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Race & Ethnicity
A methodological purist, Gillborn's analysis of the British education system inside the visual vein of race and ethnicity supports a totalitarian failure, plainly capitulated in "Fifty Years of Failure: 'Race' and Education Policy in Britain." (Gillborn, 1999) The 1980s brought with it a governmental trend in Britain, shifting policies from the basis of conviction to consensus. This quickening theoretical policy shift caused great concern, tacking on yet another issue to the age of the "national moral panic." (Ball, 1987) From the upheaval of the national spectrum to the classrooms, the change left dynamic marks on the systematic existence of British life, particularly on behalf of the racially diverse citizens its public schools aimed to teach.
The trend to transfer teaching mechanisms began in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when the British nation faced a topical change from homogeneity to include the modern diversification prevalent in the…
Smith, D. And Tomlinson, S. 1989. The School Effect: A Study of Multi-Racial Comprehensives. London: Policy Studies Institute.
Tomlinson, S. 1992. "Education and Training." New Community. 17(3): 433-441.
Wright, Cecile. 1986. School Processes -- An Ethnographic Study. In Education for Some: The Educational and Vocational Experiences of 15- to 18-year-old Members of Minority Ethnic Groups. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Moreover, the master for indentured servants had an obligation to feed, clothe, and educate them. hile indentured servitude was substantially different from slavery, it was sufficiently similar to allow the initial transition to chattel slavery without creating a social uproar. However, historically slavery was different than servitude, in that it was a perpetual and hereditary condition that deprived the slave of his humanity (Jordan, p. 32). It was this notion, that the slave was less than a human being, that led to the utter depravity of the slave system, the horrors of the Jim Crow south, and the continued attitudes of white racial superiority that mar much of American life.
However, it is important to understand that these English attitudes were imported into other wilderness areas as well. hen confronted with the Aborigines in Australia, Englishmen treated them in a way that was similar to how African-Americans were treated in…
Jordan, Winthrop. The White Man's Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.
Ross, Edward Alsworth. The Principles of Sociology. New York: The Century Co., 1920.
Race, Ethnicity, And Utopia
The idea of a perfect society is very important in human cultures everywhere. Most cultures and religions talk about a time long ago when the world was perfect. Stories of long lost "golden ages" or the "Garden of Eden" hold memories of a better world that has been somehow left behind. When those longings are expressed in speculative fiction, dreamers may imagine the existence of a fantastical or future perfect society, in which the class and racial tensions will be erased and humans will live in social and economic peace. These imagined worlds are called Utopias, a name invented by Thomas Moore, who penned one of the most famous Utopian novels. Utopianism has a long and proud history as a philosophical and social movement. Among the many problems that Utopian thinkers may address is the issue of race. Race and ethnicity are increasingly powerful and important…
Brin, David. Kiln People. Tor Science Fiction: New York, 2003.
Henry, Frances & Carol Tator "Discourses of Domination. http://www.yorku.ca/fhenry/writings.htm
Lord of the Rings: Extended Edition" [movie trilogy]. Dir. Peter Jackson, perf. Elijah Wood. DVD. New Line Home Entertainment. 2004.
McDonough, Tom. "A Thousand Strange Systems Representing Utopia in the West." Art in America, June 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_6_89/ai_75496777/
The Jews for example assume anti-Semitism where this is not necessarily the case, whereas many of the local people accuse the Jews of wanting to take over the town by buying the slaughterhouse. In both cases the accusations are neither true nor realistic. oth groups close their eyes for their own faults and focus only on the perceived flaws in the other. Ironically, this works to the detriment of both. The conflict situation is allowed to escalate to a point where the townspeople are willing to give up the lucrative fortune generated by the Jews just for the sake of being rid of them. The Jews in turn would lose the opportunity to make their share of the profit as well, and everyone loses.
The issue thus puzzling to me is one of tolerance. America is supposedly the "Mecca of religious tolerance" as loom (p. 15) terms it. Why then…
Bernstein, Richard (2000). "Books of the Times; Hasidim and Iowa Townsfolk: A Test of Diversity." The New York Times, November 3. http://www.uiowa.edu/~journal/faculty/bloom/review_nytimes.html
Bloom, Stephen. "Postville: A Clash of Cultures." Speech Notes.
Rothenburg, P. (2004) Race, Class, and Gender in the United States. 6th Edition, New York Publishers.
In the article, Swarns determined the racial animosity between black Americans and Hispanics as primarily motivated by the economic inequalities and differences that emerge in the community wherein both groups are dominantly located. The most explicit form of economic tension between the two groups is the evident demand for Mexican workers instead of black Americans, which translated into better opportunities for the former than the latter group.
In the midst of this economic inequality emerged the cultural differences between them, wherein prejudice and stereotypes become "fuel" that further escalate the animosity between the black Americans and Hispanics. Black Americans are perceived as violent and generally, as criminals, while Hispanics are known to be opportunists and became the 'butt of jokes' because of their "poor hygiene." All these issues, how trivial they may be, operate to further intensify the racial differences between the two groups.
However, despite the racial animosity, Swarns…
In order for all people to survive and prosper in America they must work together, and the more that they distance themselves because they feel as though they have to hold onto their traditions the more difficult it becomes for people to accept the ways of others as also being valuable (Takaki, 2002).
