Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Psychology Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Psychological Research Methods
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54138677
Read Full Paper  ❯

Research practices depend on clearly defined guidelines. Those guidelines include general suggestions for how to conduct research effectively, how to apply research to clinical practice, and also how to maximize research reliability and validity. The scientist-practitioner model has become the “framework for many training programs in clinical psychology,” (Belar & Perry, 1992, p. 71). However, it is also important to pay attention to specific statistical analyses due to the potential for misinterpreting data. Cortina (1993) points out the significance of coefficient alpha, noting that proper interpretations of alpha enhance research validity and reliability. Alpha can often be misunderstood, particularly in the realm of scientist-practitioner and other types of applied research. It is not just misinterpretation of the alpha coefficient that can stymie research validity in the social sciences. Measurement errors, attenuation, and related biases can also impede research validity (Schmidt & Hunter, 1996).
Another core area of concern in applied…

Bacharach, S. B. (1989). Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 496-515.
Belar, C. D., & Perry, N. W. (1992). National conference on scientist–practitioner education and training for the professional practice of psychology. American Psychologist, 47(1), 71–75.
Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98-104.
Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Meller, J. D. (2012). General and specific measures in organizational behavior research: Considerations, examples, and recommendations for researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 161–174.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1996). Measurement error in psychological research: Lessons from 26 research scenarios. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 199–223.

John Watson Founder of Behaviorism
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95330310
Read Full Paper  ❯

What are John Watson's primary critiques of psychology (i.e., the study of consciousness via introspection)? How does he propose to solve these issues? Do you believe that introspection is important in changing behavior? Why or why not?
First, Watson believed that psychology used “esoteric methods,” and could not establish itself as a natural science (p. 163). Second, Watson noted that unlike the sciences, it is impossible to improve upon the methods used in an experiment in any meaningful way. “The attack is made upon the observer and not the upon the experimental setting,” (Watson, 1913, p. 163). Psychology depends too much on introspection, as Watson calls it. Consciousness is simply too nebulous to study using the scientific method. Watson does not claim consciousness is not a worthwhile subject, but that it is simply not a scientific subject.
To resolve the tension between psychology and the social sciences, and to infuse psychology…

“Psyography: John Broadus Watson,” (n.d.).

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Words: 1029 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51221580
Read Full Paper  ❯

The Psychology of Motivation
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23.
This article examines the appositeness of Self Determination Theory (STD) in optimizing motivation and psychological health for people. The predominant notion explored within this work is that of STD, which is significant for propounding two alternative theories of motivation. The first is that people are motivated by what is known as “autonomous” (Deci and Ryan, 2008, p. 14) motivation, which entails an active choice on the part of the subject. There are positive connotations associated with this type of motivation. The second is called “controlled” (Deci and Ryan, 2008, p. 14) motivation and correlates to feelings of pressure or compulsion to do something which does not necessarily reflect the volition of the individual. This theory is examined within the context of more traditional theories, one of…

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23.
Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (2012). Motivation: Past, present, and future. In K.R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook: Volume 1. Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 367-397).
Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246-268.
Moore, J. (2013). Tutorial: Cognitive psychology as a radical behaviorist views it. The Psychological Record, 63(3), 667-680.
Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 291-306.

Master Resiliency Training in Army
Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93190750
Read Full Paper  ❯

Positive Psychology and Master Resiliency Training
Sheldon and King (2001) state that positive psychology is “nothing more than the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues” (p. 216). In other words, it is the science how people can live well and be strong. For that reason, positive psychology serves as the core of Master Resiliency Training (MRT) in the U.S. Army. Just as positive psychology focuses on identifying the elements that enable individuals to flourish (Fredrickson, 2001), MRT enables leaders in the Army to demonstrate and teach the skills that soldiers need to overcome obstacles and face challenges with determination, commitment and the ability to succeed. As Gen. Casey (2011) puts it, “the Army is leveraging the science of psychology in order to improve our force’s resilience” (p. 1). This paper will show that Sergeants Major can use positive psychology in general and MRT in particular to teach mental…

