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LGBT Drinking & Drug Use
This report will center on a particular concern and challenge that is facing the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community as a whole. The affliction is certainly not limited to the LGBT community but this report shall focus on the unique traits and patterns that occur within that community. Of course, that affliction would be the excessive use of alcohol and/or drugs among people that identify with one or more of the LGBT groups. To be sure, the abuse of alcohol, methamphetamine, MDMA/Ecstasy, prescription pills in general and other drugs is a plague that affects many communities and cultures and the LGBT culture is certainly on different. What follows in this report will be a fairly concise yet thorough literature review on the subject. While drug abuse and misuse is not unique to the LGBT community is not unique to the LGBT community, it…
Bowers, Pamela Hancock, N. Eugene Walls, and Hope Wisneski. "The Relationship Between
Smoking And Other Drug Use Among Sexual Minority Youth." Journal Of Gay & Lesbian Social Services 27.1 (2015): 86-99. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 30 Sept.
Goldbach, Jeremy, Benjamin W. Fisher, and Shannon Dunlap. "Traumatic Experiences And Drug Use By LGB Adolescents: A Critical Review Of Minority Stress." Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions 15.1 (2015): 90-113. SocINDEX with Full Text.
The Theme of LGBT
LGBT is an acronym for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender. This umbrella term emphasizes a range of gender identity/sexuality-based cultures. Non-cis-genders or non-heterosexuals are also occasionally referred to using this word (as LGBTQ), with the addition of the alphabet 'Q' to denote queer people or those questioning or unsure of their gender identity. Their public declaration of their gender identity hinges on their surrounding environment (whether discriminatory or not), and LGBT rights in the place where they reside (Subhrajit).
According to Subhrajit, LGBTs are continually subject to immense challenges living in communities that consider only heterosexuality as acceptable and normal, and homosexuality as an abnormality. They are discriminated and excluded worldwide in every domain of life. Homophobia-linked abuse and violence targeted at LGBTs is witnessed regularly. Very few governments grant LGBT couples safeguards and rights equal to those enjoyed by conventional, opposite-sex ones. Hence,…
Billboard Staff. "25 Pivotal LGBT Moments In Music." 6 Oct 2014. http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/513476/major-lgbt-music-moments . Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
Bruns, Todd. "Boys and Brokeback: American Attitudes towards Gays." 1 Jan 2012. http://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=lib_fac . Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
Grindley, Lucas. "Trump Backtracks on Campaign Promise, Won't Overturn LGBT Protections." 31 January 2017. http://www.advocate.com/politics/2017/1/30/trump-backtracks-campaign-promise-wont-overturn-lgbt-protections . Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
Sorboen, Marianne. "But I am a Man!" Masculinity and Homosexuality in The City and the Pillar and Giovanni's Room." 2012. https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/25335/Master_Sxrbxen.pdf?sequence=2 . Accessed 23 Feb 2017.
Social Ecology and Homeless LGBT Youth
The ecosystem is a basic well-structured and organized unit that facilitates the bringing together of the physical environment and the living organisms in a single framework. As a result, this makes it possible to study the interrelations between biotic and abiotic constituents. Social ecology takes into account the application of manifold levels and techniques of analysis and theoretical standpoints of social problems, acknowledging the dynamic and active nature of human-environment interrelations and the social, cultural, historical and institutional contexts of people’s lives. One of the fundamental principles of ecology is to identify a phenomenon as a social problem (Stokols, 2018). In this regard, the phenomenon in consideration is the increasing number of homelessness amongst LGBT youth. LGBT homeless youth are especially a susceptible population as they account for approximately 20 percent to 40 percent of all homeless youth (McCandless, 2017). The inference of this…
Heterosexism is an issue few people mention in long-term care. My position is one FOR the transformation of long-term care facilities to combat potential heterosexism and promote quality care for LGBT elders. This is because out of the millions of elderly or soon to be elderly within the American population, at least three million of them will be from the LGBT community. Since they are homosexual, bisexual, or transgendered, stereotypes, and negative correlations are still associated to this group, it is important to provide changes and modifications in plans of care to suit the needs of LGBT elderly. (Grigorovich) Long-term care of LTC must be provided to all that require it, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identification. They should feel comfortable within their environment and be treated with dignity and respect.
hile most LTC faculty won't admit to their biases, heterosexism still exists in LTC facilities. In order combat…
Dickey, Geraldine. 'Survey Of Homophobia: Views On Sexual Orientation From Certified Nurse Assistants Who Work In Long-Term Care'. Research on Aging35.5 (2012): 563-570. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.
Grigorovich, Alisa. 'Long-Term Care For Older Lesbian And Bisexual Women: An Analysis Of Current Research And Policy'. Social Work in Public Health 28.6 (2013): 596. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.
Porter, Kristen, and Lisa Krinsky. 'Do LGBT Aging Trainings Effectuate Positive Change In Mainstream Elder Service Providers?'. Journal of Homosexuality61.1 (2014): 197. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.
Rutherford, Kimberly et al. 'Development Of Expertise In Mental Health Service Provision For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual And Transgender Communities'. Medical Education 46.9 (2012): 903-913. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.
LGBT people over represented among suicide deaths and if so why?
Suicide prevention, intervention and research programs specifically targeting the lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) demographic have until this day not been afforded adequate attention. Dependable methods that can be used to determine completed suicide rates in this population is also lacking, as gender identity or sexual orientation is often left out of death records. Data available for LGBT's are therefore not conclusive. Many studies that have employed "psychological autopsy" reports have discovered that same sex sexual orientation is not represented disproportionately among suicide completers. Some other studies that utilized the same-sex partnership registries of Denmark revealed that people in such relationships are much more likely to commit suicide than heterosexuals are prone to. The risk was found to be higher among the male-male partners (Haas, Eliason, Mays, Cochran & D'Augelli, 11).
Conclusive research evidence is beginning to indicate…
Haas, A. P., Eliason, M., Mays, V. M., Mathy, R. M., Cochran, S. D., & D'Augelli, A. R. Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: Review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality; 58 (1), (2011), 10-51.
Halady, Steven William. "Attempted Suicide, LGBT Identity, And Heightened Scrutiny." American Journal of Bioethics 13.3 (2013): 20-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Sept. 2015.
