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acism can be stated as the attitude or practice of recognizing authority/supremacy of one group over another. It is either founded on race, color, ethnicity or cultural heritage. It is, if truth be told, a global tradition and is not only limited to a particular area or group of people. One can notice racism at all individual, group or institutional levels. acism is spread and conserved by the introduction of planned activities and policies in economical, societal, political, educational, religious and cultural aspects of life. It is not a difficult thing to distinguish the narrow-minded, dogmatic and prejudiced people who shape up their way of thinking, philosophy, traditions, attitudes and practices on the basis of racial ideology. This picky set of thought is not only possessed by the general public. Even those hold powerful positions demonstrate the same beliefs and practices of racial discrimination ("acism" 2012).
acism has continued to…
Crocker, J. (2007). The Effects of Racism-Related Stress on the Psychological and Physiological Well-Being of Non-Whites. Rivier Academic Journal [online]. 3, p.1-3. Available from: . [Accessed June 15, 2012].
Racism [online]. (2012). Available from: . [Accessed June 15, 2012].
Seldon, H. (1991). Racism: Negative Effects on Whites [online]. Available from: . [Accessed June 15, 2012].
Sue, D.W. (2003). Overcoming Our Racism: The Journey to Liberation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass [Online]. Available from Questia database: . [Accessed June 15, 2012].
acism in Canada
In March of 2012, a white power rally in Edmonton drew out a dozen or two members of the Blood and Honour racist group. They were met and peaceably challenged by hundreds of participants in an anti-racism rally, which was "coincidental" (Dykstra). Therefore Canada still does have lurking racism, but in its overt forms it is socially unacceptable. This paper will address the overt forms of racism evident in Canada, which include hate groups like Blood and Honour. However, it is the covert forms of racism and bias that threaten to undermine the social fabric of Canada.
Immigration policies have been under fire for their racist under- or overtones. As ees states, "Canadian immigration policy has historically always been determined by racial preferences." Institutionalized racism is a problem in Canada, in spite of the many official policies and programs designed to manufacture an equitable society. For example,…
Racism and the Media in Canada
In 2010, a Maclean's Magazine ran a controversial cover headline that read, "Too Asian?" The headline was crafted to sell magazines, of course. However, it was also interpreted as "irresponsible journalism that relies on spreading racial stereotypes to sell magazines and newspapers," (Lee). If institutionalized racism is the covert form of racism, then media stereotyping is more overt. The media is the primary means of acquiring information about the world; Canadian viewers construct their social realities in part by watching television and movies. As a professor of communications at the University of Ontario states, "Making people into foreigners starts with the media," (cited by Lee).
Stereotyping can seem innocent, and is often used in comedy. However, stereotypes can be dangerous. When stereotypes become part of the belief system of the culture, they can lead to more malicious forms of prejudice and bigotry. Stereotyping is not the only issue with Canadian media that is contributing to racism. The Media Awareness Network points out that "Members of
acism and Anti-Semitism
Is acism and Anti-Semitism still a Problem in the United States?
The world has penetrated into the twenty first century, where the entire human race is surging ahead due to their magnificent and outstanding capabilities that have made the world a much better place to live. Even though people from all over the globe have immensely contributed to the development and growth on a broad spectrum, yet numerous social issues have continued since time immemorial. Discrimination and hatred particularly based on race, culture and religion is widespread issues that are commonly found amongst huge amount of people.
In fact, one cannot ignore the fact that the levels of hatred and discrimination for others have given rise to several fights, warfare and conflicts. With respect to the aspect of hatred and discrimination that has continued and is still ongoing, the thesis statement is "acism and Anti-Semitism is still…
Adams, M. (2000). Readings for Diversity and Social Justice: An Anthology on Racism, Sexism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism Classism, and Ableism. New York, USA: Routledge.
Hallowell, B. (2011). Anti-Semitic Incidents Increase in America for the First Time since 2004. Retrieved from The Blaze website: http://www.theblaze.com/stories/antisemitic-incidents-increase-in-america-for-the-first-time-since-2004/
Howe, R.B. & Covell, K. (2005). Empowering Children: Children's Rights Education As a Pathway to Citizenship. Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Martinez, R. (2010). On Race and Racism in America: Confessions in Philosophy. PA, USA: Penn State Press.
Unfortunately, racism is a pervasive element in American society. As the reaction to the 2008 Presidential election at the University of Mississippi shows, many Americans cannot tolerate a person of color in a position of power. The right-wing rhetoric that continually denounces Obama in the media stems in part from covert racism, rather than being just attributable to different political beliefs. The causes of racism are complex and multifaceted, and extend to the core of American history. It is impossible to study American history without studying the history of white power, and yet, as the author of Lies My Teacher Told Me points out, most textbooks whitewash American history to create a climate tacitly tolerant of racism. Before the emancipation of the slaves, the American economy depended on the free labor pool that slaves provided. It was necessary to have a marked and visible class of human beings, in…
acism and Ethnocentrism in the Media
Even though they are straightforwardly and often confused, race and racism ought to be distinguished from ethnicity and ethnocentrism. Despite the fact that extreme ethnocentrism may take the matching offensive form and may have the same calamitous consequences as tremendous racism, there are important differences connecting the two concepts. Ethnicity, which shares culturally contingent features, classifies all human groups. It pertains to a sense of individuality and membership in a group that shares widespread language, cultural personality (standards, beliefs, religion, food habits, backgrounds, etc.), and a judgment of a common history. Almost every group of humans are members of some edifying (ethnic) group, sometimes several. The majority of such groups feel -- to different degrees of intensity -- that their method of life, their foods, clothing, habits, attitudes, values, and so onwards, are better than those of other factions (Kiselica, 1999).
The most important…
1. Kiselica, M.S. (1999). Confronting My Own Ethnocentrism and Racism: A Process of Pain and Growth. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 77(1), 14-17.
2. Isser, N. (1976). Asian-Americans: Then, Now, and Tomorrow.
3. Gordon, T.F. (1974). Mass Media and Minority Socialization: Conceptualizing the Process.
4. Hancock, Q., Jolls, T., & Jolls, P. (2013). Racism and Stereotypes in Electronic Media. Public Library Quarterly, 32(4), 333-344. doi:10.1080/01616846.2013.848135
The racism in the criminal justice system is noted by Schneider and Ingram (1993) to be a consequence of social construction of some members of the society that in turn has an influence on design, program implementation as well as institutional structure in a manner that clearly puts at a disadvantage some members of the society.
The Sentencing Project (2008) indicated that racial disparity in the federal, state and local judicial system is noted to exist due to several causes. The cause of racial disparity are kind of varied and include various levels of criminal activities, legislative policies, emphasis on certain communities as well as decision making structures used by the criminal justice practitioners. The illegitimate racial disparity is however noted to rise from the rather dissimilar treatment of people who are similarly situated but on the basis of their race. In some cases, the racial disparity arises due to…
Blumstein, a lfred, and Alien E. Beck. (1999). "PopulationG rowthi n U.S. Prisons, 1980-1996." Crime and Justice: A Review of Research2 6: 17-60.
Cindy, B (2009).Study Site for Criminal Justice Ethics, Theory and Practice
Davey, J.D. (1998). The Politicso f PrisonE xpansion. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Hagan, J. And C. Albonetti. (1982). Race, class, and the perception of criminal injustice in America.American Journal of Sociology, 88(2), 329-355.
