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Moreover, there are many other considerations that must be taken into account, any of which can obfuscate the impact of the orld Bank's actions.
UNESCO's perspective is less linear in its logic. Armed with a vague and shifting understanding of the antecedents of poverty, UNESCO not only has trouble measuring poverty but also has trouble drawing links between specific program actions and the elimination of poverty. UNESCO understands that broad strokes of how poverty comes about (or more accurately is not eradicated) but seems unable to translate this to policy in the clear way that the orld Bank has been able to.
Affect of Different Measures
There are two main implications of the fact that nearly every agency, government and NGO has its own measure of poverty. The first implication is that there is no agreement on what poverty is, and the second is that there is no agreement on…
Boltvinik, J. (no date). Poverty measurement methods -- An overview. In possession of the author.
Fournier, F. (2002). Social capital and poverty reduction. UNESCO. In possession of the author.
IDEAs.org (2009). Globalisation and income inequality: A survey. IDEAs. In possession of the author.
Oyen, E. (2002). Social capital and poverty reduction. UNESCO. In possession of the author.
Poverty and Children in the U.S.
Poverty Stricken Children in the United States of America
It is unfortunate to state that sociological ills have preserved their place in almost every society, civilization and empire. e it slavery, illiteracy, disease or poverty; one vice or the other has invaded communities throughout history and wreaked destruction upon the inhabitants. Despite the revolutions in the information technology and communication sector, countries are still experiencing a strong dearth of resources. Regardless of the progress within the global corporate realm, there is a widening gap between the "haves" and the "have-nots." Poverty is a harsh and tangible part of our world reality. What is poverty? A simple and straightforward explanation is to be without basic, essential items such as food, water, and shelter. The Copenhagen Declaration paints it as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation,…
Child Poverty in the United States 2009 and 2010. (2011, November). United States Census Bureau .
Defining Poverty. (2011, July 19). A New Republican .
Definitions of Poverty. (2012). Retrieved May 2012, from BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/ms/health/wealth/def_of_poverty/definitions.shtml
Finding Solutions to Poverty. (2006). A Dollar a Day .
The first pitfall is that soft factors such as culture are very hard to quantify and thus difficult to pin down in the type of quantitative research currently in vogue in the field of social sciences. There will have to be more qualitative research done, including interviews, questionairres, and polls conducted in order to get a handle on the factors which transform poverty into crime. The second pitfall is that culturally-focused explanations often echo the racial prejudices which drove the Social Darwinist explanations of poverty and crime during the late 19th and early 20th century sociology and criminology.
The relationship between poverty and crime is only beginning to be fleshed out in a manner which will produce useful policy recommendations. Fortunately, these recommendations will be grounded in quantitative research, especially data regarding crime rates and social welfare expenditures. However, it is important that research into poverty and crime does…
Pridemore - a Reassessment of the Inequality-Homicide Relationship in Cross-National Studies
Zhao -- the Dynamics of Poverty and Crime
Hipp and Yates -- Ghettos, Thresholds, and Crime: Does Concentrated Poverty Really Have an Accelerating Increasing Effect on Crime
Nikulina - the Role of Childhood Poverty in Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Order, Academic Achievement, and Crime in Young Adulthood.
This can take shape with the person having fewer educational resources and support. While at the same time, they are exposed to a host of illegal activities that are committed right in front of them (i.e. The distribution of illegal drugs or the sale of guns). These factors will help the person to think that this is socially acceptable. ("Causes and Effects of Poverty," 2012)
When this happens, they will engage in these actions to address their economic challenges. The problem is that the individual does not see anything wrong with what they are doing. This is from being constantly exposed to these areas through cultural traditions (which are telling them these actions are acceptable). Once they are arrested, is the point that they will claim they are product of their environment (based on the lack of opportunities that were available to them). ("Causes and Effects of Poverty," 2012)
2012 World Hunger. (2012). World Hunger. Retrieved from: http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm
Causes and Effects of Poverty. (2012). Cliffs Notes. Retrieved from: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Causes-and-Effects-of-Poverty.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26882.html
Definitions of Poverty. (2012). BBC. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/ms/health/wealth/def_of_poverty/definitions.shtml
Ravallion, M. (2009). Dollar a Day. World Bank Economic Review, 23 (2), 163 -- 184.
A recent study on demographics found that white Americans, currently about 63% of the U.S. population, will peak in 2024 and drop below 50% of the U.S. population by 2043. In fact, since the Immigration eform Act of 1965, about 650,000 new immigrants a year come from Latin America and Asia, which outnumbers the mass European Immigration from 1920-1920 (Lee, 2013). African-Americans, as of the 2012 census update, comprise about 44 million, up almost 2% from 2010. In fact, America's African-American population (Black) has steadily been increasing in participation in American politics, with a 65% turnout in the 2008 Presidential Election, higher than any other minority in the country (U.S.Census Bureau News, 2013). One of the changes in American economic and policy debate occurring in the 21st century has been the growing concerns about the inequality of wealth and the expanding racial wealth gap between Whites and minority groups,…
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G., (1997). The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. 7 (2): 55-71.
Capella, E., et al., (2008). Enhancing Schools' Capacity to Support Children in Poverty: An Ecological Model of School-Based Mental Health Services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 35 (5): 395-409.
Drake, B., Rank, M. (2009). The racial divide among American children in poverty: Reassessing the importance of neighborhood. Children and Youth Services Review. 31 (12): 1264-741.
Huston, A. (2011). Children in Poverty: Can Public Policy Alleviate the Consequences? Family Matters -- Australian Institute of Family Studies. 87 (2): 13-26. Retrieved from: http://www.aifs.org.au/institute/pubs/fm2011/fm87/fm87c.pdf
Poverty Education Problems
At present, an African child born in poverty is more anticipated to be undernourished than attending primary school education and is as likely to pass away ahead of age 5 as to attend secondary education. As mentioned by Tilak, J. (2009) these harsh realities are representatative of the interlinked state of poverty and education with regard to a child's chances of survival in Africa. Statistical assessment of sub-Saharan Africa presents two most critical aspects of this regiont: its elevated level of poverty and the current decrease in primary education in the region. No other part of the world is going through this level of poverty and academic problems.
Thirty-seven states of sub-Saharan Africa are included in the list of countries that grade lowest in field of human development. According to an estimate, 40 to 50% population residing in sub-Saharan Africa is below the poverty line. (Psacharopoulos, 2011)…
Buchmann, C., (2010) The debt crisis, structural adjustment and women's education: implications for status and social development. International journal of comparative sociology, p. 160- 89.
Crabtree, S and Pugliese, A (2012) Poverty Drops With Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, Pg 1.
Flower, L., Hayes, J., Carey, L., Schriver, K., & Stratman, J. (2012). Detection diagnosis, and the strategies of revision. College Composition and Communication, 160- 90..
Hinchliffe, K., (2008) Economic austerity, structural adjustment and education: the case of Nigeria. IDS bulletin, p. 10- 17.