Johnson, R.B. Oxendine, S. Taub, D.J. & Robertson, J. "Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students." New Directions for Student Services 2013.141 (2013): 55-69. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Sept. 2015.
Li Kitts, Robert. "Gay Adolescents and Suicide: Understanding the Association." Adolescence 40.159 (2005): 621-628. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Sept. 2015.
Another area of discrimination within the LGT community is with regard to the transgendered subset vs. The larger gay community. Societal oppression against transgendered individuals has been documented in the scholarly literature for some time now (Carroll, Gilroy, & Ryan, 2002; Lev, 2004; Pepper and Lorah, 2008). However, even within the generally defined group labeled transgendered, there are subgroup: MTF, transitioning from male to female; FTM, transitioning from female to male; transsexual, enlisting surgical procedures and/or hormones; and genderqueer, not identifying with either label of male or female (Singh, Hays, & Watson, 2009). However, despite gender diversification within the transgender community, group members continue to face transphobia and transprejudice because of a lack of understanding, knowledge and acceptance (Singh, oyd, & Whitman, 2010).
In addition to prejudice from outside of the LGT community, transgendered persons can be victims of misunderstanding and discrimination within the LG community (Namaste, 2000). Singh et…
19th Amendment, Accessed 24 June 2011,
Carroll, L. (2010). Counseling sexual and gender minorities. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Sexual: Human Sexuality, evisited
In Ernesto Spinelli's article, Being Sexual: Human Sexuality evisited, the author attempts to develop an existentially informed approach to human sexuality, focusing on an existential approach to normal and abnormal constructs such as gender and other. Therefore, the article focuses extensively on idea such as gay and straight, but also on concepts that are gaining more prominence in modern discussions, such as intersex and transgender. Furthermore, because it takes an existentialist perspective, the paper naturally focuses on concepts like choice, which can have a weighted connotation when discussing issues of sexuality, especially in the modern political and religious climate. As a result. I felt I had to carefully read the article a number of times in order to really grasp the distinction that Spinelli was making between existentialist choice and choice insofar as it related to sexuality. Even doing so, I admit to a certain degree…
Spinelli, E. (2014). Being sexual: Human sexuality revisited. Existential Analysis, 25(1), 17-
Microaggressions against BIPOC LGBTLesbian, bisexual and Gay individuals who are ethnic or racial minorities (LGBT-POC) are marginalized populations subject to microaggressions accompanied by heterosexism and racism. An LGBTO individual living in a CIS normative, heteronormative world encounters discrimination like microaggressions that are a frustrating and unavoidable part of daily life. Microaggression is daily snubs, insults, or snubs, whether unintentional or intentional, that communicate derogatory, negative, or hostile messages to marginalized groups. Such microaggressions result in social oppression, which in most instances affects the health of an individual (Oliveria, 2020). Disparities in physical and mental health outcomes have been witnessed among the oppressed populations, including ethnic, sexual, and racial minorities. For instance, sexual minority groups are highly susceptible to mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, suicidality. Such disparities are usually attached to stressful experiences of discrimination and stigma that associate minority social identity. According to minority stress theory, minority individuals…
Badgett, M. V., Durso, L. E., Mallory, C., & Kastanis, A. (2013). The business impact of LGBT-supportive workplace policies.
Brewster, M. E., Velez, B. L., Mennicke, A., & Tebbe, E. (2014). Voices from beyond: A thematic content analysis of transgender employees’ workplace experiences. Psychology of sexual orientation and gender diversity, 1(2), 159.
Cochran, S. D. (2001). Emerging issues in research on lesbians’ and gay men’s mental health: Does sexual orientation really matter? American psychologist, 56(11), 931.
Legal Brief -- Altman v. Minn. DOC
Altman v. Minnesota Department of Corrections -- 251 F.3d 1199 (8th Circuit 2001)
Type of Action
The case as heard in this legal brief is an appeal of a lower court's decision. The appeal was heard by the Eight Federal Circuit Court of Appeals. The case was an argument on behalf of Altman and his coworkers, who were co-plaintiffs in the case, that they had a right under the First Amendment to read their Bibles during mandatory training sessions. The decision being appealed was a summary judgement issued by the District Court of Minnesota where it was held that the employees conducted rpresented speech on matter of public interest, that fact issues remained as to the state's motives in imposing the sanctions and that the state did not impose a significant burden on the employees' exercise of religion.
Facts of the Case
Berkeley Center. (2014, June 11). Altman v. Minn. Dept. Of Corrections. Altman v. Minn.
Dept. Of Corrections. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/cases/altman-v-minn-dept-of -
FindLaw. (2014, June 11). ALTMAN v. MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF
Gay Couples and Child Adoption
Adoption by couples of the same sex has recently been legalized in almost 14 countries, however it has been remained illegal in most of countries as debate spins on in several countries as to whether it should be legalized or not. The concern of the opposing side is whether gay couples are able to adequately provide parenthood.
According to a consensus which was arrived at by psychological, medical as well as social communities, children who have been raised by gay parents are also able to adjust well just like children who are raised by heterosexual parents. This conclusion has also been highly accepted within the developmental psychology field, (Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, 2006). As derived from the available evidence in the field, the Florida's Third Court of Appeal in 2010 was satisfied that this issue was far beyond dispute that it will…
Kathy Belge, (2012). Lesbian and Gay Adoption Rights.About.com Lesbian Life. Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/families/a/adoption.htm
Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner (eds) (2006). Gender issues and sexuality: essential primary sources. Thomson Gale. ISBN 1414403259. Primary resource collection and readings. Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms. Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/74720998/52/LGBT-adoption
Paige, R.U., (2004). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI.Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/governance/.
Stacey, J. & Davenport, E. Queer Families Quack Back, in: D. Richardson & S. Seidman (Eds) Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies. (London, SAGE Publications), 355-374. (2002) http://web.me.com/ecortez1/lgbtfamilies/Adoption/Entries/2009/7/1_LGBT_Adoption.html
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…
Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.
Softpedia. Online at http://news.softpedia.com/news/Gays-039-Work-Discrimination-Decreases-Productivity-70002.shtml
Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.
Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…
Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
Duncan, D.G. (2004). The Federal Marriage Amendment and Rule by Judges. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 27(2), 543+.