In additon, there is the sustenance of a certain sense of uniformity in accordance with the economic accomplishments of the American society. Besides, given the continued electoral progress of the far-right parties that formally eschew anti-emitism, and the lack of progress made by the radical, neo-Nazi or extremist groups that are often openly anti-emitic, maintaining the distinction between these two types of groups (although the boundaries are occasionally blurred) continues to be crucial. Now when this is the overall situation, will it be wrong to ascertain that the threat of the surfacing of racism in the class rooms among the students is a distant dream!
However, this is not the real situation, though the society is apparently is in equilibrium. There have been several studies in the recent decades in this direction, and what has come out is patently horrifying. A new study has shown that racism among white college…
Racism and Various Forms
How does an understanding of racism in its various forms inform the counseling professional practice?
Racism is regarded as the negative feelings exercised by one ethnic group towards other individuals belonging form a different group. The brutality and attitude towards the group is observed in the behaviors and attitudes of individuals and members of certain group causing major issues in terms of their religious, social, color, or descent. The highest of racism can be traced back to the laws in USA for reducing the voting rights of African-Americans. It also moved their status from a normal and equal citizen to low caste. The changes in the laws and constitution eliminated these flaws however the racism based on physical and descent characteristics are still continuing in various parts of the world (Fredrickson, 2002). The claimants of multicultural societies are also following the racist traditions and tendering inferior…
Ang, I. (2013) On not speaking Chinese: Living between Asia and the West, USA: Routledge.
Bach, S. (2003) International migration of health workers: Labour and social issues, Geneva: International Labour Office.
Fredrickson, GM. (2002) Racism: A short history, USA: Princeton University Press.
Leonard, R. (2004) A Fair Go: Some Issues of Social Justice in Australia, Australia: Common Ground.
("Heart of Darkens")
Clearly, the novel the Heart of Darkness is highlighting how the underling amounts of racism in the elgian Congo were deep. As the Europeans believed that they had the right to exploit the area for its natural resources. This would have an impact upon how they would treat the native Africans, with them being seen as a tool that could be exploited or savages that need to be tamed. This would fuel a sense of arrogance that they were superior to the Africans, who were there to serve them. While the Africans, are engaging in their own form of racism, by seeing the Europeans as oppressors who attack their villages for these natural resources. As they believe that these people are out to destroy their culture and have no respect for their traditions / way of life. This would create a sense of anger, as they would…
"Heart of Darkens." Spark Notes, 2011. Web. 25 Feb. 2011.
Achebe, Chinua. "An Image of Africa." Heart of Darkness Bloom Guides.
Mongia, Padmini. "The Rescue." Heart of Darkness, New Edition, Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Critics believe that this social pattern can change only when a total social transformation occurs in resolving the "us-vs.-them" conflict (Vorster 2002). A form of government must be established, which will respect diversity and foster unity as well as protect basic human rights. The apartheid system in South Africa is the best example of racism. ut proponents may argue that the system was exceptional and that such form of racism no longer exists. Although apartheid has been dissolved, institutional racism took its place and still alive and well and experienced in many parts of the world. These include Canada, Australia, Northern Ireland and other countries in Eastern Europe and Africa. Way beyond and deeply ingrained in institutional racism is the attitude of racism itself, which is far more evident (Vorster), more resistant and, therefore, more difficult to eradicate. What, in the beginning, was construed to be only economically, culturally and…
acism in Australian Sports
History of racism in Australia
Self-identity when approached from the concept of sociological perspective identifies it with a reciprocal relationship between the self and society. The influence of self to the society is through the actions of individuals, hence creating networks, groups, institutions and organizations. On the other hand the society has influence to self by its ways of shared language as well as meaning that makes one to take the role of others, participate in social interaction, and reflect oneself as an object. The core of selfhood has been constituted through the later process of reflexivity. Since the self appears in and is reflective of society, the understanding of self in terms of sociological approach and its part reveals that we as well have to understand the society where the self is acting and we should always remember in this event that the action of…
Colin Tatz, (1980). Aborigines in sport, Australian Society for Sport History, Retrieved August 24, 2012 from http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/ASSHSSH/ASSHSSH03.pdf
Colin Tatz, (1995). "Obstacle Race: Aborigines in Sport." Retrieved August 24, 2012 from http://www.hreoc.gov.au/racial_discrimination/whats_the_score/pdf/introduction.pdf
Craven, R.G. (1989). An examination of self-concept: The interrelationship of teachers', parents and children's perceptions of self-concept, and their influence in enhancing
self-concept. Unpublished B.A. Honours Thesis, University of Sydney, Australia. Retrieved August 25, 2012 from http://www.aare.edu.au/99pap/bur99425.htm
acism and Nationalism After
acism & Nationalism After 911
More than a decade after 9/11, a retrospective view of racism and nationalism in America might points to a reverse J-curve -- at least in the private realm of most people living in the U.S.A. Governmental and political reactions may still run at fevered pace, and some would say the devastation has been insidious, seeping far beyond the bounds of the attack zones. "Ten years has given us time to see the tidal waves of post-9/11 changes in our society and our world. For all the tragedy of 9/11 with the thousands killed on that day, the after-effects are far more troubling" (ashid, 2011, 754.) Conventional wisdom has it that racism and nationalism are flip sides of the same coin. If this tack is taken, the simultaneous rise in nationalism and racism following 9/11 makes sense -- so too, does the…
Byng, M.D. (2007). Complex inequities: The case of Muslim Americans after 911. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 659-674.
Li, Q. And Brewer, M.B. (2004). What does it mean to be an American? Patriotism, nationalism, and American identity after 911. Political Psychology, 25(5), 727-739.
Prashad, V. (2005). How the Hindus became Jews: American racism after 911. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 104(3), 593-606.
Rashid, S.A.A. (2011). The emerging phenomena of post-911. Political Theology, 12(5), 752-761. Doi: 10.1558/poth.v12i5.752.
The same goes for terrorism acts and Muslims even though we know that the man who caused the Oklahoma tragedy was very much a Christian white American.
acism has various faces and forms and each one as ugly as it sounds. It would be completely wrong to say that racism is an inherent trait. It is actually the reaction of people to the social consciousness around them. If I see blacks projected in a certain way every time I turn the TV on, I am more likely to develop a false and distorted view of blacks. In order to remove this kind of negative education from our system, we need to work at all levels. acism is a serious problem and one that must be consciously eradicated from our societies. It is not only causing hurdles for the victims, but is also creating social disparities that are definitely not good…
Jerome Miller, 1996. Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System. NY: Cambridge University Press (Paul Street, 'Race, Prison, and Poverty', Z Magazine, July/August 2001).
Farai Chideya, 'Don't Believe the Hype'. Penguin Books, 1995
Miller, 1996, 42
National Council of La Raza, (2005). Critical Disparities in Latino ental Health: Transforming Research into Action. http://depressionisreal.org/pdfs/file_WP_Latino_ental_Health_FNL.pdf
The National Council of La Raza further indicates how racism manifests itself within the healthcare sector. It shows the minority groups in the U.S.A. As subject to varied health conditions that make them more susceptible to health complications than the majority white population. One prominent instance is the Latinos, due to their predominant low economic status are shown to have less access to health facilities and services hence hampering their ability to access other social facilities like education. It has been noted that they only interact with the health care facilities when they are critically ill and in their most vulnerable state. The other issue that the source highlights to grossly affect the Latinos is the lack of insurance among the population. This makes them unable to access health care services and receiving…
Mandeep depicts the Chinese and the Asian population in general as a population that is also affected by the lack of access to medical facilities and health care, as well as a significantly lower nutrition levels as compared to the majority whites in the U.S.A. It is estimated that 19% of the Chinese had access to well balanced and nutritious meals in a day as compared to the white population that has 23% on a perfectly balanced nutrition further compounding the aspect of systematic racism, one that is not overt but deeply rooted in the institutions within the U.S.A.
