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Reflective Essay- personal teaching philosophy statements
At the start of week one till the week 8 you are asked to reflect on your learning journey through this unit and develop a reflective personal teaching philosophy statement that embraces your understanding of best practice. What you don't do is just summarise what you've put in your journal- this is not reflective practice. But a new piece of writing, which reflects upon your learning journey and uses relevant references to support your argument. Also reflect- on what is important -not just what you have learned, but how it has changed your values, attitudes and perhaps made you think about your future practice.
By the time you get to week eight, you will be able to actually see what you have learned- you will have a comprehensive record of your reading and your ideas. How have your ideas changed and crystallised over eight weeks? Unless you think and reflect, you will not be able to write the reflective essay.
Reflection is the way of thinking that all good teachers live with everyday. It means- "well, I thought this, and did this- how could I do it better next time?" So- you should ask yourself the same thing about curriculum. This is central to the teaching process- how can I take this requirement and achieve what is mandated, taking into account the students I have at this particular time, the ethos of the school, the leadership team, the parents, my own capabilities and interests. You might find this quite hard to do if you don't know very much about what drives curriculum construction and philosophy.

When starting the personal journal i found it hard, but after starting the journals entries for the past 8 weeks I have learned a lot, and I found myself better understanding of the curriculum than I did before starting the unit. I couldn?t even say curriculum or spell it properly. However after researching more on curriculum and doing the weekly reading and participating on online discussion with other students helped me a lot and gave me a better understanding of curriculum. Therefore I was able to achieve the weekly questions and tasks.

Marking criteria please follow it.
Academic Engagement Evidence of self-reflective examination of learning issues-Consistently employs reflective learning strategies
Synthesis Evidence of synthesis of multiple concepts and sources of information-Explanations are thorough, innovative and are supported with research of the theories of learning.
Classroom ConnectionEvidence of connections between theory and practice- Consistently makes valid and insightful connections between personal experience, theories and classroom environments
Academic PresentationEvidence of ability in academic writing -Consistently applies appropriate standards of presentation in referencing and literacy (including spelling, grammar and sentence structure)

Here are my personal journals for each week that I did.

Week 1

Part A
What is curriculum?
What Curriculum means to me is a syllabus which needs to be taught and followed in order to complete a course.Syllabus and curriculum are not the same Curriculum is the learning which is planned by a teacher and taught to students weather it?s carried out for group of students or individually. Curriculum means subjects that are included in a course. Teachers use curriculum to direct their classrooms. Curriculum could also be everything that students or other learners gain within school or home which will help them in their everyday lives. However I believe that at most of schools, curriculum is looked at simply the recognized educational standards that are taught. These standards provide a sign of where the students/ others should be within a clearly defined range of learning. I believe that teachers should plan and focus on every Childs need, therefore focusing on the learning needs of every individual child and designing curriculum to meet the students/ children needs is very important as this will help the students to gain more knowledge. However I think it is the teacher?s duty to help the students to reach their goals and should teach them ways to become better learners and problem solvers so that they choose to take paths to learning of their individual foundation.
Part B
After doing my readings, online tasks and researching about what curriculum means? Curriculum is the most important document early childhood educators need to understand and apply and should be developed with discussion from all stakeholders. These stakeholders are families, government, communities and the students. (Brady & Kennedy, 2010). However why however? you are not adding anything to the previous (Brady & Kennedy, 2010, p.5) stated that students curriculum is an interrelated set of plans and experiences that a student undertakes under the guidance of school. The term curriculum refers to everything that happens throughout the day. As Linderberg, L., & Swedlow, R. (1976). Stated that curriculum refers to all the provision professionals make for the whole of the Childs experience in the service. ???meaning?Therefore curriculum includes the educators understanding guiding their decision making and the provision of resources; the organisation of space, time and resources planned and spontaneous; and teaching strategies and interactions. Brady and Kerry (2010) states how the curriculum should be about the future. ?and to understand better role of the curriculum in the 21st century, the purpose should be to ensure that students/ children are well equipped to handle whatever it is that this century will call them to do and be? (Brady & Kerry, 2010, p.5). However teacher?s roles are to prepare and educate children by simply implementing the curriculum guidelines by the school. As (Brady & Kerry, 2010) highlighted that most importantly educators interpret those guidelines and add an educational aspect that forms from day to day curriculum experiences for students.