Poverty and Obesity
POVEY AND OBESITY
The Connection Between Poverty and Obesity
Fall Session A
The Connection between Poverty and Obesity
The argument that obesity is correlated with poverty is one that is quite persistent in the popular literature and also the in the scientific research (e.g., Drewnowski, 2004; Pollan, 2006). To say that one thing is correlated with another should not be interpreted as meaning that one thing leads to another or that it causes another thing. Yet writers like Pollan do this very thing. The actual relationship of obesity to income level or poverty turns out to be a lot more complex than writers like Pollan take the time to consider. In fact, the relationship of obesity to poverty is in actuality almost nil. It is the writings of such individuals that skew the issues and simplify them that lead to such misinterpretations.
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: A geographic analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(3), 211-217.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology and Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Centers for Disease Control. (2004a). Overweight and obesity state programs. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/state_programs/new_york.htm
Centers for Disease Control. (2004b). Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, 1999-2000. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overwght99.htm
Poverty Issues in Education: Effects on School-Age Children
Poverty and its effects on school age children
Poverty Issues in Education
Effects on School-Age Children
The child who lives in poverty experiences both challenges and barriers that other children who are not in these 'at risk' will never face. Presently there are number of young children in the U.S. that are growing up in families living in poverty or near poverty (44%). The term 'at-risk' is a reference to children who are "likely to fail in school or in life because of their life's social circumstances." Stated in the work of Pellino (2005) is that, "It does not appear that any one single factor places a child at-risk. Rather, when more than one factor is present, there is a compounding effect and the likelihood for failure increases significantly. (Pellino, 2005) Academic and behavioral problems can be indicators of impending failure. Among…
Pellino, Karen M. (2005) The Effects of Poverty on Teaching and Learning
Elliott, M. (1996) "Impact of Work, Family and Welfare Receipt on Women's Self-Esteem in Young Adulthood" Social Psychology Quarterly 59: 80-95.
Moore, K.A. And Driscoll, A.K. (1997) Low-wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children: The Future of Children page
Sometimes the government is asked to intervene in the economy so as to rectify situation in which the price system fails to work. ("How the U.S. Economy works," n. d.)
4) Would you eliminate it, or would you leave it alone?
Definitely poverty has to be eliminated as this is the single largest measure of economic backwardness of a nation. These would comprise the need for greater effective economic strategies to foster employment creating growth, a changeover of resources and services into rural regions, a reorientation of public social service and an enhancement in their quality at the grass-root level. The creation of techniques to assist poverty stricken regions and district and enhanced targeting of credit and other measures to assist the poor. (Cox; Healey; Hoebink; Voipio, 2000)
Cox, Aidan; Healey, John; Hoebink, Paul; Voipio, Timo. (2000) "European Development
Cooperation and the Poor." St. . Martin's Press.
Cox, Aidan; Healey, John; Hoebink, Paul; Voipio, Timo. (2000) "European Development
Cooperation and the Poor." St. . Martin's Press.
Gallaway, Lowell E. (1966, Oct) "The Aged and the extent of poverty in the United States"
Southern Economic Journal, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 212-222.
Poverty and Health
More than half a century ago, the World Health Organization defined health as "a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (Ustun & Jakob 2005)." There were objections to this definition and others were suggested to replace it. The Australian aboriginal people define health as something beyond individual physical well-being. Their definition encompasses the social, emotional, spiritual and cultural well-being of the whole community. The perception spans an entire life view and the cycle of life, death and an after-life (Ustun & Jakob).
On the other hand, poverty is defined as a threshold. In 2001, the Census ureau set the poverty threshold at $9,214 for a single person or at $18,022 for a family of 1 adult and 3 related children below 18 years old (Oberg 2003). This definition or measurement of poverty is deemed limited at…
Benjamin, D 2003, 'The impact of childhood poverty on health and development,'
Healthy Generations: University of Minnesota [Online] Available at http://www.epi.umn.edu/mch/resources/hg/hg_childpoverty.pdf
Evans, J and Kleit, G.R. 2010, 'Prompting poverty reduction: societal values, social exclusion and the future of American democracy,' Evans School of Public
Affairs:: University of Washington [Online] Available at http://cvp.evans.washington.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/coverkleit_2010.pdf
People have to be empowered to become educated and stand up for themselves. Assuming such proactive action will eventually stop the cycle of poverty and "ignite" the path to development.
The question, however, is not "Can poverty can be eradicated?" With resources of the more wealthy individuals and nations combined across the world, it is difficult to imagine that this could not be accomplished. However, the more important questions are, "Do people want to use these resources to end poverty? Do enough people across the world truly want to end poverty? Do they actually care, or care enough, to work toward such goals? or, worse yet, do too many people enjoy their increased wealth and extravagance at the expense of others and do not want to change the status quo?" The ultimate question then is not, "Can poverty be eliminated? It is, instead, "Will it be eliminated?" The only way…
Ayres, C.E. (1962) the Theory of Economic Progress: A Study of the Fundamentals of Economic Development and Cultural Change. New York: Schoken Books
Galbraith, a. (1962). Economic Development in Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press..
____(1964). Economic Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
____ (1994) Journey Through Economic Time: A Firsthand View. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
S. families. The government has introduced welfare to help these families, but they still continue to live in poverty, affecting the life of children (Baskerville, 2008).
However most scholars and researcher tend to agree that at least part of the poor children will become wealthier as they grow, an article in the Stanford Social Innovation eview points out that these future adults will struggle the effects of early poverty for the rest of their lives. "Some 17% of children in America live in families with incomes below the federal poverty line, according to a 2005 U.S. Census Bureau report. A minority of these children will escape poverty by the time they grow up. Even so, their bodies will still bear the marks of their early deprivations as they succumb to higher rates of cancer, infectious diseases, arthritis, and other ailments" (Stanford Social Innovation eview, 2008).
The matters of…
Baskerville, S., 2008, From Welfare State to Police State, the Independent Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 401-422
Macionis, J.J., 2006, Society: The Basics, 8th Edition, Prentice Hall
O'Hare, W., Mather, M., 2008, Child Poverty is Highest in Rural Counties in U.S., Population Reference Bureau, http://www.prb.org/Articles/2008/childpoverty.aspxlastaccessed on April 17, 2008
2008, Poor in Body - Toxic Environments Knock Impoverished Kids' Systems out of Kilter, Stanford Social Innovation Review
The MPH strategy - put into effect in 2005 - was to mobilize enormous peaceful demonstrations, in coordination with the international movement called "Global Campaign Against Poverty" - and rock concerts - in many nations, to show the world (through media) that this was an international movement to end poverty. The MPH mission was not to send people out into the world's hunger spots to pass out food, or fund food-related charity organizations. The thrust of the movement was to not only call attention to poverty, but to pressure members of the G8 - presidents and prime ministers from Canada, UK, U.S., France, Germany, Russia, Japan and Italy - to forgive debt in developing nations where poverty is the most severe.
The purpose of MPH's effort was also to help reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - with particular attention to the first goal - established in 2002 by the…
Baptist, Willie; & Damico, Noelle. (2005). Building the New Freedom Church of the Poor.
Cross Currents, 55(3), 352-262.
Chambers, Clarke a. (2001). Poor People's Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail.
American Historical Review, 83(3), 841-843.