This does not mean that people should forget who they are or where they come from, but only that they should also be open to the experiences of others and why people do things the way that they do them. People can learn much from others, but when diversity is encouraged but cohesiveness is not there is little that is learned except how to keep to oneself, and that is not at all helpful. The American people only seem to come together during times of crisis or around the holiday season, instead of being willing to show…
Kohn, Hans. (1980). American nationalism. New York: Greenwood Press.
Takaki, Ronald. (2002). Debating diversity: Clashing perspectives on race and ethnicity in America, 3rd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
S. Supreme Court decisions on the issue, such as its judgment upon the University of Michigan's undergraduate admissions policy. Even stereotypes such as the idea that "Blacks are strongly associated with criminality," still have a pervasive hold as was denoted in one recent study where "when exposed to crime-relevant objects," perceivers visually attended more "to Black faces more so than hite faces. Alternatively, the mere presence of a Black face enhances perceivers' ability to detect degraded images of crime-relevant objects." (Eberhardt, 2006)
As America changes, all aspects of its society must change. Schools must become more inclusive as to whose history, and whose literature is considered canonical or necessary for educated persons to know. There must be greater attempts to redress the continuing, lingering poverty of specific groups, and also a greater attempt to understand the diverse and complex needs of the different nationalities that make up 'Asian' or 'Latino'…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000). "Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Socioeconomic
Research Exploring Their Effects on Child Health." Pediatrics. Vol. 105 No. 6. June 2000. Pp. 1349-1351. Retrieved 8 Jan 2007 at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/105/6/1349
Darden Edwin C. "The Race Challenge." American School Board Journal. 2003 Special
Over the course of time, this will offer a first step in addressing these challenges. (Smith, 2008) ("Affordable Care Act," 2010)
Clearly, minorities are not receiving the same kind of treatment for health care services in comparison with other segments of the population. This is problematic, because the current system allows this to take place in one way or another. To deal with these challenges there needs to be: improved partnerships between health plans / employers and greater collaboration with governments / nonprofit entities. This could augment the current approach that is being enacted by the status quo.
What is happening is the Patient Affordable Care Act, has caused the industry to shift by forcing providers and insurance companies to comply with the new provisions. A few of the most notable include: the elimination of select co pays / deductibles, the expansion of Medicare, increased coverage for the uninsured,…
Affordable Care Act. (2010). U.S. Senate. Retrieved from: http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill65.pdf
Racial and Ethnic Disparities. (2006). All Health. Retrieved from: http://www.allhealth.org/publications/pub_38.pdf
Higgins, P. (2009). Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. MPR. Retrieved from:
Judeo-Christian perspective, there are two forms of law, the law of government and the law of God. Government plays a role in the daily lives of most people. From how to drive a car to what can be bought and sold, the government aims to protect the general public from domestic and foreign problems. Whether or not that means the wellbeing of all or the wellbeing of some is left to interpretation. God according to Christianity, passed down guidelines to help humanity flourish and grow. The Ten Commandments is just one of several instances when humans witnessed the law of God. Yet in today's society, amidst a multicultural backdrop, the law of God has been overshadowed by the law of government. And the law of government is not one that instills good principles among the public, but rather seems to favor punishing those that do not fit the idea of…
Carter, P. L., Skiba, R., Arredondo, M. I., & Pollock, M. (2017). You Can't Fix What You Don't Look At. Urban Education, 52(2), 207-235. doi:10.1177/0042085916660350
Dupont, P. (2016). Human Rights and Substantive Equality in the Adjudication of Ethnic Practices. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 34(4), 289-313. doi:10.1080/18918131.2016.1243881
Pane, D. M., & Rocco, T. S. (2014). School-to-Prison Pipeline Revisited / Looking to the Future. Transforming the School-to-Prison Pipeline, 301-310. doi:10.1007/978-94-6209-449-9_18
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-frist century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
ace and Ethnicity in Baseball
The State of ace and Ethnicity in Baseball
In this paper, I have described the state of race and ethnicity in baseball (particularly referring to America) in detail. Starting from the history of ethnicity and racism in baseball, I have also provided the present scenario in the game. In the last part of my paper, I have described the importance of baseball to American society.
ace can be described as an artifact that is constructed by a society and categorizes people on the basis of their physical appearance. Such divisions on the basis of race are amorphous in nature and fluid with the passage of time reflecting a social basis and not a substantial one. As far as ethnicity is concerned, it mirrors the differences between the cultures. In the similar way, an ethnic group is a group of people who have a similar heritage…
Baldassaro, L., & Johnson, R.A. (2002). The American Game: Baseball and Ethnicity. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.questia.com /read/119066669/the-american-game-baseball-and-ethnicity
Briley, R. (n.d.). Baseball and American Cultural Values. MVLA . Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.mvla.net/teachers/StevenK/American%20Lit%20H/Documents/American_Values_Articles_and_Documents/Baseball_and_American_Cultural_Values.pdf
Kirsch, G., Harris, O., & Nolte, C. (2000). Baseball. In Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States (Vol. 1, pp. 44-50). Westport: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from
Bloodlines and Race
Race and Ethnicity has been a subject matter and variables in most of the Epidemiological and Public Health discourse and researches for a long period of time. As early as the concept of genes, color, skin and races are introduced, scientists are trying to extract out all the differences between individuals in these terms. Comstock, Castillo and Lindsay who are professionals of epidemiology and health services have conducted a comprehensive four-year review of the use of Race and Ethnicity in Epidemiological and Public Health Research from 1996-1999. They have come across a total of 1198 articles which were published in the American Journal of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Public Health during this period, and observed that 919 out of 1198 articles were related to race and ethnicity, which comprise of 77% of the entire research. There was a vast diversity of terms which were…
Comstock, R. Dawn, Edward M. Castillo, and Suzanne P. Lindsay. 2004. "Four-Year Review of the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Epidemiologic and Public Health Research." American Journal of Epidemiology. 159 (6): 611-619.