Casey Jr, G. W. (2011). Comprehensive soldier fitness: A vision for psychological resilience in the US Army. American Psychologist, 66(1), 1.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American psychologist, 56(3), 218.
Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of personality and social psychology, 95(5), 1045.
Reivich, K. J., Seligman, M. E., & McBride, S. (2011). Master resilience training in the US Army. American Psychologist, 66(1), 25.
Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist, 56(3), 216.


learning theories
Words: 2671 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39022875
Read Full Paper  ❯

Theories of learning are critical for informing pedagogical practice and promoting a deeper understanding of human behavior and mental processes. Behaviorism offers corresponding theories of learning that focus mainly on observable and measurable outcomes in performance. Cognitive theories of learning emphasize numerous complex thought processes such as assimilation and accommodation of new material, and also takes into account emotional aspects such as motivation. Behavioral learning theories and cognitive learning theories seem diametrically opposed but can be easily integrated via a Biblical worldview. Implications for future research include the thoughtful integration of both behavioral and cognitive learning theories into a Biblical worldview to better inform instructional strategies and promote mental health.
How people learn has been one of the most pressing issues in the field of psychology. Since its inception, behaviorism has attempted to answer questions related to the nature and function of human learning via experimental research and…

Anderson, T. (2016). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In Veletsianos, G. (Ed.). Emergence and Innovation in Digital Learning. Athabasca University Press.
Ashby, F. G., & Valentin, V. V. (2017). Multiple Systems of Perceptual Category Learning. Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, 157–188. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-101107-2.00007-5
Bible: NIV
Ormrod, J.E. (2016). Human Learning, 7th Edition. Pearson.
Reimann, A. (2018). Behaviorist Learning Theory. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–6. doi:10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0155
Richard, J.A. (2016). Understanding theories of learning. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Modern Education 1(2): ISSN (Online): 2454 – 6119.
Savignon, S. J. (2017). Communicative Competence. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–7. doi:10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0047
Sweller, J., & Paas, F. (2017). Should self-regulated learning be integrated with cognitive load theory? A commentary. Learning and Instruction, 51, 85–89. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.05.005

Operant Conditioning
Words: 1980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96744229
Read Full Paper  ❯

This term refers to a system of learning in which any action results in a form of reward or punishment. This means when a person does something, the result of that action can be gratifying or retributive. Corroboration hereby is two-sided. It can entail a positive incentive such as excellence as well as commendation. On the flip side, adverse corroboration will result in undesirable impetus such as contempt as well as distress. The two forms of corroboration which have caught the attention of a majority of scholars are:
Plans focused on a specific duration like the static as well as adjustable interims. This is where any fortification follows the static as well as adjustable duration. On the other hand, proportionate plans rely on static as well as flexible rejoinders in order for the fortification to be conveyed (Blackman, 2017).
There is a plethora of experimental descriptions of liberal methods. As…

Bitterman, M. E. (2006). Classical conditioning since Pavlov. Review of General Psychology, 10(4), 365.
Blackman, D. E. (2017). Operant conditioning: an experimental analysis of behavior. Routledge.
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance improvement quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.
Nicholson, J., & Higgins, G. E. (2017). Social structure social learning theory: preventing crime and violence. In Preventing Crime and Violence (pp. 11-20). Springer, Cham.
Pizzurro, E. (1998). Can behaviorism still apply in the face of overwhelming opposition? Northwestern University, URL http://www. Personality research. Org/papers/Pizzurro. Html (accessed 1/8/2009).
Staddon, J. E., & Cerutti, D. T. (2002). Operant conditioning. Annual review of psychology, 54, 115-44.
Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Sellers, C. S., Thomas Winfree Jr, L., Madensen, T. D., Daigle, L. E., ... & Gau, J. M. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: A meta?analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 765-802.
Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3(1), pp. 1–14.