Poverty in Zaire
'The Democratic Republic of Congo should be the envy of Africa ... Instead, its 44 million people are among the poorest in the world, and among the world's most likely to hack each other to pieces." (Pelton). The Democratic Republic of Congo has been besieged by strife, turmoil, poverty, and illness for decades. Formerly the Belgian Congo, the nation, like most others in Africa, has been ravaged by centuries of colonial and imperialistic rule. In the wake of the rape of natural resources and the racist degradation of its people of colonial years arose a series of brutal, greed-driven dictatorial regimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For over thirty years a dictator named Mobutu Sese Seko (nee Joseph Desire Mobutu) led the country with what many call a "kleptocracy," or rule via stealing. Pelton's quote draws attention to the fact that the Democratic Republic of Congo…
"Congo, Democratic Republic of." CIA World Factbook. 2005. Online at < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cg.html >.
'Congo (Zaire) Information." 1998. Art and Life in Africa. < http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/countries/Congo_ (Zaire).html>.
'Democratic Republic of Congo Data Profile." 2003. World Bank. Online at .
Forests Monitor. 2001. "Democratic Republic of Congo." Sold Down the River. Online at < http://www.forestsmonitor.org/reports/solddownriver/drc.htm>.
That "reflects, in part, the more complex houses that Habitat builds in the United States, as well as the mind-numbing issues -- involving insurance costs and government regulations -- that seem to have bogged down efforts to rebuild after Hurricanes Katrina... (Volunteer group lags in replacing Gulf houses, New York Times, February 22, 2007).
Even without that latter disastrous devastation, though; but also in spite of huge latter-day gaming profits, Mississippi has, just as it did back in 1979, according to ogers:.".. The largest proportion of poor families and persons of any State and poverty is more frequent among persons over the age of 65, persons living alone, black families, female headed families, and rural residents. Mississippi also has the largest proportion of school age children in poverty..." In 1979, the report Poverty in Mississippi: A statistical analysis (ogers) ordered by the Governor's Office of Human esources suggested "Ameliorative steps...include…
Appel, Adrianne. (October 7, 2005). In poverty-stricken Mississippi, Katrina's damage lingers. National Geographic News [online]. Retrieved February 25, 2007 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:G85nYqxoB64J:news.
Carpetbagger. (February 20, 2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 25, 2007, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpetbagger.html .
Hurricane Katrina. February 25, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007, from: http:
Poverty has plagued mankind since time immemorial, or at least since people have replaced the struggle for consumptive goods with the struggle for capital goods.
This particular issue is worthy of discussion because of the many lives it has destroyed. I personally know people who have endured a number of negative ramifications in their lives because they were woefully impoverished, and lacked the capital resources to better themselves. In this document I am going to discuss how poverty has affected someone very close to me (my neighbor), how he or she dealt with this problem, and the best way to teach others about poverty. Finally, I will deconstruct how the functional sociological perspective deals with the issue of poverty.
I have witnessed first hand the devastating effects of penury. The most extreme example I can offer about the noxious conditions of this social malady is that of my former next…
Evidence-Based Decision Making
The schools that have been considered high performing do not rely on standardized annual test scores as a means of evaluation; rather they analyze data on a regular basis both formally and informally. The schools collect data from a number of sources including surveys of students, teachers, parents, and community stakeholders, daily student interaction, and from results of benchmarks and interim examinations created by the educators, departments and the school district (Wilcox & Angelis, 2011). The educators also reportedly share an attitude that it is never good enough and their position toward change is to respect it, expect it, and with continuous progress and monitoring, attempt to cause it. Everyone is attentive to high stakes examinations and ensuring that the students are as well prepared as possible; however, evidence of success is not limited to the results of high stakes or standardized examinations.
The last common…
Angelis, J., & Wilcox, K. (2011). Poverty, performance, and frog ponds: What best practice research tells us about their connections. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(3), 26-31.
Goldsmith, R. (2011). Coleman revisited: school segregation, peers, and frog ponds. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 508-535.
Wilcox, K., & Angelis, J. (2009). Best practices from high-performance middle schools:
How successful schools remove obstacles and create pathways to learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
For the majority of people in the United States, disease, poverty and premature death are so remote they are not even a concern. America has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $37,600. Health and longevity are based on factors such as genetics and lifestyle. These are also largely taken for granted by most Americans. However, despite the "American Dream," the country is stratified with an increasing distance occurring between the upper and lower classes. n fact, by one measurement of inequality, the Gini coefficient (that is not accepted by all in the field), the U.S. has the highest inequality of any wealthy country. As Stephen Bezruchka notes, social class has a profound effect in the U.S., even for those in the middle class. What cannot be refuted is the difference between the standards in America and many other countries…
Ironically, the costs of these services would be very low, but the payback would be phenomenal. Despite this fact, the amount of aid to the poorest countries is not anywhere to the levels needed.
Sachs notes other measures that can be taken to reduce drastically if not eliminate the problems, yet the question is will such measures be taken? The wealthy must do their share, and it may be that the desire to do so is not as well received as one would like.
Gini Coefficient. http://william-king.www.drexel.edu/top/prin/txt/factors/dist4.html
Transportation congestion for cars and ships is said to now be worse than China's problem. Corruption has slowed construction; the government stopped highway building across northern Vietnam in 2006 after uncovering a graft scandal that led to resignations and detentions at the Transport Ministry. Factories are challenged power shortages that cause frequent interruptions as much as twice a day.
Even though Vietnam's trade is booming and it has formed many types of open trade arrangements, the country is accused of dumping, a practice of selling in another market at a price which is lower than the price or cost in Vietnam's home market (radsher, 2006). The United States imposed anti-dumping duties on Vietnam's catfish exports three years ago and the European Union recently imposed them on Vietnamese shoe exports.
At a time of extreme income disparity, skills shortages, and inflation, Vietnam should not be pursuing tax breaks for the…
Bradsher, K. (2006, October 25).
Vietnam's roaring economy is set for world stage. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com /2006/10/25/business/worldbusiness/25vietnam.html?ex=1319428800&en=d30d15747694acae&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt
EarthTrends (2003). http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:MG1g2pwcz8IJ:earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_profiles/eco_cou_704.pdf+Vietnam+%22income+distribution%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us
The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/vm.html
Poverty and Its Effect on Access to Clean Water
Although estimates vary, some authorities suggest that as many as 40% of the world's seven billion people lack ready access to clean water. About half of the world's consumers living in industrialized nations simply take such access for granted, of course, and free-flowing, inexpensive hot and cold potable water piped directly to the home has become a hallmark of modern civilized living. As the debate over how best to address the other fundamental environmental issues that are currently facing humankind such as global warming and peak oil continue, it would appear that insufficient attention is being dedicated to the plight of the remaining disadvantaged three billion people living in developing nations today who do not have access to clean water. Indeed, in what has been termed a "silent emergency,' hundreds of millions of women and children are especially vulnerable to the…
Bolnick, H.J. (2003). Designing a world-class health care system. North American Actuarial
Journal, 7(2), 1-3.
Cheema, G.S. (2005). Building democratic institutions: Governance reform in developing countries. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
de Mello, E. (2011). World Water Day: How you can get involved. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/22/world-water-day-how-you-c_n_507555.html .
Her local college, in fact, almost certainly provides mental health services, so her attendance at school could not only provide her with a leg up in the world in the long-term, but also provide immediate assistance.
