Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences Recovery Breast Cancer
Elmir, R, Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.
Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.
McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier detection. The younger women experience aggressive forms of breast cancer and reduced survival rate compared to postmenopausal women. Younger women with breast cancer experience shorter life span, but prolonged treatment up shots with possibility of premature menopause and infertility (McMurray & Clendon 2010, p. 241). According to Elmir and associates, the impacts of breast cancer on younger females vary with those of older women above fifty years (Elmir et al.2009, p.2531).
Younger females have trouble in accepting their loss of fertility, sexuality, body disfigurement and perceived loss of femininity. These women experience these problems due to the surgery and treatment they get to confine their breast cancer and efforts to enhance their survival prospects. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2531) study is important to younger women with breast cancer and to clinicians practicing in this field. The study creates new understanding of the experiences of younger women below 50 years recovering from breast cancer surgery.
Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) employed a qualitative research perspective in their study. This research design is suitable for the research topic given that qualitative research technique facilitates development of understanding in evidence-based practice of nursing. Qualitative research helps in provision of answers to different questions linked to concerns of nursing with respect to human reaction to potential and real health problems. Given that the major purpose of Elmir et al. study is to create an understanding of the experience of younger women recovering from breast-cancer related surgery, and create a knowledge foundation for clinicians performing in the field of breast cancer, qualitative research design is appropriate and corresponds to the research topic and purpose of research.
Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) employed a phenomenological research approach of qualitative analysis to investigate the experiences of younger women recovering from breast-cancer surgery. The researchers employed this research approach to capture the true temperament and lived experience of younger Australian women who have undergone breast cancer-related surgery. This research design was suitable in addressing the purpose of the research. The researchers justified the appropriateness of their selected research design, and according to them, phenomenology was the most suitable qualitative methodology for their study given that the research centered on lived human experiences.
According to Mott (2008, p.53), phenomenological research design is suitable when it captures the human experience in a descriptive text. According to Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533), phenomenological research design investigates subjective occurrences believing that significance truths concerning reality are founded through personal experiences in the real world. The researchers assert that phenomenological perspective offered an opportunity for women to articulate the temperament and essence of their experiences. As a result, the researchers justified their selected research design.
Elmir et al.(2009, p.2533) employed a specific criteria in selecting their study sample. The selected sample included women diagnosed with breast cancer that led into surgery. The researcher selected women under 50 years of age who were able to speak in English. However, the researcher sought for ethical approval before commencement of sample selection. Upon approval, Elmir and associates used data posters and advertisement in mass media where women meeting the criteria for selection were requested to contact the researchers via phone calls or emails. The researchers comprehensively explained how they selected the respondents based on the age and experiences with breast cancer. As a result Elmir et al.(2009) employed purposive sampling where they selected the sample based on the understanding of the population and the objectives of the study. Specific characteristics, which include age, and experience with breast cancer surgery were employed.
The researchers explained the suitability of their selected sample and sample size in providing insights of younger females' recovery experiences following breast cancer-related surgery. However, the article does not offer any discussion regarding recruitment. The researchers included a sample of only four participants and they justified their selection criteria and employment of a small sample of only four participants. According to Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533), a sample size of between four and forty participants is practical for qualitative research. The researchers claimed that sample size is not a pointer of the relevance of the study or data quality. They maintained that the temperament of the lived incident explains low among survivals of breast cancer and this why the researchers involved a small sample in their study.
Elmir and associates collected data from the study sample through interviews. Before commencement of data collection procedures, the study sample was made aware of the objectives and the nature of the research, and the participants signed consent forms (p.2533). Both in-depth face-to-face interviews and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the study sample. Interviews were performed during the convenient time for every participant and were conducted privately. The setting of data collection was justified where the researchers indicated that they conducted interviews in private rooms to prevent disruptions. Pequegnat & Stover (2009, p.159) asserts that it is important that researcher describe and recognize the study perspective.
The researchers offered a clear strategy of data collection where semi-structured and face-to-face interviews were used (Elmir et al.2009, p.2533). Although the researchers did not justify their data collection methods, face-to-face and semi-structured interviews offered a chance to clarify data from the respondents. Descriptive narrative was audiotaped for clarity purpose. The researchers illustrated how the interviews were conducted and included a few of the questions asked during the interviews. The methods used for data collection were not altered in the course of the study.
The form of data collection is very apparent where audiotapes and written transcripts were used for data clarity. The researchers did not discuss data saturation although of the emerging themes such as finding strength, uncertainty and life changes, coping with external force and emotional reaction were note in all the four participants. Data saturation occurs when the provided data has been offered before and no pertinent or new data is achieved from the interviews. According to Pequegnat & Stover (2009, p.159), data saturation refers to a point where no new themes or information are observed during data collection process.
Relationship between The Researcher And Participants
A crucial part of qualitative study entails gathering information from the study sample. The type of information offered by respondents relies on the quality and temperament of the link between the participants and the researchers. In the study, the researcher assessed their role during the generation of interview questions, study context and sample selection. The article does not give any notable events in the study that led to shifts in research design.
The researchers adequately prepared the study sample from the recruitment process through making them aware of the nature and objectives of the study. The researchers did not compel the participants to take place in the research, and they provided prospects for those who wanted to withdraw from the study. The researchers gave the participants the right to answer the questions they were comfortable with. By fully informing the participants about the nature and purpose of the research and through getting consent from the participants, the researchers established a practical relationship between them and the participants. The relationship was established through informed consent, truthfulness, right to withdraw, confidentiality and debriefing.
Ethical consideration applies to treatment of participants in both quantitative and qualitative research (Willig 2013, p.26). Ethical consideration involves the signing of informed consent. The consent form highlights the research process. Right to withdraw, debriefing and confidentiality rights form part of ethical consideration. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) provided enough details that show that ethical principles were upheld during the study. Issues concerning informed consent are provided as well as details of how the researchers addressed impacts of the study where the researchers confirmed that psychological support was made accessible to the respondents. The researcher sought approval from the ethics committee before recruiting the study sample.
The researcher audiotaped, wrote out and thematically analyzed the collected data. They listened to taped-data simultaneously and cautiously to determine gaps in data transcription and they severally read the transcripts. The researchers contacted the participants to offer the clarity of data, and…