United States. Department of Justice, (2008). Bureau of Justice Statistics: Prisoners in 2008. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p08.pdf
The statistics from Department of Justice in 2008, also highlighted a likelihood of racism in the justice system. It indicates that for every 100,000 black males in America, there were 3,042 of them in prison. This was relatively high as compared to 1,261 Hispanic males in prison for
When prejudices get out of control and are viewed as truth rather than as fantasy or over-generalization, racism can result. Racism itself can lead to violence or social cruelty. In the schoolyard, children may be teased and in the workplace, individuals may be passed by for promotions or higher pay.
Racism also results from an attitude of "us vs. them," in which all differences are viewed as negative. in-group solidarity may be a necessary part of human nature but it is also possible for people to overcome their racist prejudices by contentiously refuting stereotypes and making a point to view each person as an individual. Judging a person on the basis of race or culture prevents the development of meaningful friendships and continues to breed racist attitudes. Racism can also be perpetuated by the media. Portrayals of African-Americans, Asians, and other minority groups on television or in movies are often…
Racism in Education
Indeed, obviously, since the institution and signing of the Civil Rights Act in America by former President Lyndon aines Johnson, along with concomitant legislation including the Equal Housing Act and other extensions of Civil Rights, engaging in systematic racial discrimination or allowing racist thinking and planning to affect the policies of any institution -- whether private or public -- has been strictly banned by the U.S. Government in law and action. Nevertheless, however, it would be remiss to assume that, simply because a system of laws are in place, that a given problem has been dealt with and has subsided. To use an extreme analogy, we have severe laws throughout the nation that attack people who possess and distribute drugs, including mandatory maximum penalties in many jurisdictions, and, even beyond these laws, the U.S. governments spends millions of dollars each year on drug enforcement, border patrols, and…
Doyle, Rebecca. "Students Express Views on Racism, Discrimination." The University
Record. Retrieved December 2, 2003, at http://www.umich.edu/~urecord/9798/
Rowe, Mary. "Fostering Diversity: Some Major Hurdles Remain." Retrieved December 2, 2003 at http://aad.english.ucsb.edu/docs/Change6.html.
Also, selective scholarships and empowerment of some Blacks, in a world where most Blacks are still, continually not recognized as full citizens, can be divisive rather than empowering to a marginalized community. Even the forms of Black enfranchisement can be reinforcing of stereotypes. The experiences of the Invisible Man, who has been given a scholarship by the school not for the excellence of his mind, but more for the prowess of his body, show this invisible truth when the protagonists asked to perform before greedy whites in a pseudo-boxing match with his fellow Black scholarship students. Mere educational empowerment, whether motivated by the lower motives of hites or the higher motives of select Blacks, is no all-inclusive solution to a culture that is permeated with racism.
Thus, both Ellison's fiction and Lawrence Otis Graham's nonfiction book suggests that often it is easy even for Blacks to be complicit in this…
Graham, Lawrence Otis. Our Kind of People.2001.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. 1952.
... When a stranger comes into our presence, then, first appearances are likely to enable us to anticipate his category and attributes, his "social identity" ... We lean on these anticipations that we have, transforming them into normative expec-tations, into righteously presented demands. ... It is [when an active question arises as to whether these demands will be filled] that we are likely to realize that all along we had been making certain assumptions as to what the individual before us ought to be. [These assumed demands and the character we impute to the individual will be called] virtual social identity. The category and attributes he could in fact be proved to possess will be called his actual social identity (Goffman, 1986, p. 2).
During tense economic times or wartime, it is typical for the political powers to attempt a dehumanization of the enemy, making it easier to stereotype and…
Antiaffirmative action Proposition 209 in 1996 had a similarly divisive effect on the state's population. (Heikkila & Pizarro, 2002, p. 8)
The propositions do not welcome immigration, a commonplace occurrence on the official and unofficial level in California but attempt to force such immigrants to assimilate and follow the letter of the law in order to get ahead, and as for 209 sometimes that might not even be enough. (Clark, 1998, p. 28)
Immigrants to the United States have diverse national origins but it is the link with Mexico that defines much of the immigration process in the late 20th century. The United States is the predominant destination of immigrants from Mexico and Central America; as we have seen, most of those immigrants settle in California. Between 1980 and 1995 more than 3 million people migrated from Mexico to the United States. Two million of those, nearly 20% of Mexico's…
Clark, W.A. (1998). The California Cauldron: Immigration and the Fortunes of Local Communities. New York: Guilford Press.
Etzioni, a. (2004). How Patriotic Is the Patriot Act? Freedom vs. Security in the Age of Terrorism. New York: Routledge.
Gribbin, a. (2002, April 1). Iowa Makes English Official; Advocates Believe That English Is the Glue That Unites Social Groups and Nurtures Civic Responsibility. Insight on the News, 18, 29.
Heikkila, E.J. & Pizarro, R. (Eds.). (2002). Southern California and the World. Westport, CT: Praeger.
'Latinos are drug addicts. They don't work because they're lazy and they depend on welfare." These are but a few of the ethnic stereotypes that have haunted me throughout much of my life as Puerto Rican-American. Growing up in an ethnically diverse but poor neighborhood in Chicago, I actually never felt "different" until I moved to an almost all white school in Massachusetts. There, I noticed that people would mutter under their breaths comments about racial or ethnic groups other than their own. Although the students would never have openly admitted to being prejudiced, and although they would probably deny that their comments were harmful, I felt singled out, uncomfortable, and threatened in such homogenous territory. Suddenly I realized that my skin and hair was actually noticeably different from my classmates. They noticed it too, and started to ask me what my background was. To avoid social discomfort I…
Even though slavery was abolished with the 13th Amendment, blacks in the South were still subjected to harsh and unfair treatment throughout the latter half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century. In fact, it would be more than a century after the ratification of the 13th Amendment before the Civil Rights Act would be signed into law—and it would take a major protest led by Martin Luther King, Jr. just to achieve that. From the Mississippi Black Code of 1865 to King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail in 1963, one can see the shape of American history with respect to its race relations.
The historical significance of the Mississippi Black Code of 1865 is that it helped to institutionalize the era of Jim Crow—a time when blacks, who were supposed to be treated as free and equal, continued to be oppressed and harassed by unfair social doctrines.…
Racism in professional sports has been documented for decades. However, only in recent years has it been more noticeable. The recent ‘Take the Knee’ Movement ahs sparked outrage on both sides as people fight for equality and others fight for patriotism. However, this is just one symptom of a much larger disease that is institutionalized racism and how it crossed over into sports. Certain theories like critical race theory and colorism allow for an understanding of what it means to be a person of color in professional sports and how it affects certain outcomes. This essay is meant to highlight what racism in professional sports is, how it has led to the ‘Take the Knee Movement’, and how theory plays a part in understanding it all.
Professional sports in the United States has been a ‘Whites Only’ area up until the mid-20th century. It was not until certain black athletes…
Fuhrman, Zeke. \\"A History Of African-American Athletes.\\" Bleacher Report, 24 Oct. 2008, bleacherreport.com/articles/73113-a-history-of-african-american-athletes. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
History.com Staff. \\"Jackie Robinson Breaks Major League Color Barrier - Apr 15, 1947.\\" HISTORY.com, 2009, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jackie-robinson-breaks-major-league-color-barrier. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
Hylton, Kevin. \\"How a turn to critical race theory can contribute to our understanding of ‘race’, racism and anti-racism in sport.\\" International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 45, no. 3, 2010, pp. 335-354.
