the fundamental conditions of existence, and if they are present, any amount of objective obstacles can be faced with equanimity, and even joy. -- Martin E.P. Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
The above epigraph by two of the leading proponents of positive psychology is reflective of how important positivity is to a sense of well-being and success, but many people continue to lack the ability to recognize these deficiencies in their lives when they do exist. In a "Catch-22" scenario, this negativity can feed on itself and…
"A Positive Approach to Rehabilitation Research and Practice." (2005). The Journal of Rehabilitation 71(2):3.
Baxter, Susan. (1993, March-April). "The Last Self-Help Article You'll Ever Need."
Psychology Today 26(2):70.
Buckingham, Marcus and Donald O. Clifton. Now, Discover your Strengths. New York: Free
Me = Female, 20 yrs old.
One older brother = 25 yrs old, named Eduardo (Eddie). Lives in Los Angeles.
Mother = named Estrella. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1949, grew up in Buenos Aires and Panama City. Her father, my grandfather Abraham, was born in 1915 in Malaga, Spain to two Sephardic Jewish parents. My mother's mother, named Donna, was born in Buenos Aires in 1924. Donna's mother was also Sephardic Jewish, born in Spain and moved to Argentina with her husband, a Spanish Catholic who converted to Judaism. Abraham owned a small watch repair store in Malaga. He met Donna in Madrid while they were both in college there. Donna was a writer and artist who had several poems published but never received a lot of recognition for her work. Donna and Abraham are both still alive and now live in Panama City. My…
.....refreshing trend in the field of psychology, positive psychology refers to a set of theoretical frameworks and practices that focus on how individuals can maximize happiness and wellbeing. Unlike traditional schools of thought in the field of psychology, positive psychology does not focus on pathology. Mental illness is not covered within the provisions of positive psychology. However much positive psychology echoes some of the tenets and tone of pop psychology trends, positive psychology has gained traction in academic circles and has received widespread support among researchers and members of the American Psychological Association including former president Martin Seligman.
Given its increased credibility among clinical psychologists, positive psychology deserves more attention and should be integrated more into traditional psychological practices. Focusing too much on how to label and classify symptoms likely a detrimental effect on some, if not most, patient populations. Positive psychology does not purport to replace traditional psychology in…
Canadian Psychology entitled "Expanding Opportunities for Diversity in Positive Psychology" presents the results of a systematic review of literature. The review of literature covers the years between 1998 and 2014, spanning the bulk of the duration of the field of positive psychology. The purpose of the systematic review was to examine how issues related to race, class, and gender were addressed in literature on positive psychology because of what the authors claim to be a widespread perception of the field ignoring these relevant issues. Findings of the systematic review of literature were varied, and included an underrepresentation of female authors of peer-reviewed articles in the field of positive psychology in spite of an over-representation of female participants in empirical research. Additionally, ao & Donaldson (2015) found that discussions about gender, race, or ethnicity issues are nearly absent from positive psychology literature altogether. The bulk of research in positive psychology is…
Rao, M.A. & Donaldson, S.I. (2015). Expanding opportunities for diversity in positive psychology. Canadian Psychology 56(3): 271-282. Retrieved on EBSCO.
Bucket List, is a movie, with two experienced stars; Hollywood, and veteran actors, Jack Nicholson, and Morgan Freeman. However, the two actors, as depicted in the movie, have substantial difference in terms of style, temperament and performance. The movie is full of emotions, joy and warmth, but in some instances, there were apparent shortcomings in dialogue, and character development. Through the expertise, and talents of the two actors, one is in a position to elicit the best parts of life. They manage to make people welcome life, in any way it comes, even when they know they have a day to live (Elias, 2014).
Different people perceive the movie in diverging ways, but this merely depends on one's understanding. However, the core element, which is common to every person, is that the two actors are in deep friendship, primarily because they share in the same fate. Personally, I feel that…
Elias, L.D. (2014). The Bucket List. Retrieved February 3, 2014 from http://moviesharkdeblore.com/site/movies/movies_view.php?editid1=172
Ebert, R. (2008). The Bucket List. Retrieved February 3, 2014 from http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/the-bucket-list-2008
Diamond, S.A. (2011). Staring at sixty: Some musings about mortality and the bucket list.
Retrieved February 3, 2014 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evil-deeds/201104/staring-sixty-some-musings-about-mortality-and-the-bucket-list
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…
Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/
Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers
McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…
Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html
Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html
Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:
Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.
Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.
Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
Psychology -- Aspects of the Self
As a women, I have been intimately familiar with interdependency for the majority of my life. It is only in the last few years that I have embraced a level of independence that rivals that of the men I know. Triandis (1994) suggests that we draw on the interdependent and independent aspects of ourselves as we need to, but I suspect that these construals are also established by the moment-by-moment interactions we have with others. My independence is represented by the social roles that I adopt: I am a sister and a girlfriend. In these roles, I proceed from a relational construal. My actions are fundamentally considered to be my own, reflecting well or poorly on me -- not on my brother and not on my girlfriends. Similarly, my interdependency is reflected in my role as a daughter. Social and familial regard for me…
Kitayama, S., Marcus, H.R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self -criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1245-1267.
Kuo, B.C.H., & Gingrich, L. (2004). Correlates of self-construals among Asian and Caucasian undergraduates in Canada: Cultural patterns and implications for counseling. Guidance and Counceling, 20, 78-88.
Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could make her mom feel needed around the house since being needed gives the person a feel of being important -- a form of favorable stimulus.
To strengthen the independent behavior, Dorothy may choose to remove the aversive stimulus in her mom's environment. If it irritates Dorothy's mom to be looked over most of the day (aversive stimulus in this case) because it reminds her of her disability, she could be allowed to spend the whole afternoon by herself if she was able to go to the bathroom on her own. Her mom can also be allowed to skip a chore she dislikes, such as feeding the dogs (aversive stimulus in this case), if she was able to prepare their breakfast all by…
Santrock, J.W. (2005). Psychology (7th Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York.
I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.
With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.
A learned for example…
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
These issues can be the result, in part or entirety, of a physical malfunction or genetic structure. With the most modern technology, it is possible to actually see the workings of the brain in action. Further, with empirical research and laboratory studies, it is possible to see how certain physiological traits go hand-in-hand with psychological problems. For example, scientists increasingly believe that schizophrenia arises from disruptions of brain development before or shortly after birth.
The fascinating and positive aspect of these trends is that people can be helped more quickly and effectively. Instead of spending years in therapy or perhaps in mental institutions without any change, in many cases people can be aided by pharmaceuticals and/or a better understanding of their physical abnormalities. More than likely, as more is known about the brain in the coming decades, scientists will be better able to hone in on the problems and more…
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…
Association for Humanistic Psychology. Website: http://ahpweb.org/aboutahp/aboutahp.html .
Berger, Kathleen S. The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, Sixth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. 2002.
Thompson, Ross a. "Child development." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557692_2/Development_Child.html.
Thorpe, G.L., Olson, S.L. (1997) Behavior Therapy: Concepts, Procedures, and Applications, Second Edition (Paperback). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
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As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
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Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
During this process is when they could become traumatized, based upon different events surrounding their bodily functions (such as: wetting the bed). At which point, the individual may exhibit a host of behaviors later on life to include: shyness, domination and compulsive disorders. In the phallic stage (which lasts from 3 -- 5 years old), the child becomes aware of their gender. It is at this stage that the personality is fully developed, with the child cultivating a love for their mother or father (commonly called the Electra or Oedipus complexes). Latency is when there is little to no development in the personality during this part of someone's life. The genital stage begins at the age of 12 years old. During this part of an individual's life, is when the person will begin to a have a renewed interest in: their sexual orientation and those who they are attracted to.…
Incentive Theory. (n.d.). Academics. Retrieved from: http://academics.tjhsst.edu/psych/oldPsych/ch9-2/inct.htm
Bell, R. (1991) Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs. About. Retrieved from:
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). Recovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 25-35.
Dewa, Carolyn S., Hoch, Jeffrey S., Carmen, Glenn, Guscott, Richard, and Anderson, Chris.
(2009). Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Mental Health
Care Program for People Receiving Short-Term Disability Benefits for Psychiatric
After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-T, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47
Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
2. The following is a learning scenario using operant conditioning. A girl is mad at her boyfriend because he doesn't do the dishes enough. The boyfriend is the learner, and the behavior that needs to be learned is doing the dishes. Using operant conditioning, the girlfriend can teach the boyfriend to participate more in household chores by either withholding sex from the boyfriend (punishment); yelling at him (negative reinforcement); or being extra nice to him when he does do the dishes (positive reinforcement).
