Epistemology and Meta-Theory of Sound Essay

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For instance, according to Slaatte (1968), the "paradox of the paradox per se refers to two opposite properties of the paradox itself: its sheer impertinence to reason, on the one hand, and its profounder pertinence to reason, on the other" (p. 6). From Slaatte's perspective, "Truth is seen in vital relation to the self in his existence-as-he-experiences-it; it is not related as though one object is thrust upon another. If truth is to be known, it must be something in which we are perennially involved as knowing subjects and from which, as persons, we are never exempt" (p. 33). This means that companies today must ensure that mechanisms are in place to ensure that any analysis of their environment takes into account the potential for such bias and constraints, and identify appropriate ways of overcoming these limitations.

Although there are a wide range of tools and techniques available for accomplishing these goals, all organizations are unique and must be understood in terms of their specific strengths and weaknesses. Organizations can be studied from a variety of perspectives and the selection of one perspective over another can result in different organizational topologies or taxonomies (Carper & Snizek, 1980). Whatever their taxonomy, though, both public and private organizations are by their very nature unwieldy and difficult to manage, and the ability of companies to respond to internal and external pressures has become more important than ever (Perry & Rainey, 1988); however, public organizations tend to be even more difficult to change than their private sector counterparts. For example, Ring and Perry (1985) determined that public-sector managers were less likely than their private-sector counterparts to make large changes in their decision-making styles and were more likely to seek to achieve more limited objectives.


The research showed that in the Age of Information, many of the fundamental techniques and theories underlying marketing remain unchanged from years past. What remains important is that managers today must first recognize that advertising is just part of the marketing function, and must then identify who their internal and external customers are. The next step requires a careful assessment of the environments in which these customers exist, and there is no room for complacency in achieving any of these initiatives. Indeed, in order to remain competitive today, both public and private enterprises must seek to become true learning organizations that can reap the benefits of past knowledge while identifying opportunities for improvement and capturing additional market share.


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Poole, M.S., & van de Ven, A.H. (1989). Using paradox to build management and organization theories. Academy of Management Review, 14, 4 (1989), 562-78.

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Van de Ven, A.H., & Poole, M.S. (1988). Paradoxical requirements for a theory of organizational change. In R.E. Quinn and K.S. Cameron (eds.), Paradox and Transformation: Toward a Theory of Change in Organization and Management. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Weick, K.E. (1989). Theory construction as disciplined…[continue]

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