Lapchick, Richard. \\"The Year in Racism and Sports.\\" ABC News, 25 Jan. 2017, abcnews.go.com/Sports/year-racism-sports/story?id=45035554. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017.
Martin, Lori L. Out of Bounds: Racism and the Black Athlete. Praeger P, 2014.
---. Out of Bounds: Racism and the Black Athlete. Praeger P, 2014.
When Willie Lynch wrote his letter to white slave owners in America in the 17th century, laying out the blueprint for the American Establishment on how to create racial tensions in order to facilitate the white slave owners’ rule over their African slave, he unwittingly laid the foundation stone for American elitism and racism that has since come to characterize the ruling class’ use of mass media in controlling the population (Heaggans). As Horkheimer and Adorno later showed in their analysis and dissection of the Culture Industry, the controllers of mass media have essentially used the basic framework of Lynch to perpetuate the idea of racism and to use race as a means of dividing and conquering the population, keeping the mass of men and women disunited and disempowered, turned against themselves, focused on their own external differences, and preventing them from uniting and standing up to the powers that…
Comparing and Contrasting Racial Conflict in the South and the West
Racial conflict in the South and the West was similar in that the dominant race sought to put pressure on the minority races (whether they were blacks in the South or Hispanics or Asians in the West). The situations were different in the sense that the conflicts included different ethnic and racial groups. Nonetheless, the 19th and 20th centuries were particularly tense times, full of racial conflict in places like Birmingham, Alabama, where Martin Luther King, Jr., was imprisoned and in places like Los Angeles where the Zoot Suit Riots took place. This paper will compare and contrast racial conflict in the South and the West by looking at 1) the King’s arrest in Birmingham and the Civil Rights Movement, 2) the lynching of Hispanics in the West throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and 3) the treatment…
Carrigan, William D., and Clive Webb. “The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent in the United States, 1848 to 1928.” Journal of Social History 37.2 (2003): 411-438.
The legacy and story of what it means to be an American is something that will generally be positive. Depending on who one asks, the answers to be found will usually be at least somewhat positive. However, there are some reasons why the answer may not be entirely positive. Indeed, there is a reason that Colin Kaepernick started kneeling before his football games and there are people that do not have entirely good things to say about whether being an American is a good thing, at least in whole. While stories about the American dream and other such things will generally center on a positive message or pattern, there are some caveats and exceptions to that rule.
What the United States has been able to accomplish in under two and a half centuries is nothing short of amazing. There are other countries and empires that have done fairly well…
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. \\"The First White President.\\" The Atlantic. N.p., 2018. Web. 25 Feb. 2018.
Reid, Eric. \\"Opinion | Eric Reid: Why Colin Kaepernick And I Decided To Take A Knee.\\" Nytimes.com. N.p., 2018. Web. 25 Feb. 2018.
In the 1970s, racism was a big issue. African-Americans experienced a lot of discrimination due to their skin color. There were specific toilets, buses, and schools for people who had black skin color; those people even had to live in particular areas. Because of such discrimination, African-Americans created their own culture through music, such as the blues and funk. Also, African-Americans wrote a tremendous number of literary works that described the sorrow and agony of black people. “The Blue Terrance” by Terrance Hayes is an example of such literature. Hayes talks about his life briefly and expresses his thoughts and feelings through the poem. Throughout “The Blue Terrance,” Hayes uses title, structure, form, and a metaphor of the color blue to talk about not only sorrow, but also freedom.
Hayes uses the color “Blue” in the title to show his pathos about racism. “Blue” is usually used as a metaphor…
David J. Krajicek “Racism at South Carolina bowling alley led to three men’s deaths in 1968” Daily News, 11 Feb. 2018, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/racism-south-carolina-bowling-alley-led-3-killings-1968-article-1.3813476
Hayes, Terrance. “The Blue Terrance” Wind in a Box. Penguin Books, a division of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
The Associated Press. “South Carolina: Apology for Racist Policies” The New York Times, 21 Nov. 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/22/us/22brfs-002.html
Explain Joe R. Feagin’s white racial frame. Where did it come from? How is it perpetuated?
This white racial frame is four centuries old and it entails various racial theories and ideologies such as stereotyping and bigotry as well as other aspects of communication such as interlinking interpretations, sounds of language, and emotions. Also covered is people’s inclination to be discriminative in everyday life (Picca et al 2).
The existence of the white racial frame has made it part and parcel of the American experience in both American institutions and minds. The wide perspective it encompasses has made it one of the tenets of the legitimization and maintenance of racism in the country. For many years, extreme racist practices such as slavery were part of the American experience (Picca et al 3).
Enslavement practices began officially in 1607 on the founding of the first English colony at Jamestown. The English…
MLK vs. Clergymen
The Civil Rights movement was a seminal and pivotal moment in the history of the United States. To be honest, it is one of two huge shifts in the treatment and rights of African-Americans, with the other being the abolition of slavery in the 1860’s. Roughly a century later is the time period where the letters traded back and forth between Martin Luther King Jr. and certain clergymen can be seen. Indeed, some clergymen in Alabama sent a letter to Dr. King in April of 1963. King responded to the letter in kind, from jail, a scant four days later. It is important to analyze what is being said in these letters, how it is being said, why it is being said and the overall rhetoric, tone and ethics that belie the two letters. While there are at least some failings in both letters, Dr. King clearly…
TIU. \\"Alabama clergymen’s letter to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.\\" moodle.tiu.edu. n.p., 2018.
Web. 26 Feb. 2018.
Racism as One of the More Relevant Causes of Poverty
The prime objective of this paper is wholly that it will address racism as one of the more instrumentally causal factor for the prevalence of poverty.
The exceptional advancement and development that we have attained within the contemporaneous parameters of the societies within which we survive and interact is something that is reflected within virtually all existing platform. It is quite apparent that the Legal, political, sociological and cultural frameworks as we presently know them, for instance, have all advanced and developed in accordance to the current day and age. This, moreover, is something that has primarily been due to the technologically oriented evolution that the global society has been undergoing at an uncharacteristically rapid rate for about two decades now. In spite this however; the global socio-community continues to be plagued by such sociological woes as economic…
Jackson, Andrew. Poverty and Racism. Perception. Volume 24, #4, March 21, 2001, Accessed at http://www.ccsd.ca/perception/244/racism.htm
Goldberg, Mark F. Lessons from Exceptional School Leaders Chapter 5. Discrimination, Racism, and Poverty, 2001 Accessed at http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/2001goldberg/chapter5.html
Shah, Anup. Causes of Poverty, Global Issues, July 20, 1998 ccessed f http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty.asp
Cottin, Heather. Racism and poverty killing more babies. Report on infant mortality shows. Workers World Newspaper Feb. 26, 2004, Accessed at http://www.workers.org/ww/2004/infmort0226.php
Bonilla-Silva focuses on black-white relationships, but such styles are also seen in the actions of groups like Asians Against Affirmative Action. Many members of this group profess sympathy for minorities like African-Americans and Hispanics, but their lawsuits against school admissions committees that look at race as a decision factor belie their claims of color-blindedness.
The naturalized style is evident in arguments of groups that look at supposed natural abilities and intelligence. People who argue that African-Americans are "naturally better" at music and athletics might not consider themselves racist, and see themselves as being descriptive. This is the same case with people who believe that Asians and Asian-Americans are whiz kids who are naturally better at math. Such language, however, masks how people are actually articulating racist ideals.