Biological Psychological and Social dimensions of Anna
Words: 1930 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 48522966
Read Full Paper  ❯

This paper reviews a case vignette, “Anna”, determines the developmental stage of the individual and assesses how well the individual is achieving the developmental tasks and issues present at the Biological, Psychological, and Social dimensions.
Anna’s Biological/physical functioning
(1) Completion of physical development tasks:
Anna is a 47-year-old Latina divorcee with two children, 23 and 26 years of age, residing in another state. Biological changes typical to the midlife phase, in which Anna currently is, include increased joint aches, weight gain and vision impairment (Lachman, 2004). By midlife, hearing and sight gets impaired among roughly 14% of individuals (Lumen, 2017). However Anna reports hardly any changes in these areas. Elevated blood pressure rates, stroke and smoking aggravate vision and hearing impairment; the above factors are absent in Anna and her healthy lifestyle makes her unlikely to experience them in the near future.
(2) Significant illness/disease:
Anna's mom and dad,…

Bumpass, L. L., & Aquilino, W. S. (1995). A social map of midlife: Family and work over the life course. Prepared for the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Midlife Development.
Cliff Notes. (2017). Developmental Psychology. Intellectual Development: Age 45–65. Retrieved from:
Durkin, K. (NA). Adolescence and Adulthood. Retrieved from:
Lachman, M. E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 305-331. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141521
Lumen. (2017). Introduction to Middle Adulthood. Retrieved from:
Papalia, D.E., Olds, S.W. and Feldman, R.D. (2017). Human Development, 10/e. Retrieved from:
Saint Leo University. (2017). The First Florida Catholic University. Retrieved from:
Wink, Paul & Dillon, Michele. (2004). Religiousness, Spirituality, and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood: Findings From a Longitudinal Study.. Psychology and aging. 18. 916-24. 10.1037/0882-7974.18.4.916.

Theodore Millon Theorist
Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52547408
Read Full Paper  ❯

I. Background
Premier personality psychologist, Theodore Millon has been described as the “primary architect for the personality disorders” that have appeared in every Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) edition since the third (Choca & Grossman, 2014, p. 541).
Millon’s biosocial model of personality also helped the American Psychiatric Association remain steadfast to its multi-axial system of diagnosis, upon which personality is Axis II (Millon & Grossman, 2015).
Million was also the architect of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI).
Millon’s personality theory is evolutionary and biosocial, and the theorist was undoubtedly influenced by the evolutionary biology theories of Charles Darwin (American Psychological Association, 2009).
A. Historical Overview
Millon was born in Manhattan in 1928, and was an only child. He died in 2014 (“Theodore Millon – obituary,” 2014).
He began studying psychology in undergraduate school and showed an early predilection towards the understanding of abnormal psychology and personality disorders (“Theodore…

American Psychological Association (2009). Evolutionary theory and psychology.
Choca, J.P. & Grossman, S.D. (2014). Evolution of the Millon clinical multiaxial inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment 97(6): 541-549.
Grossman, S.D. (2015). Millon\\'s Evolutionary Model of Personality Assessment: A Case for Categorical/Dimensional Prototypes, Journal of Personality Assessment, 97:5, 436-445
Millon, T. & Grossman, S. (2013). Evolution-Based Personality Theory.
Millon Personality Group (2015). Dr. Theodore Millon.
“Theodore Millon – obituary,” (2014). The Telegraph.

Psychological Test Evaluation Beck Anxiety Inventory BAI
Words: 3024 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: question answer Paper #: 27835511
Read Full Paper  ❯

Psychological Test Evaluation: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
Section 1: General Features
a) Title: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
b) Author(s): Aaron T Beck, Robert A Steer
c) Publisher: Pearson Education, Inc.
d) Publication Year: 1993
e) Age Range: 17 years to adult (Beck & Steer, 1993)
f) Qualification Code: CL2
Section 2: Instrument Description
a) Instrument Function: What does it measure?
BAI is a tool used to measure the level of anxiety in persons aged 18 and above. It is the criteria referenced assessment instrument. The Beck Anxiety Inventory provides professionals with a strong basis on which to anchor their diagnosis and decisions about the same (Beck et al., 1988; Beck & Steer, 1993). The instrument can be used to measure baseline anxiety to establish how effective treatment is as it goes on. It can also be applied as an outcome measure during the post-treatment period.
(a) Population: Who does the…