There are various reasons for this change. One of these is a great reduction in the opportunity given to the blacks in the case of expenses, financial; support, coaching based on weaknesses in the infrastructure of the American baseball. This year, more than 27% of the players of the American baseball are Hispanics. Based on this fact, one of the main questions that arise in mind is if American baseball is turning too Hispanic (ader, 2008, p. 34).
As compared to the players, there has been a positive change in the ethnic diversity in the case of coaches in the American baseball. In the season of 2011, there was more than 31% increase in the coaches of different races. This is a 2% increase since 2010. There has been a 14% increase in the number of African-American coaches as compared to the Hispanics and Latin coaches (Elias, 2001, p. 54).…
Elias, R. (2001). Baseball and the American Dream: Race, Class, Gender, and the National Pastime. M.E. Sharpe.
Kirsch, B.G., Harris, O., and Nolte, E.C. (2000). Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States, ABC-Clio ebook. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Rader, G.B. (2008). Baseball: A History of America's Game, Illinois History of Sports Series. 3rd Edition. University of Illinois Press.
ace as Social Construct
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay on whether race is a social construct or not. Some people associated race with biology. Others assert that there is a marked difference between race and ethnicity and that the two should not be confused. Others still assert that there are certainly sociological and psychological aspects to race and that they cannot be ignored. This report shall explore all of those at a basic level and try to come to answers about all of the above. While there is certainly a social aspect to race, for just anyone to claim that they are a certain race just does not compute in certain situations.
If there are two people that drive home the point that race is at least not entirely a social construct, they would be Shaun King and achael Dolezal. The former…
Chan, M. (2016). Black Lives Matter leader Shaun King is 'no Rachel Dolezal'. NY Daily News.
Retrieved 5 November 2016, from http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/black-lives-matter-leader-shaun-king-no-rachel-dolezal-article-1.2331792
Ng, D. (2016). How 'The Star-Spangled Banner,' racist or not, became our national anthem.
latimes.com. Retrieved 5 November 2016, from http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/la-et-cm-star-spangled-banner-racism-20160823-snap-story.html
While no one is immune from police brutality, statistics show that African-Americans are far more likely to be the victims of police brutality than are whites. As Lopez notes, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” Moreover, of the people killed by police who were not attacking, 39% were black (Lopez). These statistics have not improved over time. Between 2015 and 2016, there were 1,146 victims of police violence and nearly 40% of those victims were either African-American or Hispanic, according Bui, Coates and Matthay. The tragedy is, of course, that according to the U.S. Census Bureau, African-Americans and Hispanics only account for a quarter of the U.S. population. So how is it that roughly half of all victims of police brutality are minorities who altogether make up only a quarter of the…
ace and Ethnicity
What is multiculturalism?
Multiculturalism is an ideology which is defined in different ways following in the varying paradigms of one's culture and knowledge. However, it is generally explained as a system of beliefs which recognizes and appreciated diversity of groups in a society or in any organization. In t his regard, it also acknowledge these difference particularly the socio-cultural disparity thereby stressing upon its impact in a culture as it empowers the whole society. Multiculturalism is all about recognizing the difference and respecting them. In other words, this points out to the equal treatment of every human being regardless of any distinction based on color, race, religion, gender and culture. It aims at safeguarding and building up the integrity and dignity of these differences so that they are tolerated and celebrated (osado C, 1997).
Multiculturalism is feature of globalization as well as post…
Banting K. 2006. Immigration, multiculturalism and the welfare state. Ethics and International affair. Vol. 20, No.3. Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affair.
Benwell, B. And Stokoe, Elizabeth. 2006. Discourse and Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Brooker, P. 1999. Concise Glossary of Cultural Theory, London: Hodder Arnold.
Cohen D. 2007. Violence Is Inherent in Islam - It Is a Cult of Death. The Evening Standard. 18.
Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion
In Ira erlin's (1998) Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, the author shows how groups in the U.S. struggled to exclude other groups. White people made a serious effort to exclude black people from anything other than the most menial jobs for a very long time (Davidson, 2005; Gasorek, 1998). The desire to exclude was based on skin color and race, but there was also an element of inclusion in that black people were included in one group based on their skin color, and were not seen as individuals who were unique people based on their own merits (Sherif, 1967; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).
lack people struggled to gain access to institutions and status as they developed their own identities in an area with which they were unfamiliar (erlin, 1998). They became soldiers and worked as artisans, along…
Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.
Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).
Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Race, Class, And Gender in the United States
The purpose of the book Race, Class, and Gender in the United States by Paula Rothenberg is to explore sociological implications of these three topics. The book discusses how each of these ideas, which some believe to be innate, are actually mere labels that people have given to describe certain generalizations. Each of these sociological terms is coupled with the actual term. Rothenberg asks readers to critically think about the words we use to describe different groups and if the meaning we intend to apply is different than the term defines it as. There is the delineation between race and ethnicity, between class and social standing, and the difference between gender and sex.
The first portion of Rothenberg's book deals with the understanding of the terminology applied to race, glass, and gender and how the words people use with regard to these…
Rothenberg, Paula S. (2010). Race, Class, and Gender in the United States. 8th. New York:
The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.
Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…
Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.
Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19
Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.
Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
Therefore I reasoned until now and still do, that were discrimination as restricted by question 1 between students, faculty, staff and administrators a problem, it would come up, because other topics of racial inequality do freely come up in discussion.
Are people of your race and ethnicity proportionately represented...
Getting back to sample size, if I know say ten candidates for differential treatment based on race, and they are only a few of say several hundred at Springfield, then the fact that race has not come up in casual discussion with these few students of color, does not represent a random or large enough sample to represent the population. What I can see is that Springfield outside the college windows is disproportionately black, while the population in the classroom is overwhelmingly white, as are students and faculty in all the pictures on the splash pages that loaded when I opened…
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice
The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.
Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,
Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,
Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),
Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
36). Civil ights era marks the beginning of powerful resistance against oppression. Blacks from all over the country awoke to the reality and ugliness of the situation and their effort bore fruit when Civil ights Act of 1964 was promulgated. esistance has had some impact on social system. Discriminatory practices are not as obvious as they once were. People and organizations understand the repercussions of discriminating on the basis of race and color. However African-Americans still have a long way to go before they can consider themselves free and equal in true sense of the term.
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: andom House
Blauner, . (1972). acial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & ow.
Folger, . & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, .S. (1991). Shadows…
Biko, S. (1978). Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa. M. Arnold (Ed.). New York: Random House
Blauner, R. (1972). Racial oppression in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Franklin, R.S. (1991). Shadows of race and class. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
(Searight; Gafford, 2005) There are also changes in the value systems of the different communities as the ecological situation of the communities change and this may be due to historical changes or shifts into new areas by the individuals. Even within the same group of individuals, the value systems may be different among individuals due to differences in income, occupation, conditions of living situations and the duration or the level of intensity of exposure to another culture. There are many sources of diversity within the same cultural group due to the relative influence of traditional culture values, socioeconomic features, the experiences of migration, the functional demands and requirements and cultural makeup of the ecological niche, and the duration and intensity of exposing to a different culture. (oosa; Dumka; Gonzales; Knight, 2002)
One of the most important facilities that humans have is to draw inferences from limited knowledge. The question remains…
Bassok D, Stipek D., Inkelas M., Kuo A. (2003) "Building Community Systems for Young
Children: Early Childhood Education" Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy; Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, No. 11; pp: 1-58
Cabrera, Natasha; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Bradley, Robert H; Hofferth, Sandra; Lamb,
Michael E. (January/February 2000) "New Directions for Child Development in the Twenty-First Century Fatherhood in the Twenty-First Century" Child Development. Vol: 71; No: 1; p. 127
Race in Today's Mass Media
Channel surfing during primetime these days, will often times create a personal dilemma on what show to watch and usually, it is one we will stick with from season to season - if the 'powers that be' allow it a renewed contract. These days, we have a variety of broadcast channels to choose from and our ethnic background, sadly, often determines whether we choose the W over NC. The reality is, that "mass media actually work to reinforce assumptions that black folks should always be cast in supporting roles in relation to white characters" (Hook, 1995).
Let's take for example, some currently popular shows: Friends, Frasier and, yes, even The Simpsons portray minorities either in 'guest' roles, as supporting roles in stereotypical fashion, or not at all. In the case of The Simpsons, it could be justifiably argued that the show portrays views of race…
Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media
New York: Holt 1995
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
ace and acism
ace is one of the most complicated and interesting topics in the social sciences. In many ways, race is an artificial construct, since there is no single genetic marker differentiating one race from another and racial identities change and bend with cultural norms. On the other hand, even if race is an artificial construct, the fact that racial differentiation exists in a wide variety of cultures and has been one of the causes of some of the more significant historical social problems suggests that dismissing race as merely an artificial construct would be destructive. egardless of whether there is a genetic, scientific basis for racial distinctions, human beings have demonstrated a determination to make racial differentiations. Therefore, understanding why people consistently choose to make these distinctions can be a crucial step in helping mitigate the negative impact of racism.
In the Woodward reading, she discusses racial…
Eriksen, H 1993. Ethnicity and nationalism: anthropological perspectives, Pluto Press, London,
Woodward, K 2010, 'You and me, us and them: issues of identity' in Social sciences: the big issues, 2nd edn. Routledge, London, pp.19-49.
bias based on gender, race, or ethnicity considered unacceptable, in some instances, like employment or pay status, it can be illegal. Our nation does not condone discrimination on factors like these, and for many years we have, as a whole, enforced laws and policies that make racist or biased behavior difficult to institute. This attention to equality, however, does not mean that racism, gender bias, or other biases do not occur. In studying the existence of these biases, I examined my own community of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Grand Rapids is a town of about 200,000. As of the 2000 census, the racial demographics of Grand Rapids were 67.30% white, 20.41% African-American, 0.74% Native American, 1.62% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.63% from other races, and 3.19% from two or more races. 13.05% of the population are of Hispanic or Latino heritage from any racial background (Grand Rapids, 2005). All in all,…
Elected and Appointed Officials, at city of Grand Rapids website, http://www.ci.grand-rapids.mi.us/index.pl-page_id=42
'Grand Rapids, Michigan," Wikipedia, online reference for Grand Rapids. Accessed online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Rapids,_Michigan#Entertainment_and_media
Healey, Joseph, 2003. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class, 3rd. Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
"Survey Examines Excesses and Improvements in Local TV Newscasts Across the U.S.," Rocky Mountain Media Watch, 1998. Accessed online at http://www.bigmedia.org/texts5.html .