Cultural racism can be seen in the attitudes that many commentators have espoused towards Arabs and Arab-Americans, especially in the post-September 11 era.…
Social Science literature has largely defined racist societies as those where: official ideology proclaims that racial differences are unbridgeable; the ideal is "race purity"; social segregation is mandated by law; and stigmatized groups have limited access to economic opportunities so that they are kept impoverished (Fredrickson, p. 101). Thus, it is evident that the historical definition of racism has emerged from a construct of political, sociological and economic ideology, which overtly practices racial discrimination. Since modern day America professes an ideology of equality, the question thus arises as to whether anti-black racism is now a part of the nation's ignoble past. Unfortunately, it appears that the answer to that question is in the negative, as racial prejudices continue to perpetuate an economic and social divide between African-American blacks and "white" America, albeit under the guise of Laissez-faire racism or persistent negative stereotyping (Martin & Tuch, p. 16). Logically, therefore,…
Fredrickson, G.M. "Racism: A Short History." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "I Have a Dream." The U.S. Constitution Online. Accessed Aug 8, 2004: http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html
Martin, J.K., & Tuch, S.A. "Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
acism and Society -- Literature Letter
Senator Mitch McConnell
317 ussell Senate Office Building
Dear Senator McConnell:
I am writing to express my reaction to your four-year effort to ensure the failure of the presidential administration of President Barak Obama. First, let me say that I have never been a politically-oriented person; I am not even a registered voter. However, I have been monitoring news reports about the current state of the nation and of the disgraceful abuses of power exhibited by you and the other high-ranking members of your epublican Caucus. The manner in which you and your colleagues have reduced the U.S. Congress into a dysfunctional and ineffective Legislative Branch of our government (Grunwald, 2012) is the reason I am writing, the inspiration for this letter comes from my recent exposure to several pieces of 20th Century literature with which you might not be familiar. Copies of them…
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
In addition, many people, and our public schools, have adopting a policy of embracing and welcoming the concept of racial and cultural diversity into our school's curricula (U of Maryland). Today's textbooks and other instructional materials include more accurate information about the history of slavery than in times past (Atlantic Monthly).
Perhaps Weinberger saw his comment as a compliment, but perhaps Powell realized that people who only ignore race when looking at high achievers may still be very race-conscious, and perhaps even in a negative way.
Atlantic Monthly. "eview: Slaves in the family by Edward Ball," at The Atlantic Online. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/bookauth/eballint.htm
Hinman, Lawrence M. "ace, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism -- A Survey of Multimedia esources." Accessed via the Internet Nov. 1, 2005. http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Applied/ace/
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Accessed via the Internet Nov. 1, 2005. http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html"
University of Maryland. "Diversity Database -- Moving Towards Community." Accessed via…
Resources." Accessed via the Internet Nov. 1, 2005. http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Applied/Race/
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Accessed via the Internet Nov. 1, 2005. http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html"
University of Maryland. "Diversity Database -- Moving Towards Community." Accessed via the Internet Nov. 1, 2005. http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/Diversity/
Student Resource Services Inc. © 2005
Consequent to this, being aware of the discrimination he or she experienced in their last workplace, the individual (even if he or she is extremely talented in what they do) is expected to get a job where they would feel less stress, but where they would no longer be able to make use of their abilities. As a result, racism harms society for the fact that it prevents a talented individual from bringing their services to the community, and in addition to that it harms the individual, who ends up depressed and with a job that they do not enjoy doing.
The general public normally relates to white people when they think about civilization. Society taught them that white people are the cause of progress and that they came and brought civilization to the underdeveloped non-white individuals. ith the technology in Egypt and the ones from the Aztecs and the…
1. Feagin, Joe R. McKinney. Karyn D. (2005). The Many Costs of Racism. Rowman & Littlefield.
Time changes everything; reading these two pieces of work reminds the author of that fact and so much more. Both The Welcome Table, by Alice Walker, and the poem What it's Like to be a Black Girl, by Smith speak out of the dust of the past to those who now live in the future. It is interesting to note that though the subject matter of racist attitudes pervades each story, both writings provide a viewpoint that is unique; The Table deals with an old negro lady on the verge of death, while a Black Girl deals with the other end of the spectrum; a young black girl addressing puberty and adolescence and the troubles and trials facing a maturing young lady. While presenting two differing points-of-view, each offers a strikingly similar stance; that racism affects those who feel its insidious influence in a myriad of ways.
Arai, S. & Kivel, B.D.; (2009) Critical race theory and social justice perspectives on whiteness, difference(s) and (anti) racism: A fourth wave of race research in leisure studies, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 41, Issue 4, pp. 459 -- 470
Crainshaw, J.; (2007) Living the feast: Liturgical etiquette for Beulah's table, Liturgy, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 19 -- 26
Gordon, I.; (2005) Hallejuah! The Welcome Table: A lifetime of memories with recipes, Library Journal, Vol. 130, Issue 13, p. 133
Hinds, J.P.; (2010) Traces on the blackboard: The vestiges of racism on the African-American psyche, Pastoral Psychology, Vol. 59, Issue 6, pp. 783 -- 798
It has even been shown that there is a psychological basis for the formation and perpetuation of racism in a society (Feinberg 2009). This makes it clear how the problem has been allowed to persist for so many years and so many generations.
Some suggest that reverse discrimination now takes place in this country, with unfair advantages being handed out to minorities (Brown 2009). Until these minorities have an equal say, however, the advantage definitely does not belong to them.
Feinberg, M. (2009). "acism and psychology." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/racism/homepage.html
Brown, M. (2009). "everse racism is wrong, too." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/letters/bal-naacpletter1015a,0,7732476.story
Marshall, S. (2009). "The fight against racism today." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://race.eserver.org/fight-against-racism-today.html
and, a. (1963). "acism." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://freedomkeys.com/ar-racism.htm
Shah, a. 9204). "acism in North America." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#acisminNorthAmerica
Feinberg, M. (2009). "Racism and psychology." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/racism/homepage.html
Brown, M. (2009). "Reverse racism is wrong, too." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/letters/bal-naacpletter1015a,0,7732476.story
Marshall, S. (2009). "The fight against racism today." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://race.eserver.org/fight-against-racism-today.html
Rand, a. (1963). "Racism." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://freedomkeys.com/ar-racism.htm
acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems
It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.
ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid
Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…
Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice
Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.
Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.
Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
While children should be the main targets of this approach, education can also reach other members of Australian society. Through their children, parents will be exposed to these new ideas. Seminars, plays, and other cultural events can also help open the minds of adults. In this circumstance, the unfashionable nature of racism in Australia will be beneficial; to keep up appearances, many will support and attend these events.
Thus, racism in Australia is a severe problem, impacting both individuals and the society. Most likely caused by Australia's racist past, the racist element in Australia is muted, but still quite pervasive, perhaps one of the more dangerous kinds of racism. Because of this, the best kind of response is in kind -- an educational approach. Although the situation in Australia is still tumultuous, an understanding of the kind of racism prevalent in Australia and the history of that racism is the…
Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation. (n.d.). Racism in Australia Facts.
Retrieved June 20, 2009, from the Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation web site. Web Site: http://www.antar.org.au/node/221
Haigh, B. (2009, Jun. 3). Racism in Australia. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from ABC Net.
