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For instance, according to Slaatte (1968), the "paradox of the paradox per se refers to two opposite properties of the paradox itself: its sheer impertinence to reason, on the one hand, and its profounder pertinence to reason, on the other" (p. 6). From Slaatte's perspective, "Truth is seen in vital relation to the self in his existence-as-he-experiences-it; it is not related as though one object is thrust upon another. If truth is to be known, it must be something in which we are perennially involved as knowing subjects and from which, as persons, we are never exempt" (p. 33). This means that companies today must ensure that mechanisms are in place to ensure that any analysis of their environment takes into account the potential for such bias and constraints, and identify appropriate ways of overcoming these limitations.
Although there are a wide range of tools and techniques available for accomplishing these goals, all organizations are unique and must be understood in terms of their specific strengths and weaknesses. Organizations can be studied from a variety of perspectives and the selection of one perspective over another can result in different organizational topologies or taxonomies (Carper & Snizek, 1980). Whatever their taxonomy, though, both public and private organizations are by their very nature unwieldy and difficult to manage, and the ability of companies to respond to internal and external pressures has become more important than ever (Perry & Rainey, 1988); however, public organizations tend to be even more difficult to change than their private sector counterparts. For example, Ring and Perry (1985) determined that public-sector managers were less likely than their private-sector counterparts to make large changes in their decision-making styles and were more likely to seek to achieve more limited objectives.
The research showed that in the Age of Information, many of the fundamental techniques and theories underlying marketing remain unchanged from years past. What remains important is that managers today must first recognize that advertising is just part of the marketing function, and must then identify who their internal and external customers are. The next step requires a careful assessment of the environments in which these customers exist, and there is no room for complacency in achieving any of these initiatives. Indeed, in order to remain competitive today, both public and private enterprises must seek to become true learning organizations that can reap the benefits of past knowledge while identifying opportunities for improvement and capturing additional market share.
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Weick, K.E. (1989). Theory construction as disciplined…[continue]
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Ethical Theory & Moral Practice Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to
Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors
While these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would
" (Ibid) the term cosmology is derived from the Greek word 'kosmos' meaning order and refers to the world and the universe. (Ibid, paraphrased) the cosmologic philosopher is stated to be on who "contemplates the nature of this order and is concerned with the relationships between the plants, the stars and the earth. The laws of the universe are important topics to cosmologic philosophers. They consider the laws of thermodynamics,
Postmodernism, either with or without the hyphen, has become a one of the most talked about concepts in the last decades. Postmodern is one of the most utilized terms these days, so defining it could prove useful: In a literal sense it means that which comes after the modern, and this is how the term is generally used. One of the most important issues is to correctly evaluate the diversity