Mozart especially did the trick. Einstein loved Mozart's highly organized, intensely patterned sonatas. He felt, as many before him, that music and the reasoning intellect were linked. Music and his scientific work...were 'born of the same source.'" (Dowd, 2008) a report conducted by the German Ministry of Education in 2007 while failing to uphold music having a long-term influence on intelligence did state findings of a "link between musical training and IQ development." (Dowd, 2008) Dowd additionally reports that "...brain mapping has revealed that professional musicians have more grey matter in their right auditory cortex than non-musicians, as if practicing an instrument flexed a muscle in the brain." (2008) Dowd states: "It seems increasingly likely that the long-term practice of playing music, rather than merely listening, can have the kind of impact suggested by the Mozart Effect. Einstein, after all, organized his mind by playing the violin, not listening to a recording." (Dowd, 2008)
III. ANCIENT and NEW UNDERSTANDING of VIBRATION and MUSIC
The work of Bangerter and Heath (2005) entitled: "The Mozart Effect: Tracking the Evolution of a Scientific Legend" examines the place of 'The Mozart Effect' in terms of how ideas are spread through the culture or how those ideas are diffused within society and moreover how ideas are diffused through culture across a period of time that defies experimental study. Bangerter and Heath state specifically:
All evidence suggests that ME [the Mozart Effect] has become a scientific legend. It seems to be a circumscribed manifestation of a widespread, older belief that has been labeled 'infant determinism' [citing Kagan, 1998], the idea that a critical period in early development has irreversible consequences for the rest of the child's life. It is probably also anchored in order beliefs in the beneficial powers of music (e.g., soothing the savage beast)." (Bangerter and Heath, 2005; p. 11)
The work of Melanie Braun entitled: "Exploring the Efficacy of Vowel Intonations" relates a study conducted for the purpose of exploring "...the Rosicrucian teaching that intonations formed from vowels, consonants, and specific musical tones are truly beneficial to the persons intoning and hearing them - in fact, even capable of stimulating and affecting cells and centers in the body, and in the space in which they are intoned." (2005; p.1) Braun writes that it is taught in the ancient mysteries that in the beginning:
the Creative Force 'spoke' and this sound, this vibration, this Word, became the unit of all existence: "The six days were created [through the Word] being lights emanating from the Word and illuminating the world." As created being, we embody this primeval sound in our physical, mental, and spiritual selves. Our very bones, blood vessel, and nerves are singing the song of the universe: "From the deepest interior of the atom there are shrill tones dozens of octaves above the highest tones of a violin. This is the music of the atomic nucleus...this is the symphony of life, this unimaginably complex tapestry of music that is sounding within us every moment of our life." (Andrews, 1996; as cited in Braun, p. 2)
Braun writes that traces of vocal expression "are first found in our animal forebears: studies of animal behavior show that 'vocalizations reflect changes in the signaler's affective state, emotions and motivation..." (Braun, 2005; p. 12) Laws of music were found engraved on temple walls...in ancient Egypt..." (Braun, 2005; p.13) the Egyptians believed that "a word or vibration is capable of actually disintegrating matter, due to the relationship of the vibrations of that word with the vibratory state of the matter involved. This was central to the soul of Egyptian magic." (Braun, 2005; p.13) Braun relates that the ancient Egyptian ritual for preserving the Pharaoh's influence after death consisted of a musical enchantment: 'The Hierophant made the seven notes [which corresponded to the astral waves of the seven planets] resonate magically...and then the atmosphere of the tomb was animated by lines of subtle energies [forming] a wondrous fluidic spiral..." (Godwin, Mystery, pp. 70-71; as cited in Braun, 2005; p.13)
This certainly brings to mind the DNA and the spiral within the human DNA. Hebrew letters and words are taught in study of the Kabbalah to be sound that "when properly manipulated' can bring one to ecstasy." (Braun, 2005; p.13) the first principal in Rosicrucian teaching holds that everything is vibratory in nature, from the lowest cell to the densest matter to the most transparent space. Indeed, this is a law of physics. Sound is the articulation of vibration, heard by human beings at certain auditory levels. Each sound also has its counterparts in harmonics of overtones, vibrating sympathetically into the highest octaves. The teaching states that this is how intonations connect us with higher energies and enhanced state of meditation." (Braun, 2005; p.14) the examination of esoteric principles hidden in the ages past has been the focus of Science for some time now and particularly "with the advent of modern particle physics and quantum mechanics, many principles of vibration, which were once the realm of mystery schools have become scientific theory." (Braun, 2005; p.14)
Fundamental forces of nature in quantum physics are "vibratory, the 'music' created by the combination of waves is matter." (Braun, 2005; p.14) the most relevant principle of modern physics in relation to the Mozart Effect is likely that of 'resonance' which "means 'resounding' and refers to the sympathetic response of one vibrating object to another vibrating object." (Braun, 2005; p.14) the work of Swartz and Russek entitled "The Living Energy Universe" examines the principle of resonance through using two tuning forks and claim:
resonance is a two-way street: not only does tuning fork B. pick up vibrations from a, which is sounding, it also returns vibrations to a over and over again, resulting in a cumulative state of vibration within the tuning forks." (Braun, 2005; p.14) Braun relates that the variety of the combination "of vibratory frequencies in the body respond more immediately with each intonation session, made more powerful when coupled with visualization techniques and directive thoughts." (2005; p.14)
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
Campbell resolutely claims that the Mozart Effect is real and powerful in bringing and directly linked to healing and learning capabilities and this has been shown in research to be true to a great extent however researchers such as Bangeter and Heath (2005) believe that stronger than the Mozart Effect is the belief in the effect of music upon the individual. Deeper research further back into ancient history shows that there has historically and traditionally been a belief in the effect that vibrations, tone and music have upon the individual and there is even a connection in Egyptian magic that points to the effect of vibration and tone on the human DNA which is supported in some research findings in this areas. This is a new area of study in the recent history of mankind and one that is not yet fully developed nor yet fully understood by researchers. In order to make his book more effective and seemingly more informed, Campbell should have delved deeper and further back into the roots of music and its association with effects on the physiology and psychology of the individual.
Bangeter, Adrian and Health, Chip (2005) the Mozart Effect: Tracking the Evolution of a Scientific Legend. Group de Psychologie Appliquee, Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland.
Braun, Melanie (2005) Exploring the Efficacy of Vowel Intonations. The Rose+Croix Journal 2005. Vol. 2. Online available at http://www.rosecroixjournal.com/issues/2005/articles/vol2_11_21_braun.pdf
Donald Hatch Andrews, the Symphony of Life (Unity Books, 1966), pp. 55, 58.
Dowd, Will (2008) the Myth of the Mozart Effect.- the Skeptic Magazine. 1 Jan 2008. Online Highbeam Research at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1419874671.html
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Nissman, Cara (2002) Music Stimulates Mental Growth, Experts Assert. 17 Nov 2002. The Boston Herald. Online Highbeam Research available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-94307025.html
Scheufele PM. Effects of progressive relaxation and classical music on measurements of attention, relaxation, and stress response. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 23 (2): 207-28. Apr 2000. Research Updates Online Issue 63. Available at http://positivehealth.com/permit/Updates/rudstres1.htm
Shulgold, Marc (1998) the Mozart Effect Does Music Make You Smarter, Calmer, Healthier? Denver Rocky Mountain News 16 August 1998. Online available at Highbeam Research at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-16945103.html
Vollero, Michael (2007) Nurturing the Body and Mind in Physical Education…