There are also undoubtedly services available both to help provide care for her mother and her disabled brother, and to help her learn to cope with the extra stresses of caring for these adult family members, especially when she is also dealing with the stress of raising a son who now has a massive brain injury. These are also issues that should be addressed in counseling, of course, but other social services exist that can provide more direct, immediate, and practical assistance. Depending on the level of care that the various individuals in her household require, there are even likely to be day facilities where all three of Cassandra's family members could be cared…
Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence of Social Problem of Poverty
In delineation, poverty is the state of affairs in which an individual either owing to insufficient income or ill-advised expenditures, does not sustain a standard of living sufficiently enough to make provisions for his or her physical and psychological efficacy and to facilitate them and their natural children to function, more often than not to the standards of society (Sharma, 1997). In accordance to Ball and Tepperman (2016), social inequalities can be delineated as the uneven accessibility to rewards or prospects for individuals within a group or groups in a societal context. They are existent in any society or community when individuals have dissimilar amounts of income, affluence and social power. Canada is considered to be in the middle with respect to rankings for social inequality (Tepperman and Curtis, 2003). Poverty has always been one of the most severe social problems…
Ahluwalia, M. S. (1990). Policies for poverty alleviation. Asian Development Review, 8(1), 111-132.
Ball, J., & Tepperman, L. (2016). The Stacked Deck: An Introduction to Social Inequality. Oxford University Press.
Barkan, S. E. (2013). Social problems: Continuity and change. Flat World Knowledge, Incorporated.
Crone, J. A. (2016). How can we solve our social problems?. SAGE Publications.
Dabla-Norris, M. E., Kochhar, M. K., Suphaphiphat, M. N., Ricka, M. F., & Tsounta, E. (2015). Causes and consequences of income inequality: a global perspective. International Monetary Fund.
Sharma, R. K. (1997). Urban Sociology. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors.
Tepperman, L., & Curtis, J. E. (2003). Social problems: A Canadian perspective. Oxford Univ Pr.
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. (UNESCO). (2017). Poverty. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/poverty/
Poverty: Government Funding of Social Programs
Human rights are often framed in two ways: freedom from government intervention, such as the right to free speech, and the right to access basic necessities, such as the right to adequate healthcare. The United States has traditionally emphasized negative rights, while other industrialized nations have placed greater emphasis on positive rights, including the right to conditions which support health and well-being. One proposal which has gained increasing traction in recent years is the right to a universal basic income (Hughes, 2018). Advocates arguing for such freedom from poverty suggest that it is a more beneficial way of addressing the problem of a permanent underclass than limited, conditional support such as food assistance. The idea that people will simply not work, advocates argue, is not true, given that most individuals do wish to contribute to society; a universal basic income would be a great…
Hughes, C. (2018). Universal basic income: It’s a human right to have enough money to live on. The Independent. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/our- voices/battle-of-ideas/universal-basic-income-ubi-human-rights-money-poverty-help- living-costs-a8190326.html
Sidel, R. (2000). The enemy within: The demonization of poor women. The Journal of Sociologyn and Social Welfare, 27(1), 73-83. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2628&context=jssw
Clinical Question: Why is mental health important in the lower socioeconomic class?
Mental health problems are common in every socioeconomic class. However, when mental health problems occur in the lower socioeconomic class, the people affected often do not have the resources to get help and get better. Mental health problems are often solved or alleviated with medical intervention, especially through cognitive behavioral therapy and talk therapy. However, those in the lower socioeconomic class may not have health insurance or may not have the money to see a therapist that can help them with their problems. With the added stress of labor-intensive jobs that so often plague the lower socioeconomic, having poor mental health could seriously cripple a person within such an income bracket.
Therefore, the clinical question addresses the significance of mental health and its role in promoting better health outcomes for those in the lower socioeconomic class. By examining…
Cooper, C. L., & Marshall, J. (2013). Occupational Sources of Stress: A Review of the Literature Relating to Coronary Heart Disease and Mental Ill Health. From Stress to Wellbeing Volume 1, 3-23. doi:10.1057/9781137310651_1
Meyer, O. L., Castro-Schilo, L., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (2014). Determinants of Mental Health and Self-Rated Health: A Model of Socioeconomic Status, Neighborhood Safety, and Physical Activity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(9), 1734-1741. doi:10.2105/ajph.2014.302003
Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 24-31. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.026
There is a lot said and theorized about when it comes motivating students and other people that might exist and work within an educational environment. However, the paradigm in question is not nearly as one-dimensional as some might portray. Indeed, students and learners can be motivated by one or more factors. Some of those factors come from outside people and events and these are known as extrinsic motivations and motivators. The other side of that coin, however, would be intrinsic factors. This is what motivates people from within and what personally drives them to succeed independent or different from what the external factors and people might place on the situation. The latter of those two shall be the focus of this research report. There are peer-reviewed journal articles and other scholarly sources that have a lot to say about the subject at hand. Whether it be from a basic…
Abdelsayed, L. M., Bustrum, J. M., Tisdale, T. C., Reimer, K. S., & Camp, C. A. (2013). The
impact of personality on God image, religious coping, and religious motivation among
Coptic Orthodox priests. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16(2), 155-172.
Brimhall, A., & Butler, M. (2007). Intrinsic vs. extrinsic religious motivation and the marital
relationship. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35(3), 235-249.
Corodeanu Agheorghiesei, D. T., Copoeru, I., & Horia, N. (2016). The role of religion in
businesses from a three-dimensional perspective--entrepreneurship, marketing and
Both Payne (n.d.) and Taylor (n.d.) argue that poverty is institutionalized and embedded in social norms. Payne's (n.d.) model proposes multiple dimensions and manifestations of poverty, especially as it impacts both adult and child education. Poverty is relative, according to Payne, and must be understood within a contextual framework. Moreover, Payne notes that socioeconomic class must be reframed not as a sharp delineation between haves and have-nots, but as a continuum. Schools and other social institutions not only fail to realize these fundamental factors, but they also operate with a dominant culture framework, using "middle class norms" and the "hidden rules" of the middle class as well (Payne, n.d., p. 2). Payne goes so far as to say that students hoping to achieve upward social mobility sacrifice their relationships for their personal achievement, thereby creating social and psychological problems. However, those relationships are precisely what can cause generational poverty.…
Payne, R.K. (n.d). Understanding and working with students and adults from poverty.
Taylor, K.A. (n.d.). Povety's multiple dimensions. Journal of Educational Controversy. Retrieved online: http://www.wce.wwu.edu/Resources/CEP/eJournal/v004n001/a002.shtml
.. when every citizen is given the full chance to reach his or her potential." (Celimene and riys)
This understanding of equality remains true "... As long as we do not remain unequal in residual (unwanted) risks. That is as long as inequality is not rooted in pure random events. Otherwise this inequality is bad, a true divide indeed!" (Celimene and riys).
What Dornbusch is saying in effect is that inequality is a positive aspect that flows from the different talents, motivational elements and market forces that normally occur in a free market economy. He does not view inequality that is a result of outside factors that are imposed, such as discrimination and oppression, in a positive light. Only inequality that results from natural differences and different degrees of individual effort and motivation is considered to be "good." In this regard I would tend to agree with his views.
Dornbusch R. (1999) a CENTURY of UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY. Retrieved August 4, 2007, at http://www.esi2.us.es/~mbilbao/pdffiles/dornbus2.pdf .