Brady, L. & Kennedy, K. (2010). Curriculum Construction (4th Edition).Frenchs Forest NSW: Pearson Australia.
Linderberg, L., & Swedlow, R. (1976). Early Childhood Education: A Guide for Observation and Participation. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Week 2 & 3
In this modern and contemporary world, an individual is exceedingly blessed, who have had the fortune of attaining education, and utilizing his acquired knowledge, for the betterment of his living. In order to attain a blissful and a prosperous life, it is highly imperative that a person has been geared up to face and confront the ever increasing competition in the world, having the most advanced and inclusive education.
Beliefs about Early Childhood Education
A child?s mind is extremely na?ve and vulnerable. Researches have proven that not only an immature mind is exceedingly receptive, but also very impressive; therefore, what ever it hears or receives is imbedded very firmly, in both the conscious, as well as the unconscious level. Bearing in mind the previously mentioned notion, a cognitive mind is coerced to believe that education in the early ages of the child plays a pivotal role in constructing his ideals, morals, mentality and innovative approach.
The educational institutes in almost every region do not inculcate the knowledge based on their own choice or fluke. There is a set pattern of academic course, which an institute decides to follow, primarily authorized by a governing body or board. A curriculum, primarily, is an incorporated and structured course based on the theoretical studies, for the children.
Australian Curriculum
Australian curriculum is amongst the most compatible and well devised curriculum for children?s education in the developed countries. Like other curriculums, even the Australian curriculum pays utmost heed to the sound development and the exquisite knowledge attainment by the children. Australian curriculum is devised in a way that it is properly prepared for imparting the basic knowledge, required comprehensions, desirable capabilities and skill, which are essential for Australian children. The curriculum denotes the ownership or right of learning of a student as the corner stone of, future learning, proper cognitive growth, a healthy future lifestyle, and sound membership of Australian community (Hincks, 2010).
Historic Development of Australian Curriculum
Numerous researchers and scholars believe that, shortly after independence, the administration and establishment of Australia had started giving utmost attention to the domain of education, for a well equipped and efficient future generation. At the outset, the Australian education board resorted to the foreign guideline for the formulation of the curriculum for their nation. However, Gradually the Australian administration started to gain a grip on their own comprehensions, and started to devise their own curriculum, timelines and current, as well as future approaches regarding those curriculums (Atweh & Singh, 2011).
The sound and traditional development of Australian curriculum primarily comprises on four key stages. The first stage, which is the Curriculum Shaping Stage, revolves around the formulation an initial and rather rough or test draft of the proposed curriculum, in which highly expert advices are also sought, of the respective figures, which possess the adequate knowledge and experience.
In the second stage, which is the Curriculum Writing Stage, the proposed Australian curriculum is given the proper shape. Along with the assistance of a selective team of the writers, confirmed and acknowledged by the expert advisory panel and the respect staff of the curriculum. The third stage revolves around the astute and effective implementation of the drafted and approved curriculum. It is rendered to the respective school authorities via online mediums, and the respective authorities along with the teachers, endeavor to implement this at schools effectively. In the fourth and final stage, designated processes are employed which are pivotal for monitoring and sound evaluation of the implemented Australian curriculum (O'Meara, 2005).
Argument For and Against a National Australian Curriculum
On a personal level, as well as according to numerous observers, Australian curriculum is a highly compatible and competent course structure which the students receive, for preparing and gearing them up for the future competitive world. The best thing about the curriculum besides being peculiar about each and every aspect of the current knowledge in every domain (subject) is the astute and comprehensive process of its development. The proper formulation of a new curriculum after every predetermined period, along with teams of experts in every domain, enables the respective management and administration to devise the most comprehensible and compatible curriculum, as par the education level of other developed countries.
However, one minor drawback or shortcoming, which numerous observers have pointed, is regarding the involvement of the instructors or the teachers in the development of the curriculum. The reason why the involvement of the teachers is deemed to be equally essential is because eventually the teachers are responsible for inculcating the proposed knowledge into children, in a predetermined manner. Teachers must be made part of every stage, to keep them aware of what is coming their way to deliver it to the students. Moreover, if the teachers are part of the development of the curriculum, they will be able to acknowledge if they are in a position to deliver the proposed knowledge to the children or not. Furthermore, making teachers a part of development can prove to be fruitful, with respect to the vital suggestion flowing in from their part (Weksler, 2004).
A person depicts what he learns; therefore, it is highly imperative that the education, which the children receive in the educational institutes, is compatible, comprehensible and up to date. For this purpose, the management clearly and astute sorts out that what is to be taught and how effectively can it be implemented.
Atweh, B., & Singh, P. (2011). The Australian curriculum: Continuing the national conversation. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 189-196
Aubusson, P. (2011). An Australian science curriculum: Competition, advances and retreats. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 229-244.
Hincks, P. (2010). Australian Curriculum -- an update. Ethos, 18(2), p. 6-7
RICNEY, L. (2011). Including Aboriginal perspectives in the Australian Curriculum: Advice to teachers. Primary & Middle Years Educator, 9(1), p. 14
Weksler, M. (2004). Teaching Contemporary Australian Studies: Stories from country students. Ethos, 12(4), p. 25-27.