ethnicity and stratification is of importance because modern society is culturally diverse, it is important to know what motivates various ethnic groups to strive for success and how social stratification plays a significant role in this process. The opportunity for training and furthering ones level of education is promising for individuals of all ethnicities. Providing there is some form of stratification system within society, it is likely that individuals will view this inequality as a motivational factor to undergo sacrifices and receive additional training for these jobs. This will facilitate individuals in these groups to achieve higher strata in society and be deemed successful. Social stratification is necessary in order to motivate ethnically diverse groups to train for more important jobs. There are three theories of stratification including, the functional theory of stratification, conflict theory and stratification and social interactionism and stratification. All three theories can relate to relationship between…
What is meant be the term ethnicity
The term ethnicity encompasses the culture of a certain group of people or individuals in a certain geographical expanse taking into account their customs, language, religion and birthright. In order to be deemed a member of an ethnic group, one must conform to either all or a number of such aforementioned practices.
Describe the differences between ethnicity and race
It is imperative to note that there is a difference between race and ethnicity. A key difference lies in the fact that ethnicity is tied to cultural aspects of an individual or group of people whereas race is tied to their biological aspects. On one hand, with respect to race, individuals can be distinguished through genetic dissimilarities such color of the skin and other physical attributes. On the other hand, ethnicity encompasses the culture of the people with respect to their geographical location, which…
Polygenism, which posits that humans stem from a diversity of races and, therefore, have distinctions, is the converse of monogenism that posits that all of humanity is from one undifferentiated origin.
Whilst it is true that we each have our distinct cultural background and that these cultural backgrounds can be, occasionally, hugely different in values, practices, ways of thinking, opening, beliefs and so forth, monogenism, such as Christianity, nonetheless believes that we descend from one single set of parents i.e. Adam and Eve and have all been created by God. Banton sees 'race as descent' as the differences between races that could have likely occurred through moral (i.e. social / cultural) or physical (i.e. genetic or behavioral) causes. These differences exist. Monogenists believe that men came from the same source and had acquired these differences later due to environmental and correlated changes, whilst polygenists believe that men were different to…
Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, Rutgers University Press, 2005
Dr. Leonard Egede published an editorial in the Journal of General Internal Medicine regarding various issues in health care i.e. race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities. The editorial was published on the premise that existing evidence shows that racial and ethnic minorities obtain lower quality of health care services as compared to non-minorities. This trend continues to exist despite the significant development in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous chronic diseases. The main focus of this editorial was to highlight the disparities in health care delivery due to racial, ethnic, and cultural factors. In this regard, the publisher focused on examining why patients from minorities experience greater mortality and morbidity from several chronic diseases unlike non-minorities despite the significant medical advances. The editorial focused on three studies that were published on the issue of race, ethnicity, and disparities in the delivery of health care services to various patient populations.
ace and Sexuality
The Booysen rape case is quite enlightening since it uncovers legal suppositions of how before the law was subject to mediation by race and more particularly over determined by interception of blackness and femaleness properties. There were prohibitions of interracial marriages as well as sexual relations as found in the post emancipation legislation of the U.S. South. The cape slave emancipation came up in an era where there existed marked competing definitions of race. A study of more cases after the emancipation indicates that there was a limit when it came to the women's experience of freedom. Most of the authors in time have generally being concerned with elusive myths that concern white women as being victims of black rapists as opposed to ways through which colonialism had created conditions that authorized the pervasive rape of black women by white men. The Booysen case suggest the centrality…
Frohlick, S.(2003).Fluid Exchanges: The Negotiation of Intimacy between Tourist Women and Local Men in a Transnational Town in Caribbean Costa Rica.
Scully, P.(1997). Rape, Race and the sexual policies of colonial identities.
The first three sources reviewed were retrieved from the Ethics Updates website. The fourth source was obtained from a newspaper.
Sullivan, ndrew. "What's So Bad bout Hate?" New York Times. 26 September 1999. http://www.nytimes.com/library/magazine/home/19990926mag-hate-essay.html
ndrew Sullivan's article is about how hate is not easy to define, and that it comes in many forms that are complicated and often abstract. Sullivan begins his article by recounting the details of a story that was in the news in 1997, of a group of three white supremacists in Texas that tied a black man to the back of their truck and dragged him to his death. He also mentions the ryan Nations member who shot a Filipino-merican mailman at pointblank range, and the beating of the young gay Matthew Shepard, and the writer ponders about the moment that hate begins in someone. In recent years, "hate" has become a buzz word in…
Applebome's article is about the decision by a California school board to recognize Ebonics, or a distinct language spoken by American blacks, as the native language of many of the district's students. This was the first school board to make this decision. The school board hoped that students would receive better instruction in standard English and other subjects if the teachers understood they were teaching students who spoke a separate language. Critics accused the school district of making this move in order to get funding only available to bilingual schools, and some say that recognizing Ebonics will simply reinforce poor grammar. Linguists argue, however, that it is in fact a distinct dialect, and that many of the elements of Ebonics are reflections of African language structure.
Times Wire Reports. "Activists March, Seek Leads in 1946 Lynching." Los Angeles Times. 3 April 2005.