Coolidge, D.O. Wardle, L.D., Strasser, M., Duncan, W.C., (Eds.). (2003). Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate / . Westport, CT: Praeger.
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…
Battles, Kathleen and Wendy Hilton-Morrow. "Gay characters in conventional spaces: Will and Grace and the situation comedy genre." Critical Studies in Media Communications, 19, March 2001: 87-105.
Clinton, Bill. "Congress Should Ban Antigay Job Discrimination." In Discrimination. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal." In Gay Marriage. Kate Burns, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005.
Gallagher, John. "Homosexuals Seek Equal Rights, Not Special Rights." In Homosexuality Helen Cothran, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
"ith such a Biblical event casting its shadow over the theological landscape, how could "gay" advocates sidestep the obvious implication that God considered homosexuality a despicable sin?" (Vitagliano, 2003)
In the eyes of the Church then, homosexuality is an unnatural and sinful behavior simply because it disobeys the heterosexual human relations, as they were initially intended by the Divinity. "It is a sin grievous to God and repulsive to Christians because it rejects God's design for mankind as heterosexual beings" (ildmon, 2007). And its currently increasing acceptance in the contemporaneous community is only based on the desire to be perceived as modern and open-minded, when we should in fact be focusing on how to convince the gays to renounce their habits.
The risks of accepting and allowing gay rights revolve around the emergence of future negative effects. It is like opening Pandora's Box, from which numerous problems will come out,…
Bidstrup, S., Gay Marriages: The Arguments and the Motives, 2004, http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm last accessed on March 31, 2009
Doherty, E., the Hidden Agenda of Homosexual Politics, the Forerunner, November 1993
Herek, G.M., Facts about Homosexuality and Child Molestation, University of California, 2009, http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/facts_molestation.html last accessed on March 31, 2009
Eskridge, W.N., Spedale, D.R., Gay Marriage: For Better or for Worse?: What We've Learned from the Evidence, Oxford University Press, 2006
Gays in the Military
For a long time, the issue of gays serving in the military has largely been contentious though approaches regarding the enlistment of gays in the armed forces differ from country to country. This text concerns itself with gays in the military and the issues, opportunities as well as challenges they face. Further, it highlights the society's contribution to the construction of this group's identity.
Gays in the Military: The Issues, Opportunities and Challenges They Face
It is important to note from the onset that though some countries still have laws prohibiting the enlistment of gays into the military, most developed countries have in the recent past gotten rid of policies seen to exclude gays from enlistment. Currently, gays in the United States can serve openly given the September 2011 lift on the ban prohibiting openly gay individuals from serving in the military (Kevin and Harris, 2011).…
Cochran, C.E., Mayer, L.C., Carr, T.R. & Cayer, N.J. (2008). American Public Policy: An Introduction. Cengage Learning.
Edlin, G & Golanty, E. (2011). Human Sexuality: The Basics. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
McVeigh, K. & Harris, P. (2011, September 20). U.S. Military Lifts Ban on Openly Gay Troops. Retrieved February 25, 2012, from The Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/20/us-military-lifts-ban-gay-troops
Nardi, P.M. & Schneider, B.E. (1998). Social Perspectives in Lesbian and gay Studies: A Reader. Routledge.
Queer Theory and Oscar Wilde
Analysis of "Queer Theory" by Annamarie Jagose in relation to Dorian Gray's character in "The picture of Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde
In her discussion of "Queer theory," author Annamarie Jagose provides a distinction between the concepts 'queer' and the dichotomous relationship between 'lesbian' and 'gay.' Jagose argued in her discussion of this theory that queer was a concept that had politically evolved through the years in relation to the proliferation of gay and lesbian studies.
What makes the queer concept vital to the study of gays and lesbians, as well as issues of homosexuality and heterosexuality is that it provides a 'gray area' in which no distinctions between male and female and gay and lesbian are found. Queer appeals to the 20th century philosophers and social scientists simply because it offers an avenue through which gender and sex can be discussed without the political…
Jagose, A. (1996). "Queer Theory." Australian Humanities Review web site. Available at: http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-Dec-1996/jagose.html.
Wilde, O. (1994). The Picture of Dorian Gray. NY: Penguin Books.
Gay Donor or Gay Dad?
Challenges Faced by Same-Sex Parented Families
The prototypical U.S. family has historically been defined as a heterosexual arrangement that divided responsibilities by gender (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). Men were responsible for earning enough money to keep the family economically viable, while women were responsible primarily for childrearing and household chores.
In the decades since II, the prevalence of the traditional U.S. family has decreased as nontraditional arrangements have increased (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). omen now make up almost 50% of the workforce, in part because a single wage earner is often insufficient to meet the economic needs of many families. The pervasive use of contraception has increased the age at which marriage and pregnancy occurs, and cohabitation, single parents, and same-sex parents are becoming more common.
Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, heterosexual married parents represent 67.4% of all U.S. families, while…
Bowe, John. "Gay Donor or Gay Dad?" New York Times Magazine 19 Nov. 2006. Web. 29 May 2012.
Farrell, Betty, VandeVusse, Alicia, and Ocobock, Abigail. "Family Change and the State of Family Sociology." Current Sociology 60.3 (2012): 283-301.
Lofquist, Daphne, Lugaila, Terry, O'Connell, Martin, and Feliz, Sarah. "Households and Families: 2010." U.S. Census Bureau Apr. 2010: 1-21. Web. 29 May 2012.
If he is opposed to the law, why speak of upholding it? Obama consistently pursues a cautious, bipartisan policy regarding most major social issues -- despite the substantial lack of bipartisanship on the part of conservatives in the U.S. Congress. He has been willing to sacrifice the once-sacrosanct public option for health care, and does not seem to wish to raise divisive topics such as gay marriage before a legislature whom he is desperately trying to placate.
This is also true regarding the 'don't ask, don't tell policy' regarding gays in the military. Obama's language has been slightly stronger on this issue, perhaps because gay men and women have come out who have served with distinction in Iraq: He has said: "I believe 'don't ask, don't tell' doesn't contribute to our national security. In fact, I believe preventing patriotic Americans from serving their country weakens our national security" (Obcamb 2009).…
"Gay bishop invited to prayer at Obama inauguration event." On Top magazine. January 12,
2009. October 22, 2009
Linkins, Jay. "Obama once supported gay marriage." Huffington Post. February 12, 2009.
