Archaeological finds show that prehistoric man had already played music. Music and dance are the humans' most natural and original forms of expression. Berendt said of modern generations: "Nada brahma - all is sound," in nature. Stones, bones, pieces of wood, hollow vessels and cups make sounds when pushed, beaten or rubbed together. Stretched hides bang, the buzz of the arrow whizzing off the bow can be imitated with fingers and the murmuring, roaring and whistling of the wind can be caught in reeds, bone pipes or hollow branches.
Today, numerous types of different forms of music are played across the world. Because humans are so diverse, it comes as no surprise that people like different types of music. For example, there are many adults, many of them older, who do not particularly appreciate hip hop and rap. Part of this has to do with the slang language, which can be quite crude at times (Christenson). Also, the style has much more to do with beat than with actual musical tone. However, new styles of music have always caused problems with the older generation. There were many adults, especially in religious groups, who wanted Rock and Roll to be banned, because it was a bad influence on kids.
Ogbar and Prashad in "Black is back" discuss both the pros and cons of hip hop. The authors say that similar to CNN, the music is "offering live updates of the trials, tribulations and peculiarities of neighborhoods and cities, from Lagos to Frankfurt." In the heart of advanced industrial countries, hip-hop serves as a liberation anthem for those oppressed by racism and poverty. On the other hand, however, hip hop is "just one of many commercial products or props used for youth rebellion against the established orders of parents." The music, dress and attitude are used to visibly divide one generation from another. Unfortunately, hip-hop's art of rebellion does not only lead to anti-racist and anti-capitalist rebellion, but it often falls victim to the pitfalls of systemic oppression against which it attempts to rebel. The authors conclude:
Hip-hop alone cannot rise up to the task of political transformation -- this is pop culture not a manifesto. However, by looking at the particular political situations and aspirations of its musicians, we can trace its rise as an iconic power and its demise when the assimilationist powers of the capitalist economy flatten out the music's richness to render it a message of personal gain. (Ogbar and Prashad)
Regardless of the type of music, there are copyright laws that govern its ownership protection. U.S. Copyright Law represents an attempt by Congress to balance the rights of creators and copyright proprietors with those of copyright users. That is, the government wants to protect both those who produce and own copyrighted materials, including composers and publishers, and to recognize the needs of those that use and enjoy these materials such as listeners, performers, and music teachers. The law gives copyright owners the following exclusive rights:
To reproduce the copyrighted work
To prepare derivative works
To distribute copies
To perform the work publicly
To display the work publicly (Moser)
The copyright determines whether permission or a license is needed to play music. A person does not need a license to play music in his/her home or car for personal enjoyment. However, in 2000, questions began arising due to the Internet and downloading of free music. The Recording Industry Association of America filed a lawsuit against the website Napster, accusing the company of encouraging the illegal copying and distribution of copyright music on a massive scale. The court held that Napster's service is not protected by fair use. It also said the service is guilty of two kinds of copyright infringement, has failed to police its system in an attempt to stop the spread of copyrighted works, and does substantial harm to record companies.
Under the Copyright Act of 1909, musical works received protection for an initial term of 28 years and then were eligible for a second renewal term of an additional 28 years, for a total of 56 years. With the revised Copyright Act of 1976, a new duration plan was instituted. For works created on or after…