In recent news, people in Georgia remembered four black people who were victims of hate crimes in the 1940s. In 1946, a white hate mob attacked two men and two women in their car, then dragged them into the woods and shot them. This activist group that marched is trying to both raise awareness of hate crimes today, as well as encouraging anyone with information about this lynching many decades ago to come forward so that the killers can be prosecuted.
Furthermore, while acknowledging that there was a consciousness of whiteness and white superiority in other lands, such as England, Roediger points out that part of the Americanization process for European immigrants was to become white, and that this process involved internalizing feelings of racism and hatred towards blacks.
Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race by Manning Marable
Manning Marable is a pro-affirmative action author, and he begins his essay by decrying the fact that the political right wing has largely defined the context of discussions about affirmative action. In addition, he stresses concern that those who have benefitted from affirmative action have been reluctant to defend it. He suggests that part of the problem is due to how affirmative action has traditionally been framed and its lack of a definition. Historically, he says, affirmative action was "designed to promote some degree of compensatory justice to the victims of slavery,…
Goldberg, David Theo. "Modernity, Race, and Morality." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 283-306.
Marable, Manning. "Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 344-354.
Roediger, David. "Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of 'White Ethnics' in the United
States." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 325-343.
Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia
Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. e have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George ashington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil ar, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "here history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…
Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.
Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.
Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.
And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. e entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.
Q: hat use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?
M: I'm glad you asked. e have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.
Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?
M: e interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the orld's ebsite…
City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.coosbay.org/ .
City-Data.com. (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from http://www.city-data.com/city/Coos-Bay-Oregon.html .
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Middle School -- Grade 8 -- Reading / Language. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from http://cbd9.net.
Coos Bay School District. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay School District. Retrieved February 2,
Race, Class, Gender Journal
Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 1048
Race, Class, and Gender is an anthology of articles that express various interpretation and insights of the relationship between race, class, and gender and how these things shape the lives of people and society. he topics and points-of-view offered in the anthology are vast and interesting. hey offer a strong historical and sociological perspective on such issues as prison populations, the working poor, or the life of Muslims in the United States. his journal is my personal reflection after reading this book. How did the reading make me feel? Did any of the readings make me feel uncomfortable? Was there any part of the book that rang true with me? Were any of the articles disturbing, shocking, surprising, or impressive? Finally, an original poem will be included in response to the experience of reading Race, Class, and…
L., M, & Hill, P. (2007). Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology. Wadsworth Publishing Company, KY
Race and Ethnic Relations
Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation: Reaction Essay
In their article, "Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation," Williams and Ortega (1990) attempt to empirically examine Gordon's typology of ethnic assimilation. They attempt to test the "validity of his typology" as well as investigate if "assimilation is, indeed, multidimensional" (698). They felt that in previous research and literature, the seven dimensions of assimilation where taken for granted correct (while, most often, only one was utilized in any one study).
In order to verify the veracity of the seven dimensions, they had to measure both ethnicity and assimilation. They measured ethnicity by asking their respondents to identify where (which country or part of the world) their ancestors came from (and asking which they made felt the closest to if more than one region was mentioned). Measuring assimilation along its various dimensions was more complex, but survey questions were the most common method…
According to the October 5, 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, although data on the correspondence of race, ancestry, and health-related "traits are still limited, particularly in minority populations, geographic ancestry and explicit genetic information are alternatives to race that appear to be more accurate predictors of genetic risk factors that influence health" (Bamshad pp).
Bamshad, M. Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter. Journal of American
Medical Association. October 5, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2005 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16118384&dopt=Citation
Beckles, G. "Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and quality of care for persons with diabetes in managed care: the TRIAD study." Diabetes. June 01, 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
illiams, David R. "The concept of race in Health Services Research: 1966 to 1990."
Health Services Research. August 01, 1994. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb…
Bamshad, M. Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter. Journal of American
Medical Association. October 5, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2005 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16118384&dopt=Citation
Beckles, G. "Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and quality of care for persons with diabetes in managed care: the TRIAD study." Diabetes. June 01, 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Williams, David R. "The concept of race in Health Services Research: 1966 to 1990."
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.
As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…
' Culture, in Buck's point-of-view, and the construction of race, thus had a greater importance upon the creation of modern Kentucky than a logical evaluation of individual's real interests. This is why both whites and blacks have been worked to the bone.
Discrimination against poor whites still abounds in present-day Kentucky in the form of stereotypes. Poor whites are often characterized as supposed 'rednecks' who deserve their economic fate because their days are devoted to "drinking, incest," and "family violence," and living lives of "general backwardness, bare-footedness, improvidence, and red-necked cussedness (7). "The actions of coal mine owners, of corporate tobacco buyers, or of manufacturing executives are irrelevant in explaining Kentucky's bony fingers if they can be explained by the problems in Kentucky's culture instead," not by bad corporate behavior (7).
In defending her thesis, Buck begins with evidence from her own life, as she opens with her struggles opening…
, 2001; Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2003). (Copeland, 2005, p. 265)
Populations hardest hit are African-American, Hispanic and Native American populations and as with many other health care access issues the concentration of individuals with limited or no access to healthcare is often associated with low SES urban areas and rural communities with access issues of their own. (Buckley & Van Giezen, 2004, p. 43) (Beverly, Mcatee, Costello, Chernoff & Casteel, 2005, p. 197) the access to health care issue, for many is a cumulative issue that is partnered with a general lack of access to other opportunities, such as adequate housing and employment. (Lopez, 2007, p. 985) it must also be said that job benefits tend to skip over certain employment situations, frequently the lower paying the job the less likely an individual is to have access to job related health benefits, and this statistic is increasing as more…
Beverly, C.J., Mcatee, R., Costello, J., Chernoff, R., & Casteel, J. (2005). Needs Assessment of Rural Communities: A Focus on Older Adults. Journal of Community Health, 30(3), 197.