Moral issues should not come to play. Individuals who are against the adoptions do not care about equality or that research does not support their fears. Nor do these individuals care that the American Academy of Pediatrics, among an entire list of other human services and medical organizations for the betterment of children and families has taken a stand that adoption by gay parents and gay parenting in general does not offer real or significant emotional dangers to children. ather, the emotional danger comes when parents -- be they heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual -- abuse their children.
It is how children are raised that is of concern, not who raises them, argues the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children of gay, lesbian and bisexual and transgender parents are similar to children with heterosexual parents with respect to their emotional and personal development. it's the quality of the parent-child…
Dennet, Harley. May 30, 2008. Gay adoption report overdue. Sydney Star Observer
June, 2008. http://www.ssonet.com.au/display.asp?ArticleID=8339
Petre, Jonathan. May 24, 2008. Church pulls out of Catholic agencies over 'gay equality' adoption law. Daily Mail. 5 June, 2008. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1021721/Church-pulls-Catholic-agencies-gay-equality-adoption-law.html
Muskera, Dave. May 14, 2008. A Gay Adoption Head Scratcher American Chronicle
They also offer the word of warning, however, that in being culturally loaded, this position may also be subject to future change. That is, where cultural perceptions of sexual and gender-orientation differences may actually regress, the risk of remedicalization of these conditions remains present. The article does point out that there remain a number of ideologically entrenched groups dedicated to the therapeutic treatment of homosexuality and gender-orientation differences as medical conditions. However, this cautionary note does not overshadow the more generally positive findings of this discussion, which indicate that changes in the therapeutic and medical communities reflect a broader cultural thrust toward equal perception and treatment of those with gender and sexuality orientation differences.
Beredjick, C. (2012). DSM-V to Rename Gender Identity Disorder 'Gender Dysphoria.' Advocate.com.
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Beredjick, C. (2012). DSM-V to Rename Gender Identity Disorder 'Gender Dysphoria.' Advocate.com.
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Conrad, P. & Angell, a. (2004). Homosexuality and Remdicalization. Society, July/August 2004.
Grush, L. (2013). The DSM-5 is here: What the controversial new changes mean for mental health care. Fox News.
Subsequent to his homosexual life, McClurkin had chosen to follow the path of the church, which, he claims, had cleansed him of his "unnatural" behavior. During a recent speech, McClurkin had declared that he does not agree with homosexuality and that the act is a very perverted. (Keith Boykin)
Apart from hiring anti-gay people to run his campaigns, Obama has stated during an interview that he did not directly agree to a marriage between two persons of the same sex. Despite that, he also stated that he does not wish to interfere with people's preferences, as that would mean that he would also interfere with the concept of an American life.
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin eb site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif.…
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin Web site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from ABC news Web site: http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/11/obama-on-mtv-i.html
Its historical design is founded in the marriage relationship and thus depends wholly thereupon" (85). Advocates of same-sex marriages maintain that gay and lesbian partners need the legal framework of marriage to provide them with the same protections that are enjoyed by their heterosexual counterparts; however, these individuals already enjoy the same constitutional protections afforded all American citizens. According to Coolidge, Duncan, Strasser and ardle (2003), any laws that discriminate on the basis of sex are unconstitutional: "All laws that discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation thereby discriminate on the basis of sex and thus are subject to heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since these laws are not substantially related to any important state interest, they are unconstitutional" (209). It would therefore seem that advocates of same-sex marriages are seeking additional legal protections above and beyond those typically provided.
This warped view of…
Alderson, Kevin G. (2004). "A Phenomenological Investigation of Same-Sex Marriage." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 13(2):107.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Coolidge, David Orgon, William C. Duncan, Mark Strasser and Lynn D. Wardle. Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Wardle, Lynn D. (2001). "Multiply and Replenish': Considering Same-Sex Marriage in Light of State Interests in Marital Procreation." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 24(3):771.
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…
Altstein, H., M. Coster, L. First-Hartling, C. Ford, B. Glasoe, S. Hairston, J. Kasoff, and a.W. Grier (1994, May-June). Child Welfare League of America, 261-269.
Bachrach, C.A., London, K.A. And Maza, P. (1991). On the path to adoption: adoption seeking in the U.S., 1998. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(3), 705-718.
Barth, R. (1994, September 1). "Adoption research: Building blocks for the next decade." Child Welfare.
Belge, K. (2007). Lesbian and gay adoption rights. Lesbian Life. Retrieved September 28, 2007 at http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/families/a/adoption_2.htm .
When a child has already been abandoned by his or her biological parents, why would the state not allow for that child to have a brighter future in the care of a couple who would truly care for him or her? In this view, gender plays a miniscule role in the overall well being of the child. ather, "The best interests of the child would certainly be advanced in situations lie those presented here by allowing two adults who actually function as a child's parents to become the child's legal parents," (Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil ights 2004:72). With the concept of legality in terms of a parent-child relationship comes support like no foster parent or orphanage could ever offer. Adoption policies are strict and require parents to meet specific requirements, therefore offering the child the most potential possible. Gay and lesbian couples are no exception…
Avery, Alison; Chase, Justin; Johansson, Linda; Litvak, Samantha; Montero, Darrel & Wydra, Michael. (2007). America's changing attitudes toward homosexuality, civil unions, and same-gender marriage: 1977-2004. Social Work. 52(1):71-83.
Clinton, Kate. (2006). Reading between the Holy lines. The Progressive. 70(5):39.
Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. (2004). Report on marriage rights for same-sex couples in New York: The Association of the Bar of the City of New York Committee on Lesbian and Gay Rights, Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. Colombia Journal of Gender and Law. 13(1):70-85.
Severino, Roger. (2007). Or for poorer? How same-sex marriage threatens religious liberty. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. 30(3):939-945.
This option would, however, allow the opportunity to eliminate the issues that stem from the existing policy and incorporate all of our objectives into our new policy.
The third alternative would also require approval from Congress, but would represent a less radical change. Such changes to the law could include bulking up the protections for homosexuals against harassment (in light of the lack of enforcement on the Don't Harass side of the policy); raising the threshold for discharge; the implementation of due process into the discharge process; or changing the discharge status to protect pension and benefit rights in light of a good service record. This alternative may be easier to implement than an entirely new policy because it would leave the homosexual ban nominally intact. This compromise could potentially be more palatable to both Republicans and military leadership.