Adolescent Psychosocial Assessment
Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 54875989
Read Full Paper  ❯

Adolescent Psychosocial Assessment
In list format, cover the following:
1. Name: John Mathew
2. Age: 18
3. Sex: Male
4. Race/Ethnic: Black, African-American
5. Education/Occupation: Student
6. Health: Okay
John's family lives in an apartment situated in the middle of a range of complexes. The residence is right in the middle of communities in Washington, DC. The household is always abuzz with activity. There are two boys named Zebulon and David. The boys still call for their mother's attention. Ervin, my father, does not have a job. He is grounded in a wheelchair, following health challenges he has faced in the past couple of years. My mother is a part-time writer. Her name is Monique. The main poverty indicator about my family is the challenge we face in paying bills and lack of money to travel around (Sherman, 2012). Several aspects of culture…

Big Five Trait Theory
Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12529722
Read Full Paper  ❯

The Big Five Trait Theory is used to describe the five core traits of personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion-introversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. These traits are often used to help predict relationships between different personality types, as well as predictors of success in different aspects of life (Psychology Today, 2018).
Ackerman (2017) argues that the Big 5 traits have been verified across different cultures and countries, thus making them relatively neutral in terms of culture bias, and findings involving the traits to be more or less universal.
In practice, the Big 5 is used in settings such as human resources departments, rather than as a comprehensive explanation of personality. For example, conscientiousness was found to be reliably correlated with success in the workplace, moreso than other traits. So an HR department might run an entire test but only be looking for a high conscientiousness score. The Big 5 trait theory…

Ackerman, C. (2017). The big five personality theory: The 5 factor explained Positive Psychology Program. Retrieved March 14, 2018 from
Psychology Today (2018). Big 5 personality traits. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 14, 2018 from

Mary Ainsworth
Words: 1136 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90534325
Read Full Paper  ❯

Mary Ainsworth: Her Impact on Early Childhood Practices
Mary Ainsworth was born in Ohio in 1913. When she was five, her family moved to Toronto and Mary spent the rest of her childhood in Canada (O’Connell & Russo, 1983). Mary read a book entitled Character and the Conduct of Life when she was fifteen years old and that is what led her to want to pursue a career in psychology (O’Connell & Russo, 1983). The following year, she enrolled at the University of Toronto, earned her BA in 1935, her MA in 1936 and her PHD in Psychology in 1939 (Ravo, 1999). Mary taught at the University of Toronto, researched at Tavistock in England, worked at Johns Hopkins, and then settled at the University of Virginian beginning in 1975, where she stayed till she ended her professorship in 1992 (Ravo, 1999).
While in graduate school, Mary was introduced to…

McLeod, S. (2016). Mary Ainsworth. Retrieved from
O’Connell, A. & Russo, N. (1983). Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. New York, NY: Columbia University.
Ravo, N. (1999). Mary Ainsworth, 85, theorist on mother-infant attachment. Retrieved from

Theory Foundations of Personality
Words: 3860 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23310779
Read Full Paper  ❯

Dozens of research studies have supported the hypothesis that personality traits change as one becomes older. However, what triggers these changes in personality traits? How do these changes take place? This paper investigates some of the answers to these complex questions. It does so by comparing six theories on personality development. All the theories are backed by evidences which will also be discussed. The paper ends by providing a conclusion on the factors that are driving personality changes and development.
Personality traits change with time. In fact, it is well-accepted that the changes are lifelong. There is no single moment in time that personality remains the same. However, the sources of these changes are not known. Of course, there are multiple theories that try to explain this. Some theories argue that personality changes are caused by the environment, others argue that personality changes are caused by social roles…