Buckley, J.E., & Van Giezen, R.W. (2004). Federal Statistics on Healthcare Benefits and Cost Trends: An Overview Federal Government Statistical Agencies Provide a Variety of Healthcare Information on Diverse Aspects of the Nation's Healthcare Picture. Monthly Labor Review, 127(11), 43.
Copeland, V.C. (2005). African-Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization. Health and Social Work, 30(3), 265.
Lopez, I.F. (2007). "A Nation of Minorities": Race, Ethnicity, and Reactionary Colorblindness. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 985.
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
The student's observations about race in discussion 1 prompted me to think about the way our society uses affirmative action to deal with racial inequalities in the workplace. The student states early in the discussion that he had never been personally affected by race or racism -- and yet, after some reflection, he realizes that he had been. He tells the story of going for an interview at Target and being asked if he was Mexican because his name was Hernandez. He informed the interviewer that he was not Mexican and the interviewer immediately lost interest in him as a person. It seems the interviewer was only interested in hiring a particular race -- a Latino -- most likely to fill some sort of affirmative action quota.
This recollection by the student made me irritated because I began to consider how hypocritical our own society is about race. On…
Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society.
The predominating media sentiment according to Ransby was that of 'blaming the victim,' or blaming the impoverished residents for being insufficiently prepared for the disaster. Ransby suggests that the fortitude shown by residents, even in the absence of aid, was often considerable, considering their meager resources. Residents were blamed for their poverty, rather than sympathized with.
Ransby's essay made me think critically about the coverage of the event I witnessed: while it was true that many people were praised for going to the afflicted area and helping the victims, I remember far fewer stories praising the resilience of residents. While the 'blame the victim' mentality may have been less in evidence in the coverage I saw than that which was cited by Ransby, I do think that there was a kind of objectification of the victims as a general, faceless representation of extreme poverty that many Americans denied existed within…
acial division/separation on campus in environment
Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.
Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…
Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.
Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).
Specifically reported by Coy is that the "recent launch of a black Disney princess may be an indicator of greater cultural diversity, but in terms of the 'girl power' values it carries the view that it is 'a great step . . . [and] could help black children see themselves more positively' (Adesioye, 2009) fails to address how it will reinforce messages of sexualization for black girls." (2009) to excel in the music industry, it is expected and even required that women become sexualized because this is a primary point of the success realized in the music industry as the music industry is highly sexualized overall. A study reported in the work of Stankiewitz and osselli (2008) states that the study examined the way that women were depicted in 1,988 advertisements "from popular U.S. magazines." The advertisements were coded in relation to whether women were presented as sex objects of…
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
Coy, M. (2009) Milkshakes, Lady Lumps, and Growing Up to Want Boobies: How the Finlay, a. (2013) Hyper-sexualizing Women Leads to Self-Objectification -- More Destructive and Prevalent than Society Admits
Liang, E. (2011) the Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the modern Game. Vol. 3 No. 10. Retrieved from: http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/587/the-medias-sexualization-of-female-athletes-a-bad-call-for-the-modern-game
Naubert, R. (2011) Media's Growing Sexualization of Women. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/08/11/medias-growing-sexualization-of-women/28539.html
Race: An Illusion
The concept of race has no place in today's globalizing world. In fact, it is a damaging illusion. Not only does the idea of race allow false beliefs to develop, but it allows the concept of "them against us" to develop. In such a reality, race becomes a pride-producing rallying point around which blatant discrimination, injustice, and atrocities spring.
The idea of race as a meaningful concept is no longer useful in today's globalizing world. Increasingly the physical boarders that once separated groups possessing distinct racial characteristics -- characteristics thought, perhaps to represent evolutionary changes allowing environmental survival, are no longer static. Indeed, the fairest Irishwoman can be found living in the deepest depths of the Sahara, while the darkest Ghanaian can be found shivering in the bitter Wisconsin winter. Race no longer divides geographically. However, the illusion of race as a significant division based on other…
ace and Community
The community in which I have lived for the past several years of my life is Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a relatively agricultural community that combines some major metropolitan features with a distinctive suburban flair. Traditionally, this community has not been noted for its racial diversity, as the vast majority of its residents are Caucasian. According to the United States Census Bureau's information as of 2009, 87.9% of all Sioux Falls residents were Caucasian, while the next highest population group, the population of American Indian and Alaskan Native persons, merely constitutes 8.5% of the city's residents (State and County, 2009). The percentages of populations are comparatively non-existent following the aforementioned group, as 2.9% of the city's inhabitants are Hispanic or Latino in origin, 1.2% of people reported their ethnicity as being Black, .9% of residents are Asian and .1% of the city's inhabitants are native…
State and County Quick Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2011) from U.S. Census Bureau website, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/46/4659020.html.