The fourth alternative would provide a means to gather more information…
Rodgers, Sam. (2006). Opinions of Military Personnel on Sexual Minorities in the Military. Zogby International. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.palmcenter.org/files/active/1/ZogbyReport.pdf
Lusero, Indra. (2008). Chief Congressional Architect of Military's Gay Ban Ends Opposition to Openly Gay Service. The Michael D. Palm Center. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.palmcenter.org/press/dadt/releases/chief_congressional_architect_of_militarys_gay_ban_ends_opposition_to_openly_gay_service
Shanker, Thom & Healy, Frank. (2007). A New Push to Roll Back Don't Ask Don't Tell. New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/30/us/30military.html?_r=3&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1214709917-GiujWI/uyDJJ85DmeFbEBA
Thompson, Mark. (2008). Don't Ask, Don't Tell Turns 15. Time. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1707545,00.html
The moment when the two fiends fight is essential in having audiences undestand what is actually going on between the two.
The film appeas to follow a typical omance movie stoyline in paallel to the one that involves dugs, as this is like couple getting togethe, beaking up, and eventually getting back togethe as a esult of seveal events that ae vey impotant in making each of them ealize that the othe is special. The moment when they eunite is impessive, as Saul escues Dale fom thei pusues and influences him in saying "You saved me," only to espond with "You came back fo me." Even the individuals sent to follow Dale and Saul, Matheson (Caig Robinson) and Budlofsky (Kevin Coigan) put acoss quee concepts as the fome is jealous egading the latte's inteest in spending the night with his wife at home.
Pineapple Expess is in geneal a unique…
references by involving several drug-related elements in the film and making it particularly funny, in spite of the queer concepts that it put across.
Doty, Alexander. Making things perfectly queer: interpreting mass culture. (U of Minnesota Press, 1993).
Turim, Maureen. "Gentlemen Consume Blondes."
Wilonsky, Robert. "Pineapple Express's True Bromance."
Dir. David Gordon Green. Pineapple Express. Columbia Pictures, 2008.
Homosexuality in the Workplace
There is likely a combination of factors that is causing Nichole to have difficulty communicating with her co-worker that is homosexual. The most prominent of these pertains to the fact that it is obvious that Nichole does not view this coworker as just that, a simple coworker. Instead, she views this coworker in terms of his or sexuality. The reality of this perception of Nichole's is that it is likely rooted in some fundamental, long-term causes. For instance, it is possible that she is a practicing member of a religious denomination that ascribes to the notion that there is some general incorrectness of even perversion in homosexual tendencies. Additionally, Nichole could have had some negative sexual experience in her own life that pertained to homosexuality that gives her an aversion to those of this persuasion. Finally, it is also possible that Nichole simply believes that homosexuality…
Kateri Hernandez, T. (2010). Employment discrimination in the ethnically diverse workplace. Judges Journal. 33-47. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=faculty_scholarship
The Wall Street Journal. (2015). How to increase workplace diversity. http://guides.wsj.com Retrieved from
It delved into the historical record of integration of blacks into the military, public opinions and health risks and unit disruption. It also incorporated the findings of scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality and relevant health and legal issues and their implementation. Only one policy would fulfill the President's directive. It would consider sexual orientation as not inherent in determining who may serve in the military. It would set a standard of professional conduct for all personnel in the pursuit of good order and discipline. And it would be enforced in every level of the chain of command so as to maintain effective unit performance (Rostker et al.).
Policy for Ending Discrimination
This policy binds all service members to the same standard of professional behavior (Rostker et al., 2000). It draws upon actual conduct, not behavior from presumed sexual orientation. It elicits tolerance and restraint for the good of the…
Burrelli, D.F. And Feder, J. (2009). Homosexuals and the U.S. military: current issues.
CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service: Federation of American
Scientists. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30113.pdf
Roberts, R and Roberts C. (2010). Society ready to accept gays in the military. Topeka Capital-Journal: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4179/is_20100222/ai_n50180056
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…
Brooks, V.R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA D.C. Heath.
Donna Chrobot-Mason, Scott B. Button, and Jeannie D. Diclementi, (2001) "Sexual Identity Management Strategies: An Exploration of Antecedents and Consequences," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Gary W. Harper, Margaret Schneider; Oppression and Discrimination among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered People and Communities: A Challenge for Community Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, 2003
Gonsiorek, J.C. (1991). The empirical basis for the demise of the illness model of homosexuality. In J.C. Gonsiorek & J.D. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Such decisions are made by the courts based on personal values, not empirical data. In 1999, the American Psychologist published one of the first research studies on the topic of adoptive parenting. "Deconstructing the Essential Father" (Silverstein & Auerbach, 1999) concluded that successful parenting is not gender specific and children do not need fathers or mothers. ather, any gender configuration of adults could parent equally well. The implication that fathers were not necessary was extremely controversial.
Since then, numerous studies, such as one conducted last year by yan of the University of Texas School of Social Work, and Averett and Nalavany of East Carolina University (2009), show that there is no difference in emotional problems experienced by the children who are adopted by heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents. In order to determine their findings, the study's authors used survey results from parents who adopted children through Florida's public…
ACLU. Website retrieved February 21, 2010. www. http://aclu.org
Biblarz, T, & Stacey, J. (2010) How does gender of parent matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 3-22
Brodzinsky DM and the staff of the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute (2003) Adoption by lesbians and gays: A national survey of adoption agency policies, practices, and attitudes, Adoption Quarterly 3(5): 5-23.
Family Research Council. Website retrieved February 21, 2010. http://www.frc.org/
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
Like many other positions that have been presented in opposition to gay marriages, this argument is also largely defective. In the past, several studies have clearly demonstrated that children of heterosexual couples are no different from children raised in a same-sex marriage setting. In one such study, "no differences were found between children raised by heterosexual or same-sex parents in the following four areas: Cognitive development, psychological adjustment, gender identity, or sexual preference partners" (Fiona 36). For this reason therefore, same-sex couples can also "bear" children via adoption and proceed to raise them in a familial environment that is no different from that of a heterosexual couple. As ardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge note, in some ways, i.e. when it comes to appreciating the diverse world in which we live in, children of same-sex parents could be better off than those from heterosexual households (37).