Web Site: http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/stories/s2588104.htm
Example of the least severe would be changes in eye contact, from other students and/or faculty or person or people moving away from the person in a social situation as compared to severe which would be an overt usage of a derogatory term such as the N word in an angry manner or other racially derogatory terms and will also include acts of vandalism to property or physical violence. The questions regarding number of events will be three, one asking about racist events on campus, at work (where applicable) and lastly in the broader community. The final question will involve and overall expression of the degree the individual believes racism effects their daily life, based upon the 1-10 scale.
Data Collection Methods:
This work is a true survey style design and the data will be collected via electronic means. The dependant variable will be compiled in a set of averages…
Alvarez, A.N., & Kimura, E.F. (2001). Asian-Americans and Racial Identity: Dealing with Racism and Snowballs. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(3), 192.
Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Fillmore, L.W. (1997). Equity and Education in the Age of New Racism: Issues for Educators. Social Justice, 24(2), 119.
Freire, P. (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, New York: Continuum Books.
Seven people in a room
The concept of the race came about in the nineteenth century in Europe. This is when they incorporated racial superiority, racial inferiority and racial difference into the western culture. At that time, race was viewed as inherited, permanent biological differences. Today race is viewed as a social construction that is influenced by physical characteristics. People are socialized to identify a person's race by; first skin color, then hair, then facial features such as shape of the nose and other physical features like height. People can decide to identify the seven people using these characteristics. Races constitute distinctive divisions of the human species, which can be identified by boundaries between them. Races are fixed unchanging and are homogenous by genes. [footnoteRef:2] [2: Ashley Montagu, "The Genetical Theory of Race, and Anthropological Method," American Ethnography Quasimonthly (2011): URL http:/ / http://www.americanethnography.com/article.php?id=37> (accessed on 25th July 2012).]…
"Capitalism and Racism," URL http:/ / http://www.bolshevik.org/1917/no12/no12capitalismandracism.html > (accessed 25th July 2012).
Haslanger SA, "Racism," Problems of Philosophy (2001): URL http:/ / http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/34900/24-00Fall-2001/NR/rdonlyres/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-00Problems-of-PhilosophyFall2001/C1DF59BD-1408-4167-8B6C-5A20A10A6552/0/fa01lec06.pdf > (accessed on 25th July).
Mark Benson, "Hate and Racism," (2012): URL http:/ / http://www.expatforum.com/america/hate-and-racism.html > (accessed 25th July 2012).
Montagu Ashley, "The Genetical Theory of Race, and Anthropological Method," American Ethnography Quasimonthly (2011): URL http:/ / http://www.americanethnography.com/article.php?id=37 > (accessed on 25th July 2012).
This type of covert racism can often be subtle and difficult to discern, but is malignant nonetheless.
Thirdly, when racism is used as a determining factor in advancement, this ultimately holds individuals from attaining everything they can become. When a man or woman is not advanced in work or provided educational opportunity based on prejudice, the man or woman will then be unable to change his or her position in life. This may perhaps impact an entire family, keeping earning power down. It may even impact an entire neighborhood, since when one member of a neighborhood does well and advances in life, this can be a role model for others of his or her group. But if we deny advancement to people simply based upon racism, not only do we break the law, but we feed in to the perpetration of prejudice against a certain group - "too stupid," "too…
" (Fredrickson, p562)
In his view, the disadvantages (still) faced by many African-Americans is the result of some degree of institutionalized and unacknowledged racial and ethnic hierarchies.
Meanwhile, many minority groups that have achieved relative success have done so through one-way assimilation while accepting the price of cultural erosion. Fredrickson's vision of the best scenario is very much in-line with public policies and stated goals of American society:
"Of the four models of American ethnic relations, the one that I believe offers the best hope for a just and cohesive society is a cultural pluralism that is fully inclusive and based on the free choices of individuals to con-struct or reconstruct their own ethnic identities." (Fredrickson, p572)
The views advanced by Fredrickson, though benevolently motivated, may suffer from the conceptual incompatibility of two underlying elements. Specifically, the contemporary mainstream public position on race relations and cultural diversity proposes…
This can also be said for the media except when it comes to crimes.
I have always noticed that the media provides lots of racism for its viewers, cloaked in the public's right to know.
This was much more obvious when I was younger. I noticed at one point in life that the media would always describe suspects, whether or not in custody, as Black or Hispanic but when speaking of White suspects they simply called them suspects.
I know now that such practices feed into a racist society willing to believe that there are more African-American and Hispanics committing crimes than white people. Our hearing has been told that over and over again with the media referring to suspect race only when it is not a White person who is wanted.
The people who are in leadership roles in my community have several things in common with me and…
County official accused of racism during board meeting (accessed 6-24-07) http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2004/04/14/news/californian/22_43_114_13_04.txt
Riverside Demographics (Accessed 6-24-07)
Riverside Police Accused of Racism (Accessed 6-24-07) ( http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_25_95/ai_54757750 ).
Racism in Augusta
Racism is sadly one of the most tenacious legacies left by American history. This is especially so in the Southern areas of the United States, and specifically in Augusta, Georgia. The racism problems currently experienced in this area can be ascribed to many factors. elow is an investigation of the main historical contributions to this paradigm today. Slavery is one of the main causes still today contributing to the view of especially black people as somehow inferior and less intelligent than white people, and even people of other races.
The problem with slavery is that people were brought from their homeland mostly against their will to work on white-owned farms. Native Americans were in the country before colonizations, whereas immigrants arrived afterwards. Thus Africans were really the only group to arrive unwillingly in such large numbers. The paradigm of slavery was thus combined with the view…
Augusta College. "History." 2004. http://www.aug.edu/black_student_union/History/HISTORY%20OF%20THE%20BLACK%20STUDENT%20UNION.htm
Augusta Focus. "We celebrate Dr. King." 2004. http://www.augustafocus.com/NEWSARCHIVE2004/opinionpage011504.htm
Dunbar, Haley A. "Noose, racial graffiti outrage NAACP." Augusta Focus, Dec. 4 -10, 2003 VOL. 23 No.1135
Picking up the pieces:Ex-felon makes his voice, vote count" AugustaFocus.com
Personal anecdotes related to the experience of prejudice are usually the most effective means of convincing an audience that prejudice exists, and that it is painful. Moreover, an effective author connects the issue of prejudice to broader issues that all readers can relate to regardless of their personal experiences. Thus, it is important to show how the society suffers from prejudice too. African-American authors are in the position of sharing personal anecdotes about prejudice from within the framework of what is supposed to be a free, open, and tolerance society. Because of the paradoxes in American society, prejudice seems even more terrible and ironic. Maya Angelou, Zora Neale Hurston, and Brent Staples are all African-American writers who offer convincing arguments about prejudice.
Maya Angelou's autobiographical essay entitled "Graduation" is about her high school graduation in a segregated public school in Arkansas. Angelou's story is like that of other black…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008).335-342. Retrieved online: http://ap-english-language.phoenix.wikispaces.net/file/view/Maya+Angelou+Graduation.pdf .
Hurston, Zora. "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 159-161. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/grand-jean/hurston/chapters/how.html .
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk On By." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 153-155. Retrieved online: http://www.myteacherpages.com/webpages/rspriggs/files/staples%20just%20walk%20on%20by%20text.pdf.
As Robillard points out, "Julian's cynicism shuts him off from any human association," (143). He has lost his family home due to the changes taking place in Southern society. The economic infrastructure that was supported by slavery has crumbled. Julian notes, "He never spoke of it without contempt or thought of it without longing. He had seen it once when he was a child before it had been sold." Moreover, the narrator mentions that African-Americans lived in his old family home now. Julian seems to be experiencing a cognitive dissonance that epitomizes Southern culture during integration.