Santrac, A. S. (2016). Towards the possible integration of Psychology and Christian faith: Faculties of human personality and the Lordship of Christ. In die Skriflig, 50(1), 1-8.
Specht, J., Bleidorn, W., Denissen, J. J., Hennecke, M., Hutteman, R., Kandler, C., ... & Zimmermann, J. (2014). What drives adult personality development? A comparison of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. European Journal of Personality, 28(3), 216-230.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. Jr. (2008). The five-factor theory of personality. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 159–181). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Roberts, B. W., Wood, D., & Smith, J. L. (2005). Evaluating Five Factor Theory and social investment perspectives on personality trait development. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 166–184. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2004.08.002
Kandler, C. (2012). Nature and nurture in personality development: The case of neuroticism and extraversion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), 290-296.
Nature vs Nurture in Behavioral Determination. (2017, November 13). Retrieved May 31, 2018, from
Bryner, J. (2006). Nature vs. Nurture: Mysteries of Individuality Unraveled. Live Science, 19.
Xavier, A. (1996). Integrated Approach to Personality Theories.

psychoanalysis and the different types of research
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42310716
Read Full Paper  ❯

1. The basic structure of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory revolve around the idea that mental processes are automatically regulated by "the pleasure principle" and avoidance of pain. Why are these principles important to psychotherapy? Support your reasoning.

The tendency to avoid pain and seek pleasure is universal to humanity, noted Freud, who devised the term “the pleasure principle,” (“Pleasure Principle,” 2015). The pleasure principle became one of the central ideas and pivotal focal points of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory. The pleasure principle is an embedded function of the subconscious mind, suggesting that it is immutable and inevitable. However, the pleasure principle is driven primarily by the needs and desires of the id. The other two parts of the subconscious, in Freud’s model, can help regulate reactions to the pleasure principle. Those other two parts of the subconscious include the ego and superego. Together with the id, the ego and superego…


University of British Columbia (2017). Scholarly vs. popular sources. Retrieved online: 

education child adolescent development
Words: 356 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98893862
Read Full Paper  ❯

As research in child and adolescent development evolves, it becomes more possible to engage and meet the academic abilities of students with various learning abilities with evidence-based practice interventions. In an overview of over four decades’ worth of research in child and adolescent development, Luthar (2015) discusses the importance of resilience and protective factors, which apply to every single stage of development. The matrix serves as an ideal guide for developing ways to meet the needs of exceptional students through evidence-based practice. Using the matrix, educators can consider the wide range of biological, cultural, familial, and peer/school factors impacting development in the student populations they serve (Hamre, Hatfield, Pianta, et al., 2014).
Even though researchers have generally moved beyond a strict interpretation of developmental stages, developmental stages are the benchmarks by which disabilities of any type are assessed and measured. However, it is important to retain an approach to child…

Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Knafo?Noam, A. (2015). Prosocial development. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, 1-47.
Hamre, B., Hatfield, B., Pianta, R., & Jamil, F. (2014). Evidence for general and domain?specific elements of teacher–child interactions: Associations with preschool children\\\\'s development. Child development, 85(3), 1257-1274.
Luthar, S. S. (2015). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. Developmental Psychopathology: Volume Three: Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation, 739-795.

Strengths-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26977751
Read Full Paper  ❯

Strengths-based practice offers a “new paradigm” that focuses on resources and resilience, opportunities and solutions, rather than on problems or pathologies (Hammond, 2010, p. 3). Especially efficacious for young adults like Ifemelu, strengths-based practice is grounded in resiliency theory. Resiliency theory shows how building assets like self-esteem and self-confidence, plus leveraging external resources like social networks in the community, helps reduce risk and promote desired outcomes (Zimmerman, 2013). Ifemelu can benefit from a strengths-based approach for several reasons. For one, she would respond best to a therapeutic intervention that focuses less on the past due to the persistency of trauma and how it has fueled her depression and social detachment. Focusing on the trauma may encourage Ifemelu to engage in self-destructive habits like self-blame. Using a strengths-based approach, Ifemelu can focus more on how she can move forward and envision her future, perhaps becoming an advocate for women in Nigeria.…