Approximately 4 decades ago,…
Fiona, Tasker. "Same-Sex Parenting and Child Development: Reviewing the Contribution of Parental Gender." Journal of Marriage and Family 72.1 (2010); 35-40. Print.
Hallowell, Billy. "Be Legal? Supreme Court Tackles This Key Question Today." The Blaze. N.p., 27th March 2013. Web. 14th April 2013 < http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/03/27/does-the-constitution-require-that-gay-marriage-be-legal-supreme-court-tackles-this-key-question-today/ >.
Knox, David, and Caroline Schacht. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Starr, V. Hale, and Mark McCormick. Jury Selection. 4th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2012. Print.
Homosexual marriage does not pose a threat to me or my manhood therefore I am for it." Although I am heterosexual, I know what it means to long for union with another human being. I will choose a woman for my partner, but if another man desires to choose one of his own sex, there is no harm for me in his choice. In fact, since we are both part of humanity, his legal union, as does mine, brings positive reinforcement to the institution of marriage.
As early as 400 BC Plato in his Symposium discussed the mystery of sexual desire, concluding that humans are always searching for their other half, having been cut in two as punishment by Zeus. The whole humans that existed before this action, according to Aristophanes, Plato's debating companion, all had two heads, four legs and four arms. They were of three types: some with…
Eskridge Jr., William N. "Equality Practice: Liberal Reflections on the Jurisprudence of Civil Unions." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3, p 853, 29p. (EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Eskridge Jr., William N. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage: From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Ettelbrick, Paula L. "Domestic Partnership, Civil Unions, or Marriage: One Size Does Not Fit All." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3. ((EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Halpern, Jake. "Out for a Buck." The New Republic. 8 May 2000, Issue 4451:23.
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…
Barry, P.B. (2011). Social theory and practice, 37(2): 333-356.
Fish, E. (2005). The road to recognition: A global perspective on gay marriage. Harvard International Review, Summer 2005, 32-35.
Harris, A. & Cole, G.W. (2008). Conversation on Marriage for lesbian and gay people: introduction to lesbian and gay marriage roundtable. Studies in gender and sexuality, 9, 140-145.
Sullivan, A.M. (1995). Virtually Normal: An argument about homosexuality. Knopf.
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…
1. Alic, Margaret. Alfred Charles Kinsey. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, second edition. Gale Group, 2001
2. Boeree, George. Personality Theory: Sigmund Freud. 1997
3. Cameron, Paul. The Psychology of Homosexuality. Family Research Report.
Family Research Institute, 1999
If they repent and mend their ways, then let them be, and there is no mention of the punishment and the negativity is not so strong and in other cases of deviant behavior from the religion which result in death."
To understand the propensities of the people therefore it is also necessary to observe the orientation of the population and it is claimed that generally Turkish men, as observed by Lynn a. Levine (2010) express more public affection with men rather than with women and today gayness is becoming open. There are local resources in Turkey today for same sex couples. There is also a magazine run exclusively for gays called the Kaos GL.
This shows that the community has finally accepted the gay culture though not on equal terms. Tolerance seems to have crept in for the larger part of Turkey which is now modernized with European contact. There…
Ayliffe, Rosie. The rough guide to Turkey.
Rough Guides, 2003.
Birch, Nicholas. Was Ahmet Yildiz the victim of Turkey's first gay honor killing? the
Independent, July 19, 2008.
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…
Author not Available. "Mainstream/B2B Advertising Best Practices." CommercialCloset.org. 2004. 19 July 2004. http://www.commercialcloset.org/cgi-bin/iowa/index.html?page=best
Boyce, David B. "Coded Desire in 1920's Advertising." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.1 (2000): 26-30.
Buford, Howard. "Understanding Gay Consumers." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.2 (2000): 26-28.
Burnett, John J. "Gays: Feelings about Advertising and Media Used." Journal of Advertising Research (2000): 75.
This also becomes clear if we consider other mammals and sexual behavior and orientation in the natural world.
On the other and I do not discount entirely the social and social learning theories about being gay. It would be incorrect to argue rigidly against the view that society, culture and social learning play a significant role in being gay. However, what is also very clear from this research is that being gay is predominantly and in the first instance biologically determined.
In the final analysis, while one can continue to discuss for and against arguments in this debate, for me it is just as important to listen to what gay people say about their feelings and situations. As mentioned in the introduction, many gay people state categorically that they 'have always felt different' and that their sexual preferences are internal and innate rather then learned. These are views that I…
Brookey, R.A. (2001). Bio-Rhetoric, Background Beliefs and the Biology of Homosexuality. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37(4), 171.
BEgue, L., & Apostolidis, T. (2001). Implicit Theories of Reality and Social Differentiation from Gay People. Journal of Social Psychology, 141(1), 132-134.
homosexual teenagers in America. This is because numerous research studies have revealed that both male and female homosexuals are at danger not only from the traditional cultural forces but also from their sexual and non-sexual behavior and habits. Discrimination against homosexuals has been an extensively researched topic. Many scholars have asked for better curriculums and schooling environment for children from all backgrounds so that they grow up to appreciate sexual diversity. People who oppose homosexuality ought to know that this phenomenon is an extremely old tradition and has deep cultural roots and thus should be appreciated like all other ancient cultures. As Carla Mathison (1998) writes "Gay men and lesbians are not identified by their sex, ethnicity, religion, geographic location, socioeconomic or ability level but by their orientation to their own gender that includes, but is not limited to, sexual intimacy. (Carla Mathison, 1998)."
Carla Mathison (1998) further reveals and…
Lisa Armistead and Shira Maguen. Prevalence of Unprotected Sex and HIV-Antibody Testing among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 37. Issue: 2. 2000.
Carla Mathison. The Invisible Minority: Preparing Teachers to Meet the Needs of Gay and Lesbian Youth. Journal of Teacher Education. Volume: 49. Issue: 2. 1998.
Connie Callahan. Schools That Have Not Protected and Worked with Gay and Lesbian Students Have Been Sanctioned by the Courts. Education. Volume: 121. Issue: 2. 2000.
Joan F. Kaywell. Using Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers Cope with Family Issues. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 1999.
gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.
Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.