3. Mnemonic devices are one of the best ways to improve memory in certain situations. One way a person could apply mnemonic devices is to try to memorize people's names, something that can be hard to do at a party. So if a woman's name is Meg and has blonde hair, the person can remember her name by associating it with Meg Ryan. Or if a guy…
Psychology of Happiness and a Life Well-Lived
In this paper, I have discussed that happiness as well as morality (meaningful purpose) are actually the ultimate goals and the true sign of a life well-lived. I have tried to explain how morality must be considered as the most important factor to signify a well-lived life. I have also given the ideas of Aristotle and Plato regarding morality and happiness and have tried to assess the literature on my chosen factor.
If we ask people to elaborate the definition of a well-lived life, we would surely get very different answers. For some, money will be considered as the means to be happy and successful; others may count recognition of peers as the basis of a well-lived life. A well-designed and useful product will be the success for some; for others it can be a beautiful garden. Good relationships would be a mode…
Aristotle. (2007). Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Cosimo. (Original work published 1911)
Burns, R.P. (2008). On the Foundations and Nature of Morality. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 31(1), 7+. Retrieved July 23, 2013, from http://www.questia.com /read/1G1-175875950/on-the-foundations-and-nature-of-morality
Cameron, D. (2007, May 7). Aristotle Got It Right; Well-Being, Not Just Wealth, Should Mark the Progress of Our Societies. Newsweek International, 1. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from
Psychology of Consumer Behaviour
The relationship between money-making motives and subjective well-being
There is presently much controversy regarding the motives behind making money and the concept of subjective well being. Most people associate finances with positive feelings and thus come to focus on making as much money as possible regardless of the risks involved. The masses needs to understand that people are not necessarily interested in money as an object, as they are actually certain that finances are likely to satisfy a series of their needs, thus meaning that people want to achieve particular states of minds and believe that having money is the only method of doing this.
Although it is difficult to determine the exact effects that money has on happiness, studies have shown that "within nations people's finances correlate with their reported well-being, but that richer nations show no greater happiness than poorer ones" (Buunk & Gibbons,…
Buunk, B.P. And Gibbons, F.X. eds.,Health, Coping, and Well-Being: Perspectives from Social Comparison Theory (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997)
Diener, E. Sandvik, E. Seidlitz, E. & Diener, M. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: RELATIVE OR ABSOLUTE," Retrieved February 10, 2012, from the Common Sense Atheism Website: http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Diener-The-relationship-between-income-and-subjective-well-being-Relative-or-absolute.pdf
Duncan Macrae, Policy Indicators: Links Between Social Science and Public Debate / (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985)
Fuentes, N. & Rojas, M. "Economic Theory and Subjective Well-Being: Mexico," retrieved February 10, 2012, from the FLACSO Costa Rica Website:
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF
Psychological Profile of a Terrorist
More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).
Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…
Alexander, D.A. And Klein, S. (2005). The psychological aspects of terrorism: from denial to hyperbole. Vol. 98 # 12, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The
Royal Society of Medicine Press. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299349
Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Kershaw, S. 2010). The terrorist mind: an update. The New York Times: The New York
Because other research has indicated that nonverbal cues can be laden with emotion, and even be important indicators of deception, understanding the use of nonverbal cues in response to certain questions by therapists can give those therapists an important point of reference in evaluating responses.
Unfortunately, despite some significance in the statistical findings of Hill and Stephany (1990), there are complications and limitations to the usefulness of this research study. In theory, this could be an incredibly useful research study because it could provide therapists with a new, statistically proven, tool for evaluating the responses of clients and improving their therapeutic methods. Unfortunately, even Hill and Stephany (1990) admit that they had difficulty reconciling their findings with the research already extant or hypothesized in the relevant literature. For example, previous research has indicated that less controllable nonverbal cues such as leg movements or posture shifts should be more significant than…
Hill, C.E. And Stephany, a. (1990). Relation of nonverbal behavior to client reactions. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
Next, researchers corroborated the results of the study with other relevant facts on the subject. To achieve this objective, they would look at a number of different pieces to confirm the underlying effect. A good example of this is when researchers would study the classic piece of literature on human psychology, Man Search for Meaning. In the book, the author (Viktor Frankel) says, "There is nothing in the world, I venture to say, that would so effectively help one to survive even the worst conditions as the knowledge that there is a meaning in one's life" (Davis, 2003) This is significant, because Frankel is saying that humankind can survive some of the most horrific conditions, if they are given a reason to endure. As a result, one could effectively argue that the research and the subsequent examination of the different pieces of literature confirm the effect that religion…
Cline, A. (2010). Karl Marx on Religion. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from About.com website: http://atheism.about.com/od/weeklyquotes/a/marx01.htm
Davis, K. (2003). Meaning, Purpose and Religiosity in at Risk Youth. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31.