Diversity Data.org. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2011 from Harvard, School of Public Health website, diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/Data/Profiles/Show.aspx?loc=1296
Lift SD Families and Children Out of Poverty. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.sdvoicesforchildren.org/images/pdf/NewsletterFall09.pdf
Leonardson, G.R. & Loudenburg, R. (2005, June 24). Assessment of Disproportionate Minority Contact in South Dakota. Retrieved from http://doc.sd.gov/about/grants/documents/FullDMCReportFinal.pdf
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
ace and Gender
Sociological Principles/Perspectives of ace
ace is the physical difference that various cultures and groups think are socially different. Principles of sociology seek to establish how ethnicity and race are constructed socially; including how each individual identifies with them. Sociology principles explain that interaction at the social level forms the cornerstone for societal interaction. The way of interaction with others demonstrates people's beliefs and what they hold as valuable as members of a group. Behavior patterns show social relationships that are unequal. These are the elements that trigger ethnicity and racial issues. The issues overlap with elements of yet another principle. For instance, social relationships that are unequal are connected to what people see as true about each other as both individuals and as members of social groups. People frequently generate beliefs about others around them; which often comprise of discrimination and prejudice.
USA constitutes people from various…
Brague, J. A. (2011, October 21). Elderly stereotypes. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Applied Social Psychology: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/10/elderly-stereotypes.html
Hegewisch, A., & Dumonthier, A. (2016). Pay Equity & Discrimination. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from Institute for Women's Policy Research: http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination/#about
Randall, V. R. (2010, October 3). Why Race Matters? Retrieved October 3, 2016, from University of Dayton: https://academic.udayton.edu/health/03access/data.htm
Perez, A. D., & Hirschmann, C. (2009). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population: Emerging American Identities: Vol 35, Issue 1, 1-51. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/
Ethnicity can be somewhat apparent, but it is not always apparent. To understand this, it is important to keep in mind that ethnicity is different from race. "Ethnicity refers to selected cultural and sometimes physical characteristics used to classify people into groups or categories considered to be significantly different from others" (O'Neill, 2006). In America, there are several different commonly recognized ethnic identities including American Indians, Latinos, Chinese, African-Americans, and European-Americans, some of which are identifiable by physical characteristics, and others of which are not as readily identifiable by appearance. For example, the combination of dark skin, kinky hair, and prominent facial features may identify a person as African-American, but it is oftentimes more difficult for non-Asians to determine an Asian-American person's specific ethnicity because Asian-Americans share similar skin tone, hair color, and some facial characteristics. Many European-Americans cannot distinguish European ethnic groups based on physical characteristics
Ethnic identity can…
Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved January
28, 2012 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865
O'Neill, D. (2006). "Overview." Ethnicity. Retrieved January 27, 2012 from Palomar College
Ethnicity and Tourism
Ethnicity affects many aspects of tourism but is an aspect that is still poorly understood. Ethnicity is a concept that is quite problematic due to its variability and complexity in relation to social structure. Tourism has contributed to the process of the formation of identity in new nations and at the same time may encourage the majority population to reevaluate the perceptions they have on minorities.
Sporting activities have given rise to a new form of tourism. This is what is now known as sports tourism. If we talk of sport as a way of tourism we must first give a definition of sport tourism. Therefore sport tourism includes travelling away from an area where one resides to either take part in a sport for recreation, for competing, traveling to observe sports at grassroots or elite level or travelling to visit a sport attraction like sport hall…
Ottevanger, H.(2007). Sports Tourism: Factors of influence on sport event visit motivation. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from http://www.du.se/PageFiles/5054/Ottevanger.pdf
Luna, E.(2010). How the 1992 Summer Olympics Benefitted Tourism in Barcelona. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from http://www.articlesbase.com/vacation-rentals-articles/how-the-1992-summer-olympics-benefitted-tourism-in-barcelona-2889994.html
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.
Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…
Cornwall, W. (2004). "Racial issues raised over Democratic mailing." Seattle times. Accessed 3 August 2010. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002070838_48thrace23e.html
Moscou, J. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 1 August 2010.
Race & social justice initiative. (2010). City of Seattle Official Website. Accessed 3 August 2010.
This happened because blacks had learnt that they no longer had to obey the people that illegitimately enslaved them.
Slaves had been determined to fight for their freedom through any means possible, and, they took advantage of any opportunity that they had to become free. According to Nash, tens of thousands of slaves have left the American continent as the British forces advanced inland. Apparently, a great number of black people wanted the British to win the war, as they believed that such an event would set them free.
As Nash describes it, the people that wrote the Constitution hadn't considered the fact that they still had slavery present within the borders of their so-called free country. By the time of the Constitution, however, people had already begun to relate to other issues, believing that slavery had been too insignificant for them to give credit to. Consequent to the period,…
1. Nash, Gary B. (1990). Race and Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield.
Historically, race has been a huge factor in determining the success of an individual. "The House We Live In" zooms in on race and the housing issue, demonstrating how past real estate practices and federal government regulations have made access and affordability easier for whites. Much of the financial wealth of an individual is attributable to the value of their home, an area where blacks have not faired well because of previous discrimination and the relative value of their homes vs. those in white neighborhoods. Further, the documentary asserts that there is a need to somehow take account of race to stop a non-ending cycle of inequity between races.
Today, it's fashionable to blame the past and society for individual issues. As certain ethnicities such as Asians and certain Europeans have faired better in our society than blacks in climbing the social ladder, the documentary invents excuses such as…
Race: the power of an illusion episode 3: the house we live in. PBS.
The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil ights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…
Brennan, D. Selling sex for visas.
Collins, P.C. "Prisons for Our Bodies; Closets for Our Minds." In Black Sexual Politics. New York: Routledge.
Katz, J.N. The Invention of Heterosexuality. University of Chicago.
Lareau, a. Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.