The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…
Same-Sex Marriage: The Debate
Same-sex marriage is marriage between partners of the same gender (Wikipedia, 2004). This type of marriage is currently legal in only a few countries around the world. In the United States, the degree of legality of same-sex marriage varies between different states. In the U.S., the debate over whether or not to make same sex marriages legally binding remains one of the most controversial political debates of this century.
The moral legitimacy of marriage between same sex partners hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is viewed (Wikipedia, 2004). If marriage is perceived as a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions are key; if marriage is a social institution or an economic coupling, pragmatic arguments hold more force, though moral issues still apply. Gay rights advocates believe that marriage is a right that should not be limited to heterosexual couples. Their opponents…
Gomes, Charlene. (September, 2003). The need for full recognition of same-sex marriage. The Humanist. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage#Controversy .
Morris, David. Langer, Gary. (January 21, 2004). Same-Sex Marriage
Most Oppose It, But Balk at Amending Constitution.
Ost, Jason. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Demographics: A Research Focus of the Urban Institute. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.urban.org/content/IssuesInFocus/GayandLesbianDemographics/researchfocus/gayresearchfocus.htm .
passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.
Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…
Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection
Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.
Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
sexual orientation and proclivity, the times are definitely changing. Once, tolerance was something that people simply talked about and did not actually have to practice. Today, tolerance is something that people need to simply keep pace with a number of developments that have impacted various members of the gay, lesbian, and transgender community. Gay pride has become more and more common; there are specific time periods dedicated to this sort of pride. Personally, I have mixed feelings about these developments. There are some scientific and sociological aspects of this phenomenon that seem unsettling, although there are also some noteworthy advancements related to tolerance for which this movement deserves commendation.
One of the most notable aspects of the changes that have affected the lesbian, gay and transgender community pertains to the military. Once, homosexuals were not allowed in the military. It was not uncommon for those who did infiltrate the ranks…
Courting the ainbow Through Advertising and Television
In today's high tech digital virtual world understanding America's diverse cultural matrix has never been more difficult. On a daily basis individuals are continually bombarded by stimuli, real and commercial, that can and do affect their educational, moral, and cultural development goals. The diversity continuum is, therefore, an ongoing process through out life. It is the process of diversity that shapes our identity as to which we are, collectively and individually, and how we function in the world around us. The primary purpose of this paper is to take an identity voyage (Tatum, 1997) with one of American's subcultures with respect to its influence on advertising and television (stimuli), namely, homosexuality (subculture).
Not unlike any subculture that of the gay environment has its own prescribed needs, goals, and expectations. The need for acceptance is as strong for those who are gay as for…
Dryer, R. (1995). The Matter of Images: Essays on Representation. London: Routledge Press.
Tatum, Beverly Daniel (1997). The Complexity of Identity. New York: Basic Books.
EJAF or the Elton John AIDS Foundation has a mission statement centered on eradicating AIDS from the Americas and the Caribbean. They raise funds for evidence-based policies and programs and speak out openly about the harsh reality of those suffering with AIDS and HIV. Becoming the world's biggest HIV grant-makers, it holds to main offices in London and New York. EJAF has raised over $349 million for the prevention and treatment of AIDS/HIV ever since it was founded in 1992. With an estimated $7 million invested in the Americas spread across 120 organizations each year, half of this effort is focused on the Caribbean and the Southern U.S.
The agency in addition to its fundraising efforts, offers a unique perspective on issues, tackling the most difficult problems those with HIV / AIDS face. The organization focuses on sustainability and innovation, communicating regularly to allies and their grantees about any…
The subject of this interview is a twenty-nine-year-old homosexual male of African-American descent, originally from Miami, Florida. He has been employed as a Certified Personal Fitness Trainer since his 1997 graduation from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he majored in Kinesthesiology and Movement Science
and minored in Broadcast Communications.
The subject seemed ideal for this interview because he is openly homosexual himself, but acutely irritated by the common homosexual "affect" that he characterizes as a learned or emulated set of effeminate mannerisms and speech patterns that many people have come to associate with (or even expect from) male homosexuals. The subject has repeatedly expressed his disgust with homosexuals whom he describes as "flames" or even "faggots," because as a comfortably assimilated homosexual male, he believes that he (and all homosexual males) suffer from stereotyping and the homophobia that he believes it inspires. Specifically, the subject…
1. Breedlove, Marc, S. Sexual Differentiation of the Human Nervous System.
Annual Review of Psychology (Jan 1994) Accessed April 26, 2004, at: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:14857116& ; num=5& ctrlInfo=Round1a%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult
2. Branden, Nathaniel. The Disowned Self. (1989)
New York: Bantam
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…
Athenadorus. "Homosexuality: Its Genetic Basis and Evolutionary Benefit." Danaan Press.
2002. Danaan Press. 10 Nov. 2005 .
Wikipedia. "Intersexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005
Gay Discrimination -- Study Guide
The field study by Hebl, Foster, Man nix and Davidic reveals a number of instances in which gay people are discriminated against. Those instances and situations are marked in this paper with bullet points for clarity and for succinctness. The authors also present details of a research project conducted in a Texas mall; this paper reviews that research and poses five questions after the critique and review of the Texas research project.
In 1996, attitudes vis-a-vis gays and lesbians were still quite biased; a 1996 Gallup Poll showed that half of Americans believe homosexuality is "…not an acceptable alternative lifestyle" (Hebl, et al., 2010, 815)
Earlier, in 1994, a CBS poll showed that 45% of those surveyed believed that relations between gays and lesbians "…should be illegal" (Hebl, 815)
At the time the Hebl article was published, only 11 states had passed laws that protect…
Hebl, M.R., Foster, J.B., Mannix, L.M., and Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Formal and Interpersonal
Discrimination: A Field Study of Bias Toward Homosexual Applicants. PSPB, 28(6), 815-
Literature Review on homosexual parenting
For a period extending back to the last twenty years, the number of households headed by same-sex parents in the United States has subtly increased. According to a unanimous agreement in the U.S. In 2010, the number of same-sex couples who stay together was estimated to be 646,464, out of which 514,735 were unmarried couples of the same sex while 131,729 were married couples of similar sex. In another survey carried out in the U.S. In 2000, it was established that almost 163,879 households had children although they were headed by similar sex couples. With about 33% of households belonging to similar sex females, it was found out that bisexual or Lesbians had higher chances of being parents as compared to isexual or gays who accounted for just 22% although these male couples had at least a child below the age of 18…
Aist J.R. (2014). Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Parenting: Is There Really "No Difference"? Retrieved from
Allen, D. (2013). High school graduation rates among children of same-sex households. Review of Economics of the Household 11:635-658.
