Curriculum the Role of the Term Paper

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The district must then serve as the interpreter of specific and global need for the district, based on its particular composition and the state where needed. (Koppang, 2004, p. 154)

Choose two of the eleven major functions as described in the Power point presentation and describe how these functions are instantiated in the Tempe document. Give examples to illustrate the ways that each function can be implemented. (I do not have this information)

Analyze how the functions are represented in the curriculum document for that district. Are the functions adequately implemented? Give reasons for your opinion. (I do not have this information)

Section 2 References:

Gross, P.A. (1997). Joint Curriculum Design: Facilitating Learner Ownership and Active Participation in Secondary Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Koppang, a. (2004). Curriculum Mapping: Building Collaboration and Communication. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 154.

Tempe Union High School Curriculum Development Model. Retrieved July 2007 from:

Section 3:

Analyze the main concepts of Bruner's spiral curriculum. Provide examples in your discussion.

The main concepts of Bruner's spiral curriculum a curriculum in which learning revisits thematic core principles repeatedly throughout the process of the learning, Bruner also stresses that learning is a social and cultural process that must be centered around ideas that are contextual for the individual and that instruction must be presented so that learners find the open opportunity to extrapolate, or go beyond the lesson. An example of a Bruner spiral curriculum aspect would be a hands on learning experience that offered familiar object to students to develop math concepts associated with abstract and real numbers building on these concepts the core relationship would be repeated in other lessons so the learners can extrapolate and form new associations with the material and the math concepts. (Harden & Stamper, 1999, p. 141-143) (Palmer, Bresler, & Cooper, 2001, p. 92)

Document Tyler's contributions to curriculum. What were the educator's main concepts? Explain each concept with an example.

Tyler's two main contributions of curriculum are the development of a standardized manner in which to develop curriculum, see his curriculum coarse syllabus as well as a stress on authentic assessment or assessments that judge the material learned rather than ranking students based on arbitrary standards, and to use these authentic assessment to guide curriculum development. (Palmer, Bresler, & Cooper, 2001, pp. 55-57)

What is the relationship between Bruner's and Tyler's work? Compare and contrast their approaches to curriculum.

The relationship between these two seminal figures in curriculum development is that both emphasize real measure as a guide to curriculum development, and both emphasize the individual learner as the most telling and important aspect of learning. The concepts associated with these two thinkers are different in that Tyler does not stress independent thought, while Bruner makes clear that goal of learning is to understand how something works, rather than to understand many facts about it, so concepts can be applied to later learning. (Palmer, Bresler, & Cooper, 2001, p. 92)

Section 3 References:

Harden, R.N., Stamper, M. (1999) What is a spiral curriculum? Medical Teacher, 21:2. Retrieved July 2007


Palmer, J.A., Bresler, L., & Cooper, D.E. (Eds.). (2001). Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present Day. London: Routledge.

Pemberton, J.B., Rademacher, J.A., Tyler-Wood, T., Cerijo, M.V.P. (2006) Aligning Assessments With State Curriculum Standards and Teaching Strategies.

Intervention in School and Clinic, 41:5. Retrieved July 2007 at

Jerome Bruner. InFed. Retrieved July 2007 at

Section 4:

Locate a specific curriculum document from a school and subject matter of your choice. Identify and name the school and subject.

Alaska Department of Education: Mathematics and Science.

Discuss how a) objectives b) activities/projects/assignments, and c) evaluation should meet the needs of a specific group of students.

The objectives of the curriculum design is to apply general guidelines for the application of a spiral curriculum model that stresses the development of core concepts as applied by the student in novel and hands on ways, with regard to math and science. The list of project assignments and stressors includes portfolio development as well as on site learning and journaling all of which center of individual development and tracking assessment tools. Each of these particular assignment types can meet the needs of both successful independent learners (who will carry the assignment beyond if they so desire) and challenged learners (who will be challenged further to demonstrate learning through collaborative means).

Analyze the curriculum document you have selected in terms of the following components: a) objectives b) activities/projects/assignments, and c) evaluation, and how each of these do or do not meet the needs of a specific group of students.

The objectives of the document are comprehensive in that it is a state centered document but the goals are exponentially diverse and explore concepts of individual learning abilities and stressors. Activities and projects, such as those mentioned above can be both constructive and difficult for some learners. Challenged learners may find it difficult to fully apply concepts of independent learning such as assignments that are evaluated on individual creativity, but will be well served in trying to do so.

Section 4 Reference:

Alaska Department of Education & Early Development: Mathematics and Science. Retrieved July 2007 at

Section 5:

This assignment improved my understanding of curriculum development and the diversity that is seen across states and districts. I was particularly impressed with the information I gathered on individualized (campus based) curriculum development as it seems the most logical starting place for the development of meaningful curriculum. I also enjoyed learning about older theories that are being applied today to curriculum development and theory, i.e. Bruner and Tyler. Understanding the skills needed to assess and help implement curriculum, in need of change is essential to administration and even classroom skills, as process for curriculum development vary across the states and districts.

If I were to perform this task again I would like to further explore the primary documents associated with the theorists, and research a bit more about the history of curriculum development plans, before and after NCLB to better understand how curriculum development has changed and how the various states are implementing change. Lastly I would like to look more closely at secondary literature with regard to assessment of development standards, as I believe this would improve the material learning in this section. Some of the specific gorgon offered in the state curriculum planning documents was hard to understand, specifically Vermont, more time to look at a glossary would likely help.

A might measure the future effects of what I have learned in this section by my new found desire to develop a better understanding of curriculum development processes within the district I hope to work in, in the future. I think understanding curriculum development processes and procedures, specific to a district is essential to becoming part of the positive changes that outcomes-based curriculum development are creating.[continue]

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