Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.
In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.
As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia and Europe: historical dynamics, political issues, and economic perspectives, Paul J. Welfens (2006) reported that in many Asian countries as well as in the EU and in the U.S., digital telecommunications proves challenging due to intense competition. Problems also regularly surface in fixed-line communications in the Middle East as in some areas; the former state-owned operator continues to fill a dominant position in the local network and the access market.
Expansion of long distance, fixed-network telecommunications became more open in the U.S. after 1984 through the 1996 Telecommunications Act, as it unlocked the local loop to competition. "In Asia, the liberalization of telecommunications is rather advanced in Singapore and in Japan but not so much and other Asian countries" (Welfens, 2006, p. 39). Welfens explained that convergence distorted the market demarcation between TV and Telecommunications as well as between data traffic and voice telephony. In addition to concerns regarding convergence, competition in the area of fixed-line telecommunications serviced has continued to increase.
In the book, Organisations (sic) and the business environment, David J. Campbell and Tom Craig (2005) have noted that the rapid changes in communications technology have contributed to the evolution of the descriptive term, the "communications revolution." Progress in First World telephone systems has supported the dramatic rise in mobile telephony, email, text messaging, and music and video downloads. Despite this progress, a dearth of a fixed-line infrastructure exists in some Third World countries. This absence of fixed-line infrastructure proves to be "a particular advantage in boosting the growth of modern telecommunications in Third World countries" (Campbell & Craig, 2005, p. 317). The need for modern telecommunications in these countries also reflects major implications for trade and economic development in the area of fixed-line telecommunications.
Fixed-line Long-Haul Telecommunications Service
As numerous customers have relinquished their second fixed telecommunications lines or completely transferred to mobile networks, many incumbent operators experienced decreases in their number of fixed-line subscribers. The increasing competition has lead to loss of revenues and reduced profit margins for fixed-line services. Telecommunications services operators experienced "the pressures of mobile infrastructure competition, the challenge of VoIP and regulation to open up the local loop, so that unbundling… [could] take place, with servers providers competing in the local loop" (Organisation for Economic…, 2006, p. 55). To counter these concerns, incumbent operators of fixed networks have begun to consider co-operating with "converged" architectures with mobile and VoIP ventures. As a result, fixed-to-mobile convergence began transforming the large fixed-line operators' fixed infrastructure architecture.
Long distance transmission, identified as the chief change contributing to national, international, terrestrial or sub-sea infrastructure costs, stimulated the growth of the Internet, a primary components of the global fiber network. All growth relating to fixed-line telecommunications, however, ultimately depends on the country's economic circumstances as well as its "(over -) availability of capacity" (Organisation for Economic…, 2006, p. 95). The world's constantly expanding network of submarine fiber optic cables also proves to be a critical component fixed-line telecommunications services. For more than a decade, the Internet, as well as an ongoing international trend of privatization of national telecommunications industries, has contributed to the increasing demand for broadwidth. This demand has surpassed the resources satellite transmission offers in voice and data. "The fraction of transoceanic voice and data transmitted over undersea cables has grown in the past 12 [17in 2010] years from 2% to as high as 80% in 2000" (Organisation for Economic…, p. 96). The numbers of cables on the seabed has matched the growth of demand. In regard to progress made by geostationary satellites for long distance transmission, their cost, delay, limitations and reliability contribute to them being deemed a redundancy backup for WDM fiber.
Procurements in the Middle East/Southwest Asia
In some parts of the Middle East and other parts of the world, partly due to the increase of mobiles, the use of fixed-line voice revenues has decreased. To improve profits, in response to the reduction in revenues; telcos have begun changing to broadband services. In the Arab Middle East, fixed-line teledensity initially appears extremely low; compared to teledensity rates of approximately 60% in the United States. The lower figures, however, may be attributed to the larger household sizes in the Middle East and not as low as they may initially appear. For example, in Saudi Arabia which reports a teledensity of just 16%, approximately 75% of homes in this region use fixed-line telephones (Paul Budde & #8230;, 2009). In the article, "Etisalat: The Middle East's largest telecoms company is attracting greater scrutiny as it increases in size," Will Hadfield (2008) reported that Etisalat, reportedly the largest telecoms company in the Middle East, is responsible for the health of fixed-line and mobile telecommunications services there.
Middle Eastern governments have liberalized fixed-line markets. Nevertheless, the only real competitors to companies such as Etisalat are reportedly international calling cards and VoIP-based services. Even though licenses have been awarded in some countries, like Bahrain, "for fixed-line domestic and international services… none of the alternative operators individually have yet made much impact" (Paul Budde & #8230;, 2009, ¶ 5). Most national fixed-line operators are now partially privatized; primarily through share sales. These sales, however, are generally only available to individual citizens of the home country.
The noted uncertain economic outlook for the Middle East as well as the universal decrease in loyalty to technology platforms and providers will potentially keep contract lengths shorter than in the past. Some clients and providers may even prefer to contract for pay-per-use billing. Previous best practices in telecommunications and technology procurement typically "favored long-term (up to 10 years) solutions-based contracts rather than pay-per-use billing" ("Telecommunications Predictions…," 2010, ¶ 2). The choice of contract, nevertheless, needs to benefit both negotiating parties. The long-term contract that provides a steady flow of income for the supplier should simultaneously ensure the customer would receive better quality with lower costs.
Due to constraints evolving from the global economy, however, some may not agree to terms for longer than three years; making long-term deals rarer. To improve their cash flow, some suppliers may determine to reduce their scope of geographic or functional, etc. operations. The consumerization of technology as well as the growing inclination to change suppliers or purchase usage on a pay-per-use basis may additionally affect contract lengths. Regarding the solutions market, this tendency may reflect the increasing desire for shorter-term contracts or contracts with built-in flexibility that would operate like a series of shorter contracts.
The contract needs to be designed with its roots in reality. The supplier should be certain the organization can realistically deliver. Costs need to include sufficient margin to insure the relationship will prove worthwhile for both parties; so that it will more likely benefit both parties over the long haul (Telecommunications Predictions…, 2010).
Negotiation involves the participating parties being willing to accept a compromise between their ultimate goal and the basic minimum they may consider. The term "negotiation," presumes that both common interests and conflict exist between the two or more parties participating in the negotiation process. When two or more parties fail to resolve issues unilaterally, each side of the negotiation effort agrees to discuss issues and attempt to arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. William Wunderle (2007), MBA from Benedictine College; served extensively in the Middle East, explained in the article, "How to negotiate in the Middle East," that no one exclusive right way exists as a guide to negotiations. There are, however, "effective and less effective approaches that vary according to contextual factors. As negotiators understand that their counterparts may see things very differently than they do, they will be less likely to make negative judgments and more likely to make progress" (Wunderle, para. 26). In cross-cultural negotiations, as the parties belong to different cultures, they may frequently think, feel, and behave differently.
Conducting negotiations involves a three-phase process, Wunderle (2007) explained: 1) Pre-negotiation, 2) the negotiation, and 3) post-negotiation. During the typically most critical phase of the process, the…[continue]
"Price-Reduction Of Long Haul Fixed-Line" (2010, February 22) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/price-reduction-of-long-haul-fixed-line-14809
"Price-Reduction Of Long Haul Fixed-Line" 22 February 2010. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/price-reduction-of-long-haul-fixed-line-14809>
"Price-Reduction Of Long Haul Fixed-Line", 22 February 2010, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/price-reduction-of-long-haul-fixed-line-14809
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances. In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have
Railroad vs. Trucking In this paper a comparison between the trucking and rail transportation has been carried out and the similarities and differences between the two means of transport have been discussed with regards to the supply chain. Information was collected from a wide range of sources for this literature review. Given below is the summary of scholarly research related to the topic of the paper. Trucking vs. Railways on the context
Sometime the debtor is able to successfully reduce its liability and returns to profitability but quite often it returns to seek the court's protection again and sometime the end result is liquidation. Under Chapter 11 protections, the debtor gets an automatic protection from all creditors. The unsecured creditors cannot lay a claim on assets and secured creditors are also prevented from foreclosing on their collateral. A Chapter-11 company also gets
Digital Technologies An investigation into the effects of DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES on U.S. PRINTING INDUSTRY US Printing Industry Business Segmentation of Print Market Industry Trends Traditional Printing Digital Technology for Printing Effects of Digital Technology on Printing Industry Graphic Designing Work Flow Redefined Repurposing Strategic Integration Digital Media to Plate Advantages Disadvantages Challenges of Digital printing Industry Comparison of views on Issues Similar conclusions of Research Critical Aspects of Methodology Gaps in Research Previous Studies and Current Research Relatedness with Literature in General Method of Data Collection Ethical Considerations Results and Findings Positive Impacts of Digital
Funds will be managed by Prudential Financial Services for maximum benefit to the employee (Prudential.com). Prudential offers a number of retirement products for employees to choose from and they have a proven track record for positive fund management. In order to encourage long-term employment with the company, employees will not be fully vested in their contributions until they have been with the company for a full five years. The percentage
This process of investors selling U.S. assets may have already begun, as the dollar's value has declined significantly in the past year (Bivens, 2003). b) Does it appear that the Asian currencies move in the same direction relative to the dollar? Explain. A new study released from the Peterson Institute for International Economics concluded that the dollar is still considerably overvalued against a number of Asian currencies, most significantly the Chinese
business2community.com/social-media/2012s-ten-worst-social-media-Disaster-0370309 Using contemporary illustrative examples from academic literature and reputable business publications, discuss the concept of "Social Business" and the resultant opportunity and challenges that are currently being faced by the retail industry globally. Concept of Social Business Concept of Social Business with Retailers Social Media and Retailing Best Practices in Administering Social Media There is a growing body of research that confirms that companies of all sizes and types can realize a wide array