Using an unreliable narrator enhances cognitive dissonance and irony. Aull also notes that Julian might be deceiving himself. In that case, the third-person omniscient narrator would only be echoing Julian's mind games. Ultimately, "Everything that Rises Must Converge" is a tragedy. The story needs its unreliable narrator to flush out the dissonance in Southern…
"Analysis." Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://swc2.hccs.cc.tx.us/htmls/rowhtml/foc/analysis.html
Beck-Watt, Sebastian. "Literary analysis: Racial prejudice in Everything That Rises Must Converge, by Flannery O'Connor." Helium. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://www.helium.com/items/914481-literary-analysis-racial-prejudice-in-everything-rises-converge-flannery
O'Connor, Flannery. "Everything that Rises Must Converge."
Rath, Sura Prasad and Shaw, Mary Neff. Flannery O'Connor. University of Georgia Press, 1996
Thebedi suffers because of the same reason but her story reveals how broken a race becomes after years of repeated abuse. Thebedi lives in a culture thousands of miles away from the segregation realized in America but somehow, that mentality made its way across the ocean. The most amazing aspect of this story is the fact that it could have taken place on an American farm. The white man's ways belittled the black man even in his own land. Prejudice is no respecter of persons. hile we associate it with whites and blacks in America, across the globe people are killed and mistreated for all kinds of beliefs. One thing is clear: this state of mind comes from within the heart of man, not from without. Children play with each other without restraint and it is only when they begin to adopt the beliefs of their elders that they begin…
Gordimer, Nadine. "Country Lovers."
Walker, Alice. "The Welcome Table."
The Price of Racial Harmony
Almost thirty years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, race relations in the United States continue to be strained and the dream of racial harmony appears to be as far from reality as it ever was. Many commentators, including Shelby Steele, consider that the cause of these continued difficulties lies in society's determined emphasis upon race and color, rather than upon equality and individualism. The convenient packaging and classification of people into the camps of either black or white perpetuates the divisive conflict of oppressors vs. victims, and innocence vs. power. Although integration and multiculturalism are among the catchwords of the time, the present situation is merely a case of blacks and whites adopting the path of least resistance. To truly achieve equality and cooperation within racial relations, society must make radical changes in the way that it acts and thinks. This…
Hooks, B. Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.
Steele, Shelby. "I'm Black, You're White, Who's Innocent?" Rereading America. Eds. Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford, 1992.
"Why is it so easy to develop and then retain racial prejudices?" How can we break this "mold"?
acial prejudices are formed easily because they are learned cognitive patterns. One develops racial prejudices just as one learns a language or learns how to ride a bicycle. Just as it is difficult to "unlearn" a skill, it can also be difficult to "unlearn" racism. However, it is possible to break the "mold" of racism by refusing to engage the racist mind, refusing to engage racist discourse, recognizing when racism exists, and teaching the future generation about love and respect.
As Nittle (n.d.) points out, most types of racial prejudice arise from "race-based stereotypes." Stereotypes are cognitive categories or structures. In many ways, stereotypes help human beings organize an otherwise overwhelmingly complex world. Thus, we group similar things into clusters or categories. All ducks and penguins fall into the bird category.…
Hawley, W. (n.d.). Strategies for reducing racial and ethnic prejudice. Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved online: http://www.tolerance.org/supplement/strategies-reducing-racial-and-ethnic-prejudice-essential-pr
Nittle, N.K. (n.d.). What is racial prejudice? Retrieved online: http://racerelations.about.com/od/understandingrac1/a/What-Is-Racial-Prejudice.htm
"Racial Prejudice," (n.d.). All About Popular Issues. Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/racial-prejudice.htm
"Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK24680/
Racism as Presented in Shakespeare's 'Othello'
The play Othello by William Shakespeare is the tragic story of a man who has moved from one culture to another. He looks differently than others because of Negroid features, which are mentioned in the play (thick lips compared to Europeans, and dark skin). Possibly because his not completely familiar with the culture within which he lives, he trusts the wrong people, with tragic results.
From the very opening of the play, Iago describes Othello physically but denies him a name (in fact we never hear Othello's name until the third scene). Iago describes how he must pretend to be loyal to Othello, saying, tis the curse of service,
Preferment goes by letter and affection,
Now, sir, be judge yourself
Whether I in any just term am affin'd
To love the Moor." (I.i)
Anyone familiar with the history of racism in the United States…
Bent, Geoffrey. 1998. "Three green-eyed monsters: acting as applied criticism in Shakespeare's 'Othello.'" The Antioch Review, June 22.
Coles, Robert. 1998. "In 'Othello' we meet a man of great dignity and refinement who is gradually undone." America, Feb. 14.
It is the case of a black person taking the law against a white one. This is a story of race conflict, drawn through violent circumstances that will emphasize the proportions of that eternal war.
The courtroom dramas, that display the ability of lawyers to argument, to bring details into light, convince jury of a point-of-view, justify facts and present evidence are a favorite topic in American film industry. The film version would have been void of density without the trial suspense.
The conflict of morality, the eternal battle of right and wrong that will not always agree with what is forbidden or allowed (is it illegal to kill a criminal, but is it right to do it if they deserve it?). And especially the moral conflict of the people that have the power to judge this kind of actions and need to stay objective even through very powerful beliefs…
Time to Kill." Amazon.com. 2 Aug. 2007 http://www.amazon.com/Time-Kill-Matthew-McConaughey/dp/0790729660
Grisham, John. A Time to Kill. New York: Dell edition, 2004.
Racism and Society -- Literary Comparison
Zora Neal Hurston's heartfelt essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me (1928) presents the experiences of a young girl as remembered by an adult black woman in the early 20th century. Her narrative is simultaneously disarming and sad, because the good cheer and humor seems to belie justified resentment toward white merican society. She presents an image of cheerful acceptance of racial inequality and the persistent social exclusion and discrimination more than half a century since slavery was abolished. Her tone when relating heartbreaking memories is reminiscent of the "everything happens for a reason" mentality and it seems to be concealing repressed resentment.
There is a glimpse of the anger bubbling under the surface of cheerfulness when the author describes dancing "wildly inside myself; I yell within, I whoop; I shake my assegai above my head, I hurl it true to the mark…
A more self-perceptive example from the same genre is Just Walk on By, by Brent Staples (1986). The author obviously encountered many of the same types of social experiences as Hurston, and, like her, he used metaphorical humor very effectively to convey recollections of painful memories and realizations. The actual social dynamics that Staples describes as a professional journalist are not substantially different from those detailed from the perspective of a child and a young woman. Where Staples and Hurston might differ the most is that Hurston seems to deny her hurt and her anger whereas Staples acknowledges throughout that the social circumstances (still) substantially dictating the lives of many black Americans are part of the very serious social problem of racism and prejudice. Staples accepts his situation, and does so with humor, grace and charm, but he also uses each of those approaches to express his rightful indignation about racism.
Examples would include Staples's first words, "My first victim was a woman," dripping with sarcasm given there was no crime and no victim. He describes making sure that he was not following a woman inappropriately close just sharing the street with her before ran away from him: "As I swung onto the avenue behind her, there seemed to be a discreet, uninflammatory distance between us. Not so." His use of uninflammatory subtly suggests the viciousness of the prejudice about black men and white women. His "Not So" is another dry reminder that there is no acceptable distance behind a white women that a black man can walk comfortably without arousing fear and suspicion.