Gander, F., Proyer, R.T., Ruch, W., et al. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions. Journal of Happiness Studies 14(4): 1241-1259.
Green, B., McAlister, C. & Tarte, J. (2004). The strengths-based practice inventory. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services 85(3): 326-334.
Hammond, W. (2010). Principles of strengths-based practice.
Hodges, T.D. (n.d.). Strengths-based development in practice.
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R.L., Williams, J.B.W., et al. (2010). Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptom Scales: a systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry 32(4): 345-359
Padesky, C.A. & Mooney, K.A. (2012). Strengths-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. A four-step model to build resilience. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 19(4): 283-290.
Pattoni, L. (2012). Strengths-based approaches for working with individuals.
Zimmerman, M.A. (2013). Resiliency theory. Health Education & Behavior 40(4): 381-383.

Words: 2650 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 87809848
Read Full Paper  ❯

The case study chosen includes a service user who has experienced cut-off and negligence from his relatives, friends and family especially during his childhood period. He has ever since longed to have contact or an attachment with a family securely. His condition has brought about anxiety which has made him unsettled. If the student is placed in an adult learning disability team whose role is to support adults with learning disabilities, the service users become screened or pre-assessed with fairness when it comes to caring. Such a process is useful in assisting individuals to meet their needs (Jenkins & Davies, 2011). It also ensures that those adults who are at low or moderate risk, are given advice and useful information are provided to them to assist in meeting their needs. Statistics show that nearly 1.5 million people in the United Kingdom have learning disabilities. Over 905,000 being adults aged 18…

Brugha, T., Cooper, S. A., McManus, S., Purdon, S., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., ... & Tyrer, F. (2012). Estimating the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Adults: Extending the 2007 Adult Psychiatric.
Jenkins, R., & Davies, R. (2011). Safeguarding people with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Practice, 14(1).
Torrente, J., Del Blanco, Á., Moreno-Ger, P., & Fernández-Manjón, B. (2012, November). Designing serious games for adult students with cognitive disabilities. In International Conference on Neural Information Processing (pp. 603-610). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Makari Rieff and Schorske Write about Freud
Words: 2400 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95831297
Read Full Paper  ❯

Rieff, Schorske and Makari on Freud: Comparing and Contrasting Perspectives
George Makari argued that Freud was a product of his environment. The culture of Vienna at the time was ripe for something new—but Freudian psychology still needed some external help getting moving, and that came by way of Carl Jung and his experiments which brought a great deal of attention to Freud. Karl Schorske, on the other hand, contends that Freud was less the passive recipient of environmental effects and more the active thinker, whose goal was to give “a meaningful interpretation of Western civilization, and to find his own place in it.” Phillip Rieff, on the third hand, views Freud less as an interpreter of Western civilization and more as a re-maker of civilization—a man of revolutionary ideas that would reshape the West and redirect its course; Rieff saw Freud’s sense of “sublimation” as an essential concept in the…

Works Cited
Makari, George. Revolution in Mind. NY: HarperCollins, 2008.
Rieff, Phillip. The Triumph of the Therapeutic. IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Schorske, Karl. “Freud’s Egyptian Dig.” NYBooks.