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…
David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm
Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight
Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap
Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
The authors assessments about the power of television in influencing the ideas children have about multiculturalism are extremely relevant and accurate. All forms of media are extremely popular and as a result the messages that are presented about people from various cultures also become popular, even if the messages are untrue or based on stereotypes. The benefit of understanding the power of television on the minds of young people, is that parents have the ability to monitor how much television that their children watch. In addition, when questionable images do appear parents can discuss these images with children. y monitoring the images that children see on television, parents have the ability to shape the opinions of children concerning multiculturalism.
The article seems to also articulate the idea that the images seen on television can be used to reinforce positive attitudes in children concerning the culture that they belong…
Berry G.L. (2003). Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic
Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 9(4), 360 -- 366
During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.
Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:
Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;
Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;
Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;
Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;
Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.
Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.
Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.
One of the Best Investments
Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…
Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/
The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html
I am motivated to continue with my volunteering experience because of a caller I had one night when I had hotline duty.
The caller had been raped several years before and was a repeat caller, who just needed to talk when the nightmares came. In the morning, at the end of my volunteer shift, she phoned me back to thank me and to tell me that, after talking to me, she had been able to sleep through the night for the first time in years.
Journal Entry 5: Partner Abuse
Take the Domestic Violence Screening Quiz at http://psychcentral.com/dvquiz.htm. andshare your thoughts on living with domestic violence. How could you help, and what would you say to a friend who was experiencing domestic abuse?
My domestic violence screening score was a 3. I am not in an abusive relationship and have committed myself to never being a victim or perpetrator of…
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Consumer perspectives on the emerging culture of consumption in Singapore
The consumption style of consumers alludes to the mental approach or orientation a purchaser has towards settling on decisions. Although purchaser choice making style depicts a consistent trend of affective and cognitive responses, national culture has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual attitudes and values. In this way, culture has a noteworthy impact on consumption trend in Singapore (Mooij & Mooij, 2011). This study will embrace buyer research into consumption styles to improve comprehension of how culture shapes consumption trends across Singapore. Primarily, this study will evaluate and confirm to the identified Singaporean culture. Minimal research analyzes cultural factors shaping buyer decision making. There is confirmation of cultural aspects in the purchaser's styles of making choices for fashion although no study has covered if this impact extends to the purchase of general…
Gelfand, M.J., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mooij, M.K., & Mooij, M.K. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.
This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.
Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation
In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…
The studies have also enlightened the fact that when the adolescence is securely attached to their parents, they develop increased social cognitive skills, which results in secure attachments with their relationships in the late adulthood, as they have been monitored to foster those relationships as well. In fact, the adolescence has also been observed to exhibit strong peer relationships that are based on trust (Greenberg, Siegel & Leitch, 1983).
The analysis of the empirical study have also demonstrated the fact when the relationship and attachment of peers is concerned during the adolescence period of life, two aspects played significant role in the development of social cognitive skills. The quality of their attachments on emotional basis and the degree with which they utilized that relationship were the prime contributing source that helped in the social cognitive development of the adolescence (Greenberg, Siegel & Leitch, 1983).
Section 6: Conclusion
To conclude the…
Bradley, R.H., Corwyn, R.F., Burchinal, M., McAdoo, H.P. And Coll, G.C. (2001). 'The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part II: Relations with Behavioral Development through Age Thirteen.' Child Development, Volume 72, Issue 6: p. 1868 -- 1886. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00383
Galotti, K.M. (2010). Cognitive Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. 2nd Edition. USA: SAGE Publications.
Greenberg, M.T., Siegel, J.M. & Leitch, C.J. (1983). 'The Nature and Importance of Attachment Relationships to Parents and Peers During Adolescence' Journal of Youth and Adolescence, VoL 12, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/70/art%253A10.1007%252FBF02088721.pdf?auth66=1353831684_c66cf2abf10086238108285519f20f1e&ext=.pdf
Ma, C.Q. & Huebner, E.S. (2008). "ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS and ADOLESCENTS' LIFE SATISFACTION: SOME RELATIONSHIPS MATTER MORE to GIRLS THAN BOYS." Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 45(2). Retrieved from: http://www.paedpsy.tu-berlin.de/uploads/media/Jugendliche_01.pdf
Mental Imagery is a cognitive process that very much resembles the human experience of perceiving an object, scene, or event when that object, scene or event is not present. Some educators think that the use of mental imagery can both enhance memorization and learning. If the learning process can emphasize visual, auditory and kinesthetic experiences, then teaching in multiple sensory processes benefits the potential for memory. Being able to mentally "see" the event, page, process, formula, musical notes, etc. often creates a more robust memory experience for the learner (Kosslyn, et.al, 2003).
