Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Infants Who Witness Violence: Effects and Treatments
INFANTS WHO WITNESS VIOLENCE: EFFECTS AND 1
Age Span Differences
Effects on Infants
A Sleeper Effect
Stunt Babies' Intellectual Development
Disturbance of attachment and its consequences
Assessment and Intervention
Infants who witness violence: Effects and Treatments
Research clearly shows that the effects of domestic violence on children, result from children and infants that have been observing witnessing domestic violence in a home where one or both of their parents are abusing each other, plays a key part on the safety and developmental growth of infants and children that are observing this violence. However, in 2009 in the Philippines, it was projected that as many as 8 to 20 million children were exposed to domestic violence (JL, 2010) with about 4.5 million children wide-open to domestic violence in their homes every year. (Attala JM, 2012) Infant children who are current in the household where domestic violence takes place often fall victim to being "discovered in the crossfire." They possibly will undergo physical injuries that are coming from trauma that is unintentional as their parent is assaulted. Infants may be irritable and inconsolable, have a lack of receptiveness secondary to lacking the physical and emotional attachment to their mother. In the end, these infants and children suffer from a lot of developmental delays, and have diarrhea that is excessive from both stress and trauma. With that said, this essay will explore domestic abuse and the effect that it has on infants.
Age Span Differences
Research shows that we know that infants are often openly included in violent domestic events. They are held as a shield by the mother, hit by thrown objects, or deliberately endangered or hurt to frighten the mother. Even when they are seemingly lying submissively in their cots, infants are divinely sensitive to their surroundings and particularly to the emotional signs provided out by their caregivers, as well as the caregiver's depressed, fearful, anxious, or irritated mood.
According to Rhea (2011) the potential negative effects contrast across the age span. Infants that are coming from homes with partner abuse, the child's needs for attachment could possibly be disordered. Research does shows that more than 50% of these infants are always crying excessively and not to mention that fact they do not fall asleep that easy. Many of the babies have eating and sleeping issues. Infants are likewise at a meaningfully bigger risk for suffering from an injury that is physical.
Research shows that Preschool-aged children who have been witnessing personal violence could start developing a long-range of issues that could affect them all their life. Some of these problems are physical as mention before and the involve psychosomatic complaints such as abdominal pain and headaches. They likewise can show regressive behaviors for instance thumb sucking, sleep disturbances and enuresis. All through the preschool years, children turn to their parents for stability and protection, but these needs are normally disturbed in families with the partner that has been abused. Research shows that increased apprehension around strangers and behaviors for instance crying, whining, and clinging may come about (Jaffe PG, 2006). Nighttime difficulties such as sleeplessness and parasomnias are more frequent in this age group. Children that are in this age group who have been able to witness domestic violence likewise may show signs of terror, established by yelling, bad temper, hiding,, and stammering.
Effects on Infants
There have been a quite a few studies that been done on infants and how bad they are being effected. Characterized by poor sleeping habits, poor health, crying that is out of the ordinary that involves a lot of screaming, disorderly attachment to the caregiver(s), irregular feeding routine and unintentional injury (Maker AH, 2012). Research shows that the Infancy period is a critical developmental era. Sleeping and/or Eating disorders are often the sign that are shown established at this early age and typically become more obvious in later years of growth. Stress interferes with brain development. It is also important to understand that neural connections that are being missed at this age are never all the way replaced.
According to a most recently finished research project, Holmes was able examined the long-standing effects of IPV on children who were being exposed at the time of their birth and age three and then the data was compared with children of the same age who were not being wide-open. She chose this age group for the reason that little is recognized about the continuing penalties of IPV exposure for the earliest witnesses.
According to Holmes (2010) "The earliest childhood experiences offer the foundation for later growth," she mentions, "and for achievement in school and in relationships with other adults and children."
In her analysis, Holmes conducted a secondary analysis of data gathered as part of the Adolescent Well-Being and National Survey of Child, which is a longitudinal study, intended to evaluate the results of children who have been described to Child Protective Services as being preys of neglect or abuse. The investigation was subsidized by the National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood (Alpert EJ, 2012). Some of the outcomes from this study are being published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychoanalysis, which is in press.
Results: A Sleeper Effect
Holmes was able to study the long-term effects of IPV upon children's pro-social abilities, which consist of cooperation, respect and responsibility. She likewise examined the long-standing effects on aggressive behaviors, which be composed of yelling, shouting, and hitting. Her examination comprised of five years of information and discovered that negative effects do not show up instantaneously. To some extent, children gradually turn out to be more aggressive, for the most part among the ages of five and six. What is more, children exposed to austere procedures of IPV (choking, burns, and threats with a knife or gun) establish pro-social shortfalls a year after the occurrence. Holmes refers to this as the sleeper effect. A lot of these symptomatic behaviors ascend as children enter preschool and grade school, when they begin socializing more officially with their friends.
Stunt Babies' Intellectual Development
With this recent study, they were able to find out that children who were ill-treated or had observed violence against their mother had lower scores on the cognitive measures at all-time points, and this outcome was strongest among those who were distraught during the course of the development of the very first three years of their lives. Their IQ scores were an average of 7.25 points lesser than those of children without early exposure, even after accounting for recognized risk factors, for instance social and economic issues, weight at birth, mother's intelligence, birth problems, and quality of intelligent motivation at home.
As the infants start growing into small children, they soon start learn that violence is a normal way to deal with anger and this can be seen at the age of two years old. They also start learning that violence works, for the reason that those who are victimized obey with the abuser's demands in order to avoid additional attacks. Even at the age of two and three years of age, they start learning that adults are those that are not to be trusted, ever since promises are so frequently broken in a lot of these families. Sometimes even as small as three years of age, they will start equating caring with abuse (Maker AH, 2012).
They virtually continuously believe that the abuse is occurring for the reason that the victim warrants it or it is for their own good. If these small two and three-year-olds are being threatened or punished when they reveal their experiences at home, they may learn to be misleading and indirect in their interaction with others.
Research shows that they learn very inflexible sex roles. Furthermore, they may start believing that it is correct for men to be domineering and aggressive. Women may be observed as incapable and worthy of their victimization. Having no experience of close relationships founded on equality and non-violence, these children may have faith in that supremacy and relegation are inherent to all relations.
At birth, an infant's brain is 30% of its adult weight, growing to 76% by the end of the first year by reason of the 'brain growth spurt' which take place between the seventh prenatal month and the child's first birthday. The developing brain is most vulnerable to the impact of traumatic experiences all through this time. New research on brain development suggests that exposure to extreme trauma will change the organization of the brain, ensuing in problems in dealing with pressures later in life (Alpert EJ, 2012).
It seems to work this way:
Raised levels of the steroid hormone cortisol are a normal reply to stress in humans. Frequent and Prolonged exposure to raised cortisol levels may have some kind of affect the development of a major stress-adaptable system in the brain (Attala JM, 2012) either intensifying the stress feedback system or plummeting it, leading to depression (Jaffe…[continue]
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