Celimene F. And Briys E. Globalisation and Risk Sharing: Debunking Some
Common Pitfalls. Retrieved August 3, 2007 at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:tgVua2zoKeEJ:cyberlibris.typepad.com/blog/files/Haiti2.doc+DORNBUSCH+STATES+POVERTY+IS+BAD,+but+INEQUALITY+IS+NOT%22&l=en&t=clnk&d=2&l=u
" (Barron et. al. 1994) third sociological explanation of individualist precepts is found in social learning theory:
Social learning theory tells us that people adopt others (particularly influential persons) as models for their own behavior. Widespread corruption and lawbreaking by society's leaders may therefore have a profound disinhibiting effect on the rest of the population. According to this thesis, the prevalence of crime and corruption leads to further crime and corruption. Thus, crime is, according to such an explanation, not merely related to antecedent conditions, such as poverty and general disadvantage, but can gather its own momentum. (Gabor, 1990)
Evaluate 2 of the sociological explanations:
The concept that all one needs to stop poverty is "rational self-interest and self-maximizing behavior" is ignorant of the real world at best and cruel beyond words at worst.
Social learning theory, it seems on reflection, would excuse almost any behavior on the grounds that…
In other words, the number by which the bottom and middle thirds' incomes would need to be multiplied to reach those of the top one percent of earners in the country tripled, from ten to thirty in the case of the middle third (meaning the top one percent makes thirty times more, on average, than do the middle third of earners in the country) (CBPP 2010). As income gaps like this widen, more people are pushed towards the bottom fractions of the income distribution charts, and this can lead to a lowering of the poverty line in keeping with the proportions of the graph rather than with a true acknowledgement of the real cost of basic goods like food, utilities, clothing, and rent (Wolf 2009).
The Gini coefficient is another common calculation based on income distribution that can affect the poverty line. Graphing the line of income distribution with the…
CBPP. (2010). "Poverty and income." Center on budget and policy priorities. Accessed 30 July 2010. http://www.cbpp.org/research/?fa=topic&id=36
McEachern, W. (2008). Economics. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Thinkquest. (2005). "Poverty overview." Accessed 30 July 2010. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00282/over_measure1.htm
Wolf, E. (2009). Poverty and income distribution. New York: Wiley.
There are 346 cars per 1000 population in the country (The Economist, 2011).
Andorra has an adult literacy rate of 100%. Life expectancy at birth is 82.43 years and the infant mortality rate 3.8 deaths per 1000 live births. The unemployment rate is 2.9%. The country has 64,500 cellular phones for 84,825 people, a rate of 0.76. The rate of landlines is 44.6%. There are 67,100 Internet users, or 79.1% of the population. There are no figures given by the Economist of the number of cars in Andorra.
These figures confirm the hypothesis that Andorra, despite having a lower GDP per capita, enjoys a higher quality of life. It has fewer cell phones, for example, in part because it has better landline connectivity. ith respect to human measures, however, Andorra's superior literacy rate, life expectancy and infant mortality rates point to a higher degree of success in developing human successes.…
CIA World Factbook, various pages. (2011). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook
Poverty & Economic Development
The link between poverty and economic development
The financial services sector and poverty alleviation
Trade and Investment
Trade and investment
In this paper, we explore the importance of the poverty and economic development dimensions such as infrastructure, private sector development, entrepreneurship, trade and investment and human capital. This is done while keeping in mind the ethical and governance issues like accountability and fairness and their influence on economic development. The content is discussed within the context of a financial services institution operating within African countries. In this paper, we also discuss the steps that the board and senior management of a company can take to address these issues, and describe which steps you would regard as the most effective.
The link between poverty and economic development has often been a subject of several discussions and studies (oemer & Gugerty,1997;Hull,2009; Loayza &…
Coxhead, I. And P. Warr (1995), "Does Technical Progress in Agriculture Alleviate Poverty? A Philippine Case Study," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 39(1):25-54.
Ford, R. And P.Poret (1991), 'Infrastructure and private sector productivity', OECD Economics Department working papers No 91
Hull, K (2009).Understanding the Relationship between Economic Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction* .OECD.
Yahie, AM (2000). Poverty Reduction in sub-Saharan Africa:
Poverty and Public Policy
Charles Blow discusses in hits NYT op-ed column the issue of child poverty. He notes up front that his belief is that poverty can never really be ended, highlighting that the man has a realistic outlook on the issue. There are many different causes of poverty, not the least of which is that poverty is, ultimately, relative. What we call poverty today in America would be considered wealthy in half the other countries in the world. His point, however, is that even if you accept that there will always be some poverty, there is a societal obligation to keep the poverty rate as low as possible. He argues in particular against children living in poverty.
This is where public policy comes into play. The United States, simply put, performs poorly on the issues of overall poverty and child poverty, and that is the direct result of…
Blow, C. (2015). Reducing our obscene level of child poverty. New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com /2015/01/28/opinion/charles-blow-reducing-our-obscene-level-of-child-poverty.html
Borjas, G. (2011). Poverty and program participation among immigrant children. The Future of Children. Vol. 21 (1) 247-266.
Hall, D. & Cooper. D. (2012). How raising the federal minimum wage would help working families and give the economy a boost. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.jobsnowcoalition.org/reports/2012/federal-minimum-wage-9-80-boost_epi2012-08.pdf
Marx's theory explains poverty far better than those of the individualistic theorists. Many studies have shown that most of the working class poor are willing to work, and in fact, do work. Their wages are low, which results in the inability to attain their own source of income, so they continue to have to work for minimal wages. Without a higher income, they are unable to attain capital, or attend college to gain the knowledge for a higher position. Spencer and the other individualists' theories are illogical, in that those theorists blame the poor as a whole for their plight, without seeking outside sources of their poverty.
The Marxist theory of poverty is well documented throughout history. Even as far back as the middle ages, those who worked for the aristocracy, or the capitalist, found themselves with no way to gain property. They were often barred from owning land, subjected…
References ore, Tom. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought.
Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1983.
Marx, Carl, and Engels, Frederick. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. The Australian National University. 2 Dec 2004. http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html .
Spencer, Herbert." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2004. 2 Dec 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558093/Herbert_Spencer.html.
The Gap in America's Distribution of ealth and the Socioeconomic Consequences
The United States often characterizes itself in the context of political rhetoric and public displays of patriotrism as the wealthiest and greatest nation in the world. Unfortunately, the wide variance of living standards represented in this plurality suggests that this is an experience reserved only for those with the means. Quite to the point, the poverty that a substantial percentage of Americans live with everyday indicates that this apparent enormity of wealth is not accessible to all. Indeed, the discussion here centers on the understanding that 50% of all of America's vast wealth is possessed by no more than 1% of Americans. This means that the wealthiest individuals in America on their own control more wealth than entire communities and regions. And as the discussion hereafter will show, this is a trend with serious and negative consequences…
Cutter, W.B. IV; Federman, M.; Garner, T.I. Kiely, J. & Levine, D et al. (1996). What Does It
Mean to Be Poor in America? Monthly Labor Review, 119.
Galbraith, J.K. (1998). The Affluent Society. 40th Anniversary Edition. Mariner Books.