To express similar ideas, Hurston describes slavery as the price of civilization, but also as something that has provided a "chance for glory" and a "world to be won and nothing to be lost." She says "It is thrilling to think -- to know that for any act of mine, I shall get twice as much praise or twice as much blame. It is quite exciting to hold the center of the national stage, with the spectators not knowing whether to laugh or to weep." Staples would probably have written something like "affirmative action is helpful and well deserved; knowing that I'm the most likely person in my graduating class to be wrongfully arrested is not as helpful."
acism Among Teenagers
Towel-head, Spic, Polack, Chink, Terrorist, Nigger. These are words heard constantly amidst high school halls; the perfect environment, it seems, to harbor age-old ideas about cultures that do not match the majority's collective perspective. Throughout the nation, there is a current of racism within high schools, spread with the use of entertainment media humor (largely the Internet) and underground movements that are taking the concept of cultural supremacy one step further into a more violent direction. With such a rapid abuse of cultural jokes, bullying, and quasi-revolutionary movements, how do the authorities even begin to curb the hateful currents that underlie in the schools?
In 1987, a Hispanic boy in a Northern California high school almost ends his own life after his friends get into an ugly bout of ridiculing Hispanics in general (Kohl). This Californian is an athlete at his school and a popular student amongst…
Childress, Sarah, and Dirk Johnson. "The Hot Sound of Hate." Newsweek 144.22 (2004): 32. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
Kohl, Herbert. "What Teen Suicide Means." Nation 244.18 (1987): 603-606. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
Patel, Eboo. "Religious prejudice simmers: My Muslim nephew is taunted as a 'towel head' and 'terrorist' at school." USA TODAY 8 Mar. 2010. ProQuest National Newspapers Expanded, ProQuest. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
Racism in Restaurants
Discrimination has long been an issue when it comes to people and immigration. Whether immigrants came of their own free will or were brought in through slave ships, intermingling of races and ethnicities have led to hard struggles. Although some may say racism is not as troubling or as severe as it was in earlier times, it is still manifests in subtle ways throughout society. For instance, the service industry has shown through several studies that racism exists and can influence the behavior and comments of wait staff and servers. This may come as a consequence of expectation, as servers anticipate non-white people, especially blacks, tip poorly, or it could be the negative stereotypes often attributed to non-white races like anger, rudeness, and frugality. Needless to say, most of what servers anticipate of their non-white customers is baseless (and especially as it pertains to race and ethnicity,…
Often servers assume the worst in people because they are faced with daily interaction. This daily interaction fuels preconceived stereotypes and then the behavior the servers create often perpetuate their own negative beliefs. "Findings reveal substantial server negativity toward African-Americans' tipping and dining behaviors. Racialized discourse and discriminatory behaviors are also shown to be quite common in the restaurant context" (Brewster & Rusche, 2012, p. 359). As many will notice, the media depicts blacks as being angry, negative, and lacking capital. Obviously most black people are not like this and should be respected like everyone else, but there is a larger bias towards treating blacks poorly in restaurants than any other race and ethnicity other than simply lower tips. Additional studies reveal some of the potential reasons why servers may behave poorly when it comes to waiting on black patrons and customers.
Among the negative behaviors is the lack of desire servers have to wait on black parties. "Among other things, servers attempt to negotiate with other white employees to avoid having black parties seated in their sections and actively try to trade off such "undesirable" parties" (Dirks & Rice, 2004, p.30). The logic behind the servers' actions in regards to tipping is self-perpetuating because the servers avoid black customers since they expect poor tips. So the question is whether or not black customers/patrons tip lower on average than whites and non-blacks because of the way they are treated. Thus the relationship based on stereotypes might led to behaviors that perpetuate the actual stereotype itself in a dynamic fashion by wait staff providing inferior service and dissatisfying the black customers.
The study continues stating the results provide signs of racial tipping differences that should be viewed carefully in the service background in which they perpetuate and that the service industry, in particular restaurants, should take distinctive care to guarantee that when waiting staff serves black Americans, they should deliver service that validates a good tip. People are all
Racism in the Arizona Community
Do members of the community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different?
I remember once sitting in a Chris Rock open mike when he cracked a joke about how he viewed the U.S. To be the rich relative in his family who financed your education after assaulting you for years. Even though I couldn't stop laughing at that; in hindsight however, living in Arizona for over 20 years and in light of the new immigration law I cannot help but agree with that completely. Even though I have gotten the best out of the best and yet I have been slapped down all my life too. I grew up in the pre-civil rights movements when my neighbourhood was the home of jazz and blue centres and breakthrough entrepreneurs who paved the way to better lifestyles making in-roads for the…
Racialization is where two, racial groups have become so disgusted with one another that they will begin to take negative views of each other .Where, WASP's would often see blacks as the lowest ethic groups in society, while they would view other ethnics groups in more positive light (but only to a certain extent). A good example of this can be seen with the way many individuals will not acknowledge someone as an American (such as: Christy Yamuguchi's Olympic performance against Midori Ito of Japan). Despite being a fourth generation Japanese-American, the media commentators kept implying that she was Japanese (even though she was from America). This is significant, because it shows how the radicalization of WASP's has created racial triangulation. Where, they cannot acknowledge the accomplishment of minorities, (despite the fact that they are Americans). In this case, the media was using racial triangulation to keep Yamuguchi down to…
Kim, Jean. "Racial Triangulation of Asian-Americans." n.d. 105 -- 138. Print.
Takaki, George. "The Tempest in the Wilderness." The Journal of American History. 79.3 (1992): 892 -- 912. Print.
It also allowed unions to deny non-whites access to benefits of health care, job security and pensions. Housing was also affected. The revolutionary programs of the Federal Housing dministration were set up so that non-whites could not own homes. The system deemed integrated communities ineligible for home loans. Between 1934 and 1962 it was estimated that ninety eight percent of money for home loans went t whites. The government programs and policy caused the creation of segregated white suburbs around the country. To this day Black and Latinos have a smaller chance of successful mortgage applications.
s a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical frican-merican family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents.…
As a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical African-American family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents. The advantage is also passed on to the next generation. The whites are in a better position to put their children through college, assist them with their own home purchase and to help through hard times. This wealth can be passed down through generations and so this racial wealth gap seems to have increased since the civil rights days. This is demonstrated by the fact that in 1865 after Emancipation African-Americans owned 0.5% of the total worth of the U.S. One hundred and thirty five years later in 1990 they still only owned 1% of the national wealth.
Despite all this whites still believe that race does not affect their lives. Some attribute differences in achievement to differences in ability and motivation. But sociologist Dalton Conley showed that the difference in performance between whites and other racial groups had nothing to do with nature but was due to unequal circumstances.
The author concludes that attempts to treat everyone the same does not reverse the unfair advantages that allowed white Americans to accumulate so much in the past years.
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
In colonial times, they were known to be Appalachians, Portuguese, Turkish slaves or even Gypsies. Their dark skin and mixed, doubtful origin made them a target for the ridicule and hate of the white population.
During 1800s the Melungeons lived on the border between Virginia and Tennessee and the name was used as an insult. The truth however was revealed when the results of a DNA study were printed in the Journal of Genealogy. The results shocked a large part of the white population, as it showed that they were the off springs of sub-Saharan Africans and white, European women.
This proves that although on the surface discrimination was dominant but mixing of races was also endemic. This presents a totally different picture to what has been portrayed by historians. Some researchers claim that such incidents were very common in those times in America and some researchers have pointed out…
Alden T. Vaughan, Roots of American Racism (New York, Oxford University Press, 1995)
Travis Loller, "Melungeons Aren't Who They Thought They Were," the Tennessean, May 26, 2012.
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .