Patterns of the United States Term Paper

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Kazakhstan's Largest Import Partners

Source: Based on tabular data in Kazakhstan at 4.

As can be seen in Figure 1 and 2 above, although the U.S. does not even occur as a blip on the CIA's economic radar as a trade partner, it is clear that the trend is upward as can be clearly seen from the statistical data below. Historic export data to Kazakhstan is provided by the United National Statistics Division in Table 2 and Figures 3 through 6 below.

Table 2.

Comparison of Exports to Kazakhstan: World, Russian Federation and the United States (Millions of $U.S.)

Trade partner 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 2004 World 5,226 5,896 6,486 5,206 5,871 8,788 8,619 12,926 19,938 Russian Federation 2,361 2,480 2,285 1,578 1,146 1,751 1,748 1,967 2,769 United States 43-59-139 70-81 209-159 98 265

Source: United Nations Statistics Division 2008.

Figure 3. Exports to Kazakhstan: Comparison of World, Russian Federation and the U.S.: 1995-2004

Source: Based on tabular data in United Nations Statistics Division 2008.

Figure 4. Exports to Kazakhstan: World: 1995-2004

Source: Based on tabular data in United Nations Statistics Division 2008.

Figure 5. Exports to Kazakhstan: Russian Federation: 1995-2004

Source: Based on tabular data in United Nations Statistics Division 2008.

Figure 6. Exports to Kazakhstan: United States: 1995-2004

Source: Based on tabular data in United Nations Statistics Division 2008.

More recent export data of U.S. exports to Kazakhstan is provided by the U.S. Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Division in Table 3 and Figure 7 below.

Table 3.

U.S. Exports to Kazakhstan: 2003-2007 (Thousands of $U.S.).

Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division 2008.

Figure 7. Total U.S. Exports to Kazakhstan: 2003-2007

Source: Based on tabular data in U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division 2008.

The figures above indicate that there is an inextricable relationship beginning in 1998 between rising oil prices and high economic growth among the three primary energy exporters in Eurasia, particularly in Kazakhstan. As suggested by the trends shown in Figure 8 below, this positive relationship generally holds between energy prices and economic growth in all of Eurasia, in no small part because favorable economic developments in Russia in particular continue to spill over to many of the Eurasian countries (Monitoring Country Progress 45).

Figure 8. Oil Prices and Economic Growth in Kazakhstan

Source: Monitoring Country Progress in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 10th ed. United States Agency for International Development (USAID): 45.

These trends have not been ignored by the policymakers in Kazakhstan, though. For example, the World Factbook entry for Kazakhstan reports, "The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing its manufacturing potential. The policy aims to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel" (Kazakhstan 5). Just as the booming economy in China has placed enormous pressures on the government to identify more energy-efficient and environmentally responsible approaches to development, it is reasonable to assume that these same pressures will continue to influence the types of goods and services being imported by the government and industries of Kazakhstan in the future. In this regard, U.S. government analysts point out that, "Upward pressure on the local currency continued in 2007 due to massive oil-related foreign-exchange inflows. Aided by strong growth and foreign exchange earnings, Kazakhstan aspires to become a regional financial center and has created a banking system comparable to those in Central Europe" (Kazakhstan 5-6).


The research showed that the Republic of Kazakhstan has emerged from the chaos following the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s to become a prominent leader in the region based on its healthy economic growth and abundant natural resources. While some significant problems remain firmly in place, the research also showed that the policymakers in Kazakhstan have recognized many of these constraints to development and have taken steps to address them. Certainly, longstanding problems such as corruption and an overreliance on a single resource are not resolved overnight, but based on the findings identified in this study, it can reasonably be expected that U.S. interest in Kazakhstan as a strategic partner in its ongoing war on terrorism will continue to grow in the future, and Kazakhstan's import of U.S. goods and services will likewise continue to increase in the process.

Works Cited

Economic Reform. In U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia. (2006, January). U.S.Department of State. [Online]. Available:

Foreign Trade Division. (2008). U.S. Census Bureau. [Online]. Available:

Kazakhstan. (2008). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. [Online]. Available:

Monitoring Country Progress in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 10th ed. United States Agency for International Development, 2007.

Wyzan, Michael L. First Steps toward Economic Independence: New States of the Postcommunist World. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia. (2006, January). U.S. Department of State. [Online]. Available:

United Nations Statistics Division. (2008). Exports of goods by partner and SITC revision. [Online]. Available:

Appendix a Country Facts

Area: 1,049,155 sq mi (2,717,300 sq km), slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Population: 15,185,844 (July 2005 est.)

Population Growth Rate: 0.3% (2005 est.)

Life Expectancy: Male 61.21 yrs., Female 72.2 yrs. (2005 est.)

Infant Mortality: 29.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): $118.4 billion (purchasing power parity, 2004 est.)

GDP Per Capita Income: $7,800 (purchasing power parity, 2004 est.)

Real GDP Growth: 9.1% (2004 est.)

Economic Initiatives

In FY 2005, the U.S. government allocated an estimated $85.31 million in assistance to Kazakhstan (including…[continue]

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