Rodrik, D. (2000). Growth and Poverty Reduction: What are the Real Questions? Finance & Development.
The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).
In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…
Bush, Rod. 2003. "The Civil Rights Movement and the continuing struggle for the redemption of America." Social Justice, Mar. 22.
Furdell, Phyllis. 1993. "Survey finds solutions to addressing poverty in local economic development initiatives." Nation's Cities Weekly, Sept. 13.
Mitchell, Nancy. 2001. "30 'Worst' Schools Named." Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 14.
Petrie, Laurie. 1997. "Infant Death Rate Soars in Poor Areas." The Cincinnati Post, Oct. 28.
This is undoubtedly a necessary component, especially in those societies where most transactions are facilitated by transfers of cash for desired goods or services (Dixon and Macarov, 2)."
The dysfunction that arises from poverty involves self-esteem, domestic violence, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and child abuse (Dixon and Macarov, 130). It is a harsh reality, and one that, ultimately, costs the rest of society on a large scale. There are global initiatives to eliminate poverty, but the condition of poverty is one that is so widespread that the idea of eliminating poverty far exceeds the actual philanthropy necessary to do that.
Dixon, John, and David Macarov, eds. Poverty: A Persistent Global Reality. London: Routledge, 1998. Questia. 12 Oct. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108886533.
United States Census Bureau, found online at http://www.census.gov/,2008. Retrieved 12 Oct. 2008
Organizations such as habitat for humanity have proven that home ownership is possible for the very poor. The prevention strategy will call for the implementation of a housing plan that is modeled after habitat for humanity.
In addition, the strategy will also address education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. As it relates to education teachers should have the proper credential and pay should be appropriate and consistent with experience. There should be a proper amount of textbooks. There should be no more than 20 students per teacher and computers and internet access should be available at all schools. Certain standards should be in place as it relates to the condition of school buildings and any building that does not meet these standards must be renovated to meet these standards. These standards would be inclusive of working fire alarms, secure entrances and exits, proper lighting, clean floors, clean and operational restrooms, no…
Green, R. And M. White. 1997. Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children. Journal of Urban Economics 41: 441-461.
Haurin D.R. Haurin J., Parcel T.L. (2002) Does Homeownership Affect Child Outcomes?. Real Estate Economics. 30 (4): 635.
Rohe, W., G. McCarthy and S. Van Zandt. 2000. The Social Benefits and Costs of Homeownership: A Critical Assessment of the Research. Working paper No. 00-01. Research Institute for Housing America: Washington, DC.
The short-term should mainly include goals to repair Michael's emotional wounds. Academic goals should be the focus of long-term therapy.
Michael and those like him should be provided with programs to support them on both an emotional and academic basis. Professional psychological assistance should be used to ensure the emotional health and continued well-being of these children. This can then be used as a basis to implement academic programs to help children flourish in their schooling and careers later in life.
Local, state and national programs need to be implemented to address the problem of homeless families. May of these families are the victims of abuse and other factors beyond their control. The stigma surrounding homelessness should also be removed. Only when fundamental changes occur on a widely social level can children like Michael…
The guidelines for professional integrity are focusing on creating moral standards for everyone to follow. This is achieved through offering leadership in the areas of: duties, responsibilities, communication, interacting with stakeholders and building strong bonds. A philosophy of integrity can be created by combining these different concepts together. It is as follows, "All educators must have the flexibility to understand how various events will impact students. This requires identifying problems early and addressing them. At the same time, they must provide direction, become a mentor and follow a clear set of ethical standards. This is achieved through integrity, having strong set of principles and consistently practicing them." If these ideas are embraced, educators will be more effective in communicating and interacting with stakeholders. This will help them to reach out to students and teach them the skills they need in the future. ("NAEYC Ethical Code of Conduct and Statement…
3. The article that was written by Patrick (2013) is showing how homelessness will have an impact on children. In most cases, it hardens them and forces each person to grow up faster than they should. This is problematic, as it can go from one generation to the next. (Patrick, 2013)
This is not a scholarly source. It was written in a local newspaper and often quotes from secondary information. Evidence of this can be seen with the author saying, "Some kids just age out of foster care at 18 without resources, perhaps before high school graduation, ending up homeless. About 25% of homeless are children; another quarter is over 50. Twelve percent are veterans; 30% have a physical or mental disability; 18% are victims of domestic violence. One in 25 children does not know when their next meal will be." This is illustrating how many of these conclusions are based upon emotions vs. actual studies that were conducted. (Patrick, 2013)
The article is focusing on how homelessness affects children. A good example of this can be seen in the passage which says, "Many homeless are children enrolled in school. They're often hungry (inadequate sleep and food make learning difficult) and live outside in tents, cars, or when lucky, shelters. Teachers and fellow students may not know; kids may fear telling will mean separation from parents." This is showing how the
According to the pure mathematics of utilitarianism, then, there is very little debate regarding this issue. No matter what the circumstance, a person who is experiencing true biologically-driven hunger due to a lack of enough food to eat will get far more utility out of the most basic morsel of nutrition and substance that could be achieved by the most magnificent meal for those who are used to plenty (and this comparison is even unfair, as the magnificent meal could be traded to feed that many more hungry people). It is an ethical duty, then, for those of us privileged enough to have plenty to share it with those who do not have enough.
Extending this logic further allows us to answer the question of whether this duty is greater amongst our neighbors, or if there is a global mandate for all mankind. The answer would be very different two…
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…
Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology: Themes and Perspective. 5th Edition, page 11). Collins
Joe Reichertz, (2012). Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of Knowledge.
Retrieved February 27, 2012 form https://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/content/kowi/hermeneutikenglisch.pdf
An explanation of how poverty impacts the experience of individuals in young and middle adulthood?
The vicious poverty cycle in young adults and middle-aged persons suggests the passage of lifelong impediments and problems from generation to generation. A few transmitted plagues include: lack of schooling/education, disease transmission, child labor for aiding parents in raising the family and no basic personal hygiene. Extremely low family earnings and adult joblessness give rise to an atmosphere that makes it virtually impossible for children from such households to attend school. Meanwhile those who are able to attend school fail to understand that hard work and dedication will be able to change their lives for the better, since they witness their parents regularly failing at this task (Dario, 2015).
The following experiences are also linked to poverty in young adults and middle-aged persons: Drug and alcohol misuse -- right from African slum-dwellers to American adults,…
Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.
One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…
2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
When discussing poverty, not all are in agreement as to exactly what it means. There are various camps when it comes to defining poverty. Essentially, the definitions break down into either relative poverty or absolute poverty or more likely, something in between. Absolute poverty is categorized as not having the means to afford the absolute essentials. elative poverty is a more liberal idea, based on one's ability to afford things, in comparison to others ability to afford the same things. Clearly, being unable to put food on the table is within the definition of poverty. However, when one begins looking at the type of food that one can afford to place on the table the lines become more indistinguishable. Based on two different surveys, "the evidence from these different sources of public opinion indicates that the public favours a relative or social inclusion approach to the definition of poverty"…
Armitage, A. (2003). Social Welfare in Canada 4th Edition. Toronto; Oxford University Press
Canadian Council On Social Development. (2000). The Canadian Fact Book on Poverty-The
Definitions of Poverty. Chapter 2.