Allen, D.W. Pakaluk C. & Price J. (2013). Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress through School: A Comment on Rosenfeld. Demography 50(3), 955-961.
Crouse J.S. (2014). What About That Australian Study About Same-Sex Parenting? Gay parents give themselves good ratings. The American spectator retrieved from
Gay Men Transmitting HIV
When HIV and AIDS first came to prominence in the 1980's, it was commonly assumed and projected that HIV / AIDS was an issue mostly with gay men. Of course, this has turned out not to be the case as people of all genders, sexualities and so forth are catching and spreading HIV and/or AIDS every day. However, it is most definitely a problem with gay men and that issues persists to this very day. Indeed, that will be focus of this report. Topics that will be discussed will be current statistics, current studies and evidence, current social determinants, the challenges of healthcare delivery as it relates to this issue and the construct diagnoses that will need to be looped into this issue. While the aggregate level of knowledge and education is spreading through all demographics, there are still some lagging indicators and behaviors that are…
CDC,. (2015). CDC - Stigma and Discrimination - Gay and Bisexual Men's Health.
CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/msmhealth/stigma-and-discrimination.htm
Halkitis, P. (2015). Discrimination and homophobia fuel the HIV epidemic in gay and bisexual men. http://www.apa.org. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/exchange/2012/04/discrimination-homophobia.aspx
HealthyPeople,. (2015). Social Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020.
Homosexual Relationships Prohibited
In recent years a tide of change has swept across America. Gay marriage has been the focal point of many court battles and legislations. As a result, public opinions has shifted majorly towards a more lenient and accepting view of same-sex relationships. This change poses significant challenges towards Christian individuals who remain steadfast in conservative values. Churches, believers, and ministers all over the nation now face serious conflicts and questions with their beliefs and the public around them (1).
Christians are currently feeling overwhelming pressure to make changes in their own churches that will allow for homosexual couples to practice in their facilities. They are already being labeled socially as hateful, prejudiced, and ignorant, which is a trial to the Christian who seeks to follow the council of Christ and love all. On top of that, ministers are being asked to perform marriages against their personal beliefs,…
1 Dallas, Joe.Equip.org. October 2013. http://www.equip.org/article/now-what-same-sex-marriage-and-todays-church/#christian-books-3 (accessed April 10, 2015).
2 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research," Pew Research Center, June 11, 2013, http://www.pewresearch.org/key-data-points/gay-marriage-key-data-points-from-pew - research/.
3 "Gallup Gay Marriage Poll Finds Majority of U.S. Citizens Would Support Nationwide Marriage Equality Law," The Huffington Post, July 31, 2013, .
4 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research."
Gay Marriage Bill in Texas:
Same sex marriages and other kinds of same-sex unions have become controversial issues in the modern United States. This issue has been characterized by attempts by the American federal government and several state legislatures to enact regulations that either allow or prohibit these kinds of unions or marriages. In the past few years, the public opinion regarding the issue has changed to become more tolerant and accepting because of the changes in the United States' society. As a result of these changes, enacting a gay marriage bill in Texas would be a significant step in ensuring that people are treated in similar ways by the government. The development of such bill is fueled by the need to treat people equally, the need to be more accepting and tolerant, and the changes in today's society. In light of these factors, the proposal of a gay marriage…
Fikac, Peggy. "Same-sex Marriage Bill Now on Table." San Antonio Express-News. Hearst Newspapers, LLC, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
Johnson, Luke. "Ted Cruz Introduces Anti-Gay Marriage Bill." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 13 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. .
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
However, in the United States, the Establishment Clause has created a wall between church and state, and the morality of church policies cannot impact the laws of the land. hile people are free to believe that being gay is immoral or unnatural, their religious beliefs cannot and should not hamper the rights and the liberties of others, including the right to the pursuit of happiness of gay couples who regard their love as natural and good.
Another objection raised to gay adoption that is frequently cited is the idea that children will experience negative psychological consequences because they will be teased at school. But these objections could also be raised against the ability of biracial couples to wed and to have children, or simply the children of any religious or minority group who suffers persecution. The problem is not the teasing of other students, but the prejudices of society. Such…
Almanzar, Yolanne. "Florida gay adoption ban is ruled unconstitutional." The New York Times.
26 Nov 2008.
23 Nov 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/26/us/26florida.html
Belkin, Lisa. "What's good for the kids." The New York Times. 11 Aug 2009. 23 Nov 2011.
Gay Marriage be permitted in the United States
Over the last several years, the issue of gay marriage has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a shift in social attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality within society. As, more people are supporting the idea that these individuals are entitled to the same constitutional protections as the rest of the general public. At the heart of this debate, is the controversy surrounding gay marriage. Where, both sides have made compelling arguments that are in support and against making this practice legal. For many individuals, the issue has become clouded with heated emotions that are not based on logic. Instead, the two sides are busy saying how bad the situation will be if the opposition is to prevail. These kinds of scare tactics have caused many middle of the road Christians, to…
Jefferson, Lee. "What does the Bible actually say about Gay Marriage." Huffington Post, 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2011
Essig, Laurie. "Same Sex Marriage." 2000
Sullivan, Anderw. "Why the M Word Matters to Me." 2004
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…
(1978). Children of gays: Sexually 'normal'. Science News, 113(24), 389.
Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-3126.96.36.1992.
Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.
Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations).
In most of the world, HIV infection is more prevelant in the heterosexual population, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity. Unforrtunatly, HIV / AIDS also carries with it ostracism, rejection, and discriminiation. This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias (Ogden and Nyblade)
(NORC), National Health and Social Life. Summary - the Sex Survey. June 1993. March 2011 .
Bidstrup, S. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. June 2000. March 2011 .
Blumenfeld, W. Homophobia: How We All Pay the Price. New York: Beacon Press, 1992.
Busko, a. "Civil Rights in the 21st Century." July 2006. The Writer's Voice. March 2011 .