The Effect of Divorce on Childhood Development
Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 32249064
Read Full Paper  ❯

Peer Responses
Peer 1 Sovianno
Correlation analysis could be interesting with regard to the passing down of historical trauma from parents to children. Are you doing qualitative or quantitative research? If qualitative, I might consider doing exploratory research and maybe using grounded theory with interviews to collect information. I like qualitative research because it allows one to generate ideas and form hypotheses based on data. However, if you already have an idea in mind and want to test a correlation between variables, then you could perhaps conduct some kind of quantitative research, maybe using the survey method (Newman, 2016). I would try to build on what Gittleman (2006) has examined and see if there is some gap in the research that needs to be addressed and then decide which approach is best for addressing that gap. Overall, I think your idea is a good one and could work, but I…

Lee, V. E., Burkam, D. T., Zimiles, H., & Ladewski, B. (1994). Family Structure and Its Effect on Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young Adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Lawrence Erlbaum), 4(3), 405–437. 
Newman, M. (2016). Research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Resiliency Training in the Military
Words: 2351 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57425210
Read Full Paper  ❯

How Sergeant Majors Help Soldiers Cope with Stress
Master Resilience Training (MRT) allows officers in the U.S. Army to learn how to promote resilience among soldiers using positive psychology. The goal of the program is ultimately to help soldiers cope with stress, anxiety, PTSD, and other adverse situations that soldiers might experience in their units—from sexual assault to domestic violence to substance abuse and so on. Originally developed at the end of the 20th century by the University of Pennsylvania for its Resilience Program, MRT was quickly adopted by the Army as a way to help boost resilience in the battlefield. Today it is taught to non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in a 10-day program that includes education the methods that NCOs can use to communicate resiliency to their soldiers (Reivich, Seligman & McBride, 2011). The MRT program is meant not only to improve soldiers’ ability to cope with stress but…

Cornum, R., Matthews, M. D., & Seligman, M. E. (2011). Comprehensive soldier fitness: building resilience in a challenging institutional context. American Psychologist, 66(1), 4.
Griffith, J., & West, C. (2013). Master resilience training and its relationship to individual well-being and stress buffering among Army National Guard soldiers. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 40(2), 140-155.
Kang, H. K., Bullman, T. A., Smolenski, D. J., Skopp, N. A., Gahm, G. A., & Reger, M.A. (2015). Suicide risk among 1.3 million veterans who were on active duty during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Annals of epidemiology, 25(2), 96-100.
Peterson, C. (2008). What is positive psychology, and what is it not. Psychology Today. Retrieved from
Positive Psychology Program. (2018). MRT in the U.S. Army. Retrieved from
Reivich, K. J., Seligman, M. E., & McBride, S. (2011). Master resilience training in theUS Army. American Psychologist, 66(1), 25.
Vogt, D., Smith, B. N., Fox, A. B., Amoroso, T., Taverna, E., & Schnurr, P. P. (2017). Consequences of PTSD for the work and family quality of life of female and male US Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(3), 341-352.

Unconscious Mind and Self-Development
Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 16195259
Read Full Paper  ❯

Annotated Bibliography
Hebbrecht, M. (2013). The dream as a picture of the psychoanalytic process. Romanian Journal of Psychoanalysis, 6(2), 123–142. Retrieved from
How can we better understand the various unknowns regarding the mind’s conscious as well as unconscious embedded aspects? This, according to Hebbrecht (2013) could be accomplished via an exploration of the underlying structure of dreams so as to better perceive or infer their relationship with psychological and personal connections that are implanted deep in the dream world? Dreams, as had been expressed by Freud, cannot merely be regarded as the unconscious thought’s expressive or direct form. The author, in this article, invokes Freud’s explication or elucidation of dreams in an attempt to initiate debate on the entire proposition as a product of an analytic process. Hebbrecht, in this enlightening article, seeks to elucidate the outcome of the psychoanalytic process, with the dream taking on a prominent role in the examination/evaluation.…

Multicultural Competence and Professional Counselling
Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88525047
Read Full Paper  ❯

Thesis statement
Multicultural competence is a necessary skill for a professional counsellor to succeed in working with mental health patients.
Multicultural counselling refers to situations when a professional counsellor handles patients from different cultural groups and how such interaction holds the potential to interfere with what transpires in the course of their counsellor –patient relationship. The difference in culture is extended to cover differences in religion, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, age, geographic location and family history. Effective multicultural counselling calls for the professional to, firstly, acknowledge the existence of such differences between them and the mental health disorder patient (Faculty, 2014).
The necessary steps to attain cultural competence
How to understand and address problems in multicultural counselling setting
Acknowledging cultural differences is an effective tool that counsellors can utilize to handle patients from other cultural up-bringing. A counsellor must engage the mental health patient in such a way…

Faculty. (2014). Five important aspects of multicultural counselling competencies. Accessed from:
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counselling the culturally diverse: Theory & practice (6th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley.