4 Social Workers. (2008). Barriers to Employment.
poverty on children. There is one reference used for this paper.
There are a number of factors which can influence children in the world today. It is important to look at the role poverty plays in the lives of many children.
Effects of Poverty
According to an article by Brooks-Gunn, poverty has a number of ill effects of children. These children have a greater incidence of lead poisoning due to insufficient housing, are more likely to have low birth weights which may contribute to higher infant mortality, and decreased cognitive levels, leading these children to drop out of school thus continuing the cycle of living in poverty.
There are pathways which can improve a child's chance for a better life including "health and nutrition, home environment, parental interactions with children, parental mental health and neighborhood conditions (Brooks-Gunn)." It has been shown if these pathways are implemented at an early age,…
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. (accessed 04 January, 2004). http://www.futureofchildren.org/information2826/information_show.htm?doc_id=72165 ).
The Family Independence Initiative (FII) is a self-organized group that implements a type of program that "encourages self-control, desire for self-determination and mutual support." Group members encourage each other to focus on their strengths rather than their weaknesses or needs. As a result, an atmosphere of positivity is cultivated and group members lift themselves out of poverty. The program is different from conventional social programs in that there are no social workers involved in its implementation. FII does rely on liaisons to work with the families selected, so in that sense somebody does need to be hired to help implement the program. Beyond the basic structure, however, the families involved do most of the work themselves.
The clients of the program are typically families. They are usually welfare recipients, and in the early stages of the program the families were ones without much hope for a better life. The…
Bornstein, D. (2011). Out of poverty, family-style. New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/14/out-of-poverty-family-style/
Sociologists explain it as the tendency for the poor to remain poor as they have already become accustomed to it, its problems and its limitations (Goode and Eames, 1996). In other words, they have resigned to their status and do not show any interest or real desire to change it. This situation could easily become the most difficult challenge for the social worker as his efforts would continually meet closed doors. Just like in the previous scenario, the state employee could renounce, or he could intensify his efforts.
Poverty as structure
Poverty as structure can be best exemplified in the poor neighborhoods, from where few individuals manage to get access to education and become professionally successful. These individuals encounter serious problems in socially adjusting and the increased crime rates, due to deprivation, the culture of poverty and survival in a poor environment, have become the pillars of the respective structure.…
Danziger, S., Sandefur, G.D., Weinberg, 1994, Confronting Poverty: Prescriptions for Change, Harvard University Press
Goode, J., Eames, E., 1996, an Anthropological Critique of the Culture of Poverty, Waveland Press
Nolan, B., Christopher, W., 1996, Resources, Deprivation and Poverty, Oxford University Press
2008, the World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /geos/us.htmllast accessed on July 23, 2008
(Books Published by aha! Process, Inc.)
uby concentrates on sources of co-operation, or resources, which would or would not be available in a student's life by means of realistic teaching techniques. esources are significant assets including mental stability, emotional co-operation, and physical health - and the other resources which students have, the more they would be to attain their objectives. 'A Framework for Understanding Poverty' is thus a book which is useful for teachers. It derives from several years of experience in multiple school systems, and also a wide level of academic positions. In this popular book, the author shows the issues which are primary to teaching students who live in poverty, then takes the next step by providing successful solutions teachers can apply immediately to better the quality of teaching in their classrooms. (Books Published by aha! Process, Inc.) significant caveat for purchasers would be that the book is…
Amazon Book Reviews" Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/ -
1929229143/103-0?v=glance Accessed on 3 May, 2005
Books Published by aha! Process, Inc." Retrieved at http://www.ahaprocess.com/Book_Framework.html . Accessed on 3 May, 2005
The Supervisors Summary" Retrieved at http://184.108.40.206/GACIS/GACIS%209-01%20Newsletter.htm Accessed on 3 May, 2005
beliefs or values about poverty, homelessness, addictions or mental disorders? What has been one of your personal or professional experiences with poverty, homelessness, addiction or mental disorders?
Over the course of my personal and professional education in the field of healthcare, I have come to realize that poor heath and a patient's socio-economic status are inexorably interlinked. Poorer people have less money for healthier food and less access to such foods. They lack the time and access to places where they can engage in effective exercise. It is easy to look dismissively upon someone who is poor and say "why can't they change their lifestyle?" But looking at the price of produce in the grocery store and considering the fact that even a pair of running shoes can average around $100, it is easy to see how difficult it can be for someone who is under extreme economic pressures to…
poverty, some challenges might undermine the effort of these strategies. Disability and health are the recurring themes in the article. The author argues that intervention to address unemployment needs a new social accord to generate policies and labor market reforms to create more jobs. This approach is subject to the threat of the deeper powers of inequalities, which influence the current regime of distribution. On the other hand, the alternative is the widespread continuation of policies generating jobless growth.
The article reports that child poverty is a substantial health concern. It points to the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on people's health such as their well-being. The author included a discussion of wide-reaching effects on the health conditions of the future and current generations around the globe. The author clearly illustrated the health-oriented significance of poverty and worked closely with various organizations and professionals to address poverty.
Strother S. (2013). A Study of Poverty: Its Causes, Effects, and Repercussions.
Throughout my life, there have been those moments where I am apt to say "a-ha" or "that makes sense". Indeed, we all go through those moments where something dawns on us that wasn't obvious or apparent before, for whatever reason. Sometimes, the realization made is something basic or fairly inconsequential. However, there are other times where the revelation if profound and extensive. I had just such a moment when I was in high school and it is something that I have never forgot. While I was fortunate enough to grow up in a fairly affluent and well-off household, I did not truly know just how fortunate I have been as compared to other people in other parts of the world until I travelled to Mexico.
The fact that The Money is written by a person with an Hispanic name and was, as is obvious, money correlates nicely to…
The hypothesis to be tested is to what extent children and their families are influenced by the marketing techniques of food companies. This hypothesis will be tested through qualitative methods including primarily ethnographic observation and open-ended interviews.
Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.
Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.
Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.
Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
Morland K. et al. 2002 "The Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment on esidents' Diets: The Atherosclerosis isk…
Cheadle a et al. 1991 "Community-Level Comparisons Between the Grocery Store Environment and Individual Dietary Practices" Preventive Medicine 20(2) pp. 250-61.
Glanz K & Yaroch AL 2004 "Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change" Preventive Medicine 39, pp. S75-S80.
Jetter K & Cassady D. 2006 "The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives" American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1): pp. 38-44.
Laraia BA et al. 2004 "Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy" Preventive Medicine 39(5): pp. 869-75.
COPING & ADJUSTMENT
The author of this response is asked to offer a journal of personal reflection and observations about the author's life up to this point from several different perspectives. It will be described how well the author has adjusted as it relates to four overall dimensions. Those dimensions are adjusting to life in terms of subjective well-being, diversity, contexts and thinking critically, the balancing of life priorities including home, work, school recreation and family, the developing of the author's identity including self-esteem, self-concept, ethnicity and/or gender and coping with stress via means of social support, multiple coping strategies and/or self-control. While the author of this report has more than a few things that could have done and handled better than they were, the totality of the author's life reflects a decent amount of balance and solid outcomes.
As it relates to subjective well-being,…
BYU. (2014, October 20). The Verdict on Cohabitation vs. Marriage. The Verdict on Cohabitation vs. Marriage. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from http://marriageandfamilies.byu.edu/issues/2001/January/cohabitation.htm
Fessler, P. (2014, September 16). A 'Circle' Of Support Helps Families Stay Out Of
Poverty. NPR. Retrieved October 21, 2014, from http://www.npr.org/2014/09/16/347954335/a-circle-of-support-helps-families-stay -
Poverty Income Inequality and Female Labor Market Participation
1.1. Problem Statement
Today's global inequality and poverty is an outcome of two successive centuries of unequal progress, and eradication remains one of the greatest global challenges. The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identified that 22 percent of the world population (1.3 billion people) live with multi-dimensional poverty, with 42 percent living in Sub Saharan Africa and 41 percent living in South Asia. Every multidimensionally poor person is deprived of multiple poverty indicators which include health, education, and standards of living indicators, which include cooking fuel, drinking water, sanitation, electricity, housing, and asset ownership (UNDP, 2020). The different levels of poverty and income inequality are a manifestation of differences in gender labor participation. According to the International Labor Organization estimates, the women labor force participation rate of 49% is disproportionately lower than the men labor force participation rate of 75% and…
Cipollone, A., Patacchini, E., & Vallanti, G. (2014). Female labor market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9012-3-18
ILO. (2016). Global Gender Gap Report. In Encyclopedia of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs350
ILO. (2017). World Employment Social Outlook. In Report. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_579893.pdf
Ntuli, M. (2014). Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995- IZA DP No . 3119 Determinants of South African Women\\\\' s Labour Force Participation, 1995 – 2004 Miracle Ntuli October 2007 Forschungsinstitut Institute for the Study of Labor. November 2007, 1995–2004.
OECD. (2019). Measuring the impact of social protection on inclusive growth. In Can Social Protection Be an Engine to Inclusive Growth (pp. 21–37). OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/a43dc9c3-en
Raihan, S., & Jahan, I. (2018). How Does Social Protection Affect Labor Force Participation in Bangladesh? South Asia Economic and Policy Studies. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2071-2_8
UNDP. (2020). Charting pathways out of multi-dimensional poverty?: Achieving the SDGs. 1–52. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2020_mpi_report_en.pdf
Jews Without Money and the Mumbai Slums
Michael Gold's 1930 "Jews without Money" is a clear example that history does not only repeat itself but creates a certain pattern out of which human kind cannot be taken out and redirected to another path. Taking the topic from Gold's book and comparing it to current cases of other slums throughout the globe, it can be said that the conditions of the poor people have not changed throughout the decades and even more, despite the international development, the discrepancies between the rich and the poor are constantly increasing.
The present research takes into account the way in which the living conditions of people in the slums of Mumbai (Dharavi) can be compared to the situations to those in "Jews Without Money" by Michael Gold. It is argued that the living conditions are similar, yet for the people living in the slums of…
BBC. Life in a slum. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Bertaud, Alain. "Mumbai FSI conundrum: The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai." July 2004. 23 March 2014 .
Gold, Michael. Jews without money. New York: International Publishers, 1930.
Lauter, Paul. Michael Gold. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
Poverty and Obesity
Evidence is mounting that many Canadians are not getting enough to eat. Among the most vulnerable are people living with poverty . The following statistics begin to paint a picture of poverty in Canada.
• In 1998 -- 99, the Statistics Canada National Population Health Survey (NPHS) reported that 2.4 million Canadians were food insecure -- or unable to get enough or the appropriate kinds of food (ainville and Brink 2001).
• In the 2000 -- 01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS),8.2percent of BC residents reported "sometimes" or "often" not having enough to eat due to lack of money; 11.6% reported "sometimes" or "often" worrying that there wouldn't be enough to eat; and 14.8% reported "sometimes" or "often" not eating the quality of food they wanted (Statistics Canada, 2001 -- 02).
Parallel to the persistent and growing poverty in Canada is the escalating crisis of obesity. Obesity…
Rainville, B. & Brink, S. (2001). Food insecurity in Canada 1998-1999. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
hrdc.arhc.gc.ca/sp-ps/arb-dgra / publicationa/research/2001docs/R-01-02/R-01-2_E_abs.shtml
Statistics Canada. (1997). Selected leading causes of death by sex. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
Poverty is defined as having a meager annual income, insufficient for meeting basic expenditure. esearch has confirmed that older adults, from the age of 65 years and above, when poor, confront immense burden in meeting with their basic housing, food, healthcare and other expenses. Poverty in the elderly populations is a persistent and grave issue in America. Almost 10% of elderly individuals (aged 65 years and above) belong to families with annual income below America's official poverty line, also termed as the federal poverty level (or FPL). An older adult (age- 65+) who lives alone was labeled as a 'poor' individual if his/her annual income before tax amounted to less than 10, 326 dollars, in 2008. Elderly couples having incomes under 13, 014 dollars were labeled as poor. oughly one in every six elderly individuals was nearly poor, or poor, with income less than 125% of FPL; nearly a third…
Butrica, B.A., Murphy, D.P., & Zedlewski, S.R. (2010). How many struggle to get by in retirement?. The Gerontologist, 50(4), 482-494.
Caldera S. (2009). Social Security: Ten Facts That Matter. Washington, DC: AARP Public
Policy Institute. Retrieved 25 July 2015 from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs154_socsec.pdf
Cawthorne A. (2008). Elderly Poverty: The Challenge Before Us. Center for American progress.
Poverty and Homelessness in Children
Poverty is the deficiency in the amount of money or material possessions considered to be acceptable for individuals in a particular country. Among families who are homeless with children 42% of homeless children are under the age of six years old. The majority of homeless families with children cited poverty as the third most common reason for their being homeless. A child is born into poverty every 33 seconds in the United States.
Key professional and community organizations addressing this issue/population: There are several organizations addressing this issue including the U.S. Department of Agriculture with programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Program, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) seeking to provide affordable housing to everyone, the Children's Defense Fund, Voices for America's Children, the National Urban League, and the National Coalition for the Homeless. Local and community-based organizations such as The Salvation Army,…
Poverty & Unemployment
Poverty and unemployment are unquestionably two of the primary scourges that afflict the United States as well as other countries around the world. There are strong ways in which they correlate but they do run the gamut from recessions, offshoring of jobs, industry and employment shifts in the country and so forth. This brief report will explore the links that exist, what is being done about them, what is working and what is not. Even though a sliver of the population will always be unemployed and/or impoverished, it is no less painful to notice and watch when it happens.
The first point to be made about both poverty and unemployment is that there is always going to be at least some of both in the United States. However, the hope is that it is always temporary rather than ongoing and perpetual. Even so, there is a reason…
CBS. (2013). 80% of U.S. adults face near-poverty, unemployment, survey finds. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/80-percent-of-us-adults-face-near-poverty-unemployment-survey-finds/
Clemens, J. & Wither, M. (2014). The Minimum Wage and the Great Recession: Evidence of Effects on the Employment and Income Trajectories of Low-Skilled Workers. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w20724
Investopedia. (2016). Full Employment Definition -- Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fullemployment.asp
Le Tellier, A. (2013). The human side of poverty: Why poor people make bad decisions. latimes.com. Retrieved 28 July 2016, from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-why-poor-people-make-bad-decisions-20131125-story.html