The loci technique, or the memory palace, is a mnemonic device that allows for images or facts to be associated with physical locations. Cognitively, it relies on an individual's ability to memorize spatial relationships that give order, and then that order helps with recollection. The idea is that we can increase our chances of memorizing something…
Peg Method for Remembering Lists. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.memory-improvement-tips.com/remembering-lists.html
Strategies of Divergent Thinking. (2008). University of Washington. Retrieved from: http://faculty.washington.edu/ezent/imdt.htm
Carlson, N. (2010) Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Toronto: Pearson Canada.
Fliskowski, P. (2011). Understanding Sentences: Does the Garden Path Theory Sufficiently Explain How Humans Comprehend? Seminar Paper. Retrieved from: http://books. google.com/books?id=FKXdYsU49tQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=garden+path+sentences&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZHWkUNm6JIb8igKnq4DoBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg
" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.
Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…
Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building/
Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at
Application of E. Kubler-oss Theory to eal Life Loss
Stages of Bereavement in relation to eal Life Loss
Elizabeth Kubler-oss posits a theory that the process of loss and grief can be measured in seven distinct steps - shock, denial, anger, negotiation, depression, acceptance, and hope. While these stages may be in any order and can amount to any length of time to progress and advance to the next level, its significance is shown in the application of this theory to a real-life situation concerning the death of a loved one. This paper endeavours to explore each of the seven stages as outlined in the E. Kubler-oss theory. Its application is also conducted on a real-life tragedy I experienced as a teenager when my childhood friend passed away. The stages of grief and loss in the E. Kubler-oss theory does much to convey that the whole process…
Coster, David R. (December 2000). The Grief Process and the Funeral Liturgy. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:dt5b6yJVwLMC:www.schoolofministry.ac.nz/Files/David%2520Coster%2520Grief%2520and%2520Funerals.doc+E+Kubler+Ross+%22The+Grief+Process+and+the+Funeral%22&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
Drama Theoretic Technologies (April 2002). Mourning. http://www.dramatec.com/articles/library/a200204001/
Freeman, Steve. "Organizational Loss," in Identity Maintenance and Adaptation: a Multilevel Analysis of Response to Loss. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:lRTKSR0lL0MC:imvp.mit.edu/papers/96/Freeman2.pdf+E+Kubler+Ross+Organizational+Loss&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
Kruger, Prof. Mariana. Translated from Afrikaans to English by van den Berg, Celia. Dying Children and Their Families. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:SPv7MM_NLZwC:www.churchstreetfunerals.co.za/Mariana%2520Kruger.doc+%22Dying+Children+and+their+Families%22+E+Kubler-Ross&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
Finally, the study has a variety of implications for both the fields of education and early childhood development. Because Bortfeld et al. have distinguished that infants can recognize familiar words and words that precede or follow them at a very early age, educators in grades as low as pre-school can use this information to design a curriculum for maximum learning. Thus, the implications of Bortfeld et al.'s study have depth and are widespread across disciplines.
The fact that this study is saturated with implications for a variety of fields suggests that it not only provides a wealth of new information to add to the conversation regarding infant word recognition, but also that the study was conducted well with a variety of strengths, though some weaknesses can also be identified. In regards to methodology, the three experiments were set up as to compliment each other in a logical chronological manner. Each…
Psychology Foundation of Learning -- Coping with a disobedient Child
Punishing the child to create a change in behavior would be one method to employ at the camp. This could be accomplished by creating an avoidant behavior punishment strategy by withdrawing the presence of the leader and the group, from the girl, when the child engages in self-harm or bites another individual. The punishment could involve forcing the girl to spend a 'time out' period in the camp director's office or in her bunk under the supervision of a reliable person, but not someone whom the girl feels the same positive feelings towards as her friends and the group leader. Or, the girl could be assigned an additional duty to the directive she initially refused.
Method II: Substitution
Substituting an alternative behavior by reinforcing an incompatible response in the girl is another possibility to deal with her behavior. The stimulus…