Evaluation of a Dissertation on Neurofeedback
Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25326144
Read Full Paper  ❯

The Wigton (2014) dissertation is about the efficacy of 19-channel z-score neurofeedback (19ZNF), one of the newer types of neurofeedback methods. Wigton (2014) uses quantitative methods in a clinical setting to evaluate the effectiveness of 19ZNF. According to the author, there has been a lack of empirical evidence supporting the use of this particular neurofeedback mechanism, in spite of the fact that neurofeedback itself is widely used in clinical practice. The specific outcome meausures used include attention, behavior, executive functioning, and electrocortical functioning.
Neurofeedback, also known as elecroencephalographic (EEG) feedback, is a type of biofeedback using brainwaves. As a biofeedback process, neurofeedback is ultimately based on the basic premises of behaviorism and operant conditioning. Neurofeedback can be used to provide immediate insight into how the brain reacts to specific behaviors or stimuli, thereby enabling individuals to change their behavior or responses to their environments. With neurofeedback, the person…

Wigton, N.L. (2014). Evaluating 19-Channel Z-score Neurofeedback: Addressing Efficacy in a Clinical Setting. A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctorate of Philosophy, Grand Canyon University.

Health and Human Services
Words: 477 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 30904154
Read Full Paper  ❯

Jimmy and his family have multiple unmet needs, which can be meaningfully assessed and addressed through mental health services. Focusing on Jimmy, it would be crucial to first work with a team of psychologists that could offer tests to determine whether attention deficit/hyperactivity is indeed the source of Jimmy’s behavioral problems. While it is true that ADHD is associated with oppositional behavior, aggression, defiance, and conduct disorders, it is also true that medications used to treat children with these issues do tend to show marked improvement (Pringsheim, Hirsch & Gardner, 2015). The fact that Jimmy’s symptoms have worsened may seem to suggest that ADHD is not an accurate diagnosis and that the pharmacological intervention was either premature or unwarranted. Counseling services—especially family and group therapy—may be of particular use in this case.
Jimmy’s family situation, dynamics, and structure are complex but by no means unusual. Therefore, case workers can effectively…

Pringsheim, T., Hirsch, L., & Gardner, D. (2015). The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 60(2): 42-51.

Assessing the Family Goals Strengths and Needs
Words: 2896 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 24816141
Read Full Paper  ❯

Statement of purpose/intent
This piece is dedicated to examining the different challenges Jimmy and his family are going through. The objective is to identify the family and mental disorders present in each of the members and a suggestion at the appropriate treatment methods. As a Case manager the objective would be to recommend the best process aimed at achieving this goal. The greatest challenge is to identify what is ailing each family member and to fashion a pathway towards helping each member and the family as a whole endure their situation. This research recommends ways of handling the different situations with the hope that an expected outcome is achieved.
* Assess the goals, strengths and needs of this family
Family Goals: The priority at this moment is to get some professional help, first for Jimmy and then for Linda, his biological mother. There is enough evidence to the effect that…

Chih-Jui, H. R., & Walker, Leslie, R. (2016). Substance use disorders. Pennsylvania: Elsevier
Douaihy, A., & Daley, D. C. (2014). Substance use disorders. Substance use disorders. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press
Mayo Clinic (2018). Antisocial personality disorder, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Retrieved 13, February, 2018 from
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. (2010). Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention. Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management and Prevention (p. 360). 
Rotgers, F., & Maniacci, M. P. (2006). Antisocial personality disorder: A practitioner\\\\'s guide to comparative treatments. New York: Springer Pub.