Week 4

External and internal factors that might affect curriculum development
There is no doubt that the process of curriculum development is not a mood but a process based on a set of justifications may vary from one community to another and from time to time. These justifications are:
* Qualitative and quantitative development of human knowledge (the knowledge explosion) in the present era curriculum development before a big challenge.
* The rule of scientific method in the various areas of life.
* Cohesion between theoretical science and applied research and between theory and practice.
* Development of science as a result of educational research and studies is the perception of the curriculum, the school and the student.
? Lack of current approaches: this factor is linked to factors of social change, where the curriculum, which seems to put in the time it, is appropriate to continue a long period of time.
? Frequent repetition or drop out of school-related factors, and teaching methods is appropriate.
?Needs of the community the future: The studies predictive and study the development of communities and the different phenomena which may have contributed to provide educators understand the large for the needs of the community in the near future and showed those studies that the school curriculum should evolve to fit with those needs and to encourage change the direction of future developments.
Development of education: The continuing changes in the concept of education and its objectives and the roles of teachers and learners and organizations, the school curriculum requires a reconsideration of the tools and educational methods and developing them to achieve the objectives of education and what the school curricula of the most important tools, it is supposed to be a tool change is effective, and a tool achieve the desired educational goals (Lattuca & Stark, 2009).
Contemporary and Traditional Curriculum
The latest documentation from the QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) gives the following aims for the curriculum ? that it should ?enable all young people to become successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve; confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives; responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society?. These aims cannot be achieved just within lessons. It is the whole-school experience which will produce successful learners, confident individuals and responsible citizens. This experience includes the atmosphere and environment in school, the way behaviour is managed, relationships between staff and pupils, and opportunities for pupils to make decisions, solve problems and collaborate with each other. Curriculum modern sense is a set of experiences educational readies itself the school for pupils both inside and outside in order to help them grow comprehensive and integrated, ie, growth in all aspects of mental, cultural, religious, social, physical, psychological and artistic growth leads to modify their behaviour and ensure that their interaction successfully with their environment and their community and develop their own solutions to are faced with problems (Kridel, 2010).

Kridel, C. A. (2010), ?Encyclopedia of curriculum studies?, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.
Lattuca, L. R., & Stark, J. S. (2009), ?Shaping the college curriculum: academic plans in context (2nd ed.)?, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Week 5
Part A
I have worked in Montessori centre before for two weeks however during that period I realized that it was different from other centres. I Have realized that the Montessori environment provided independence and individual learning for children by making choices and decision to use the materials from variety of resources for their play, which helps the children to further develop their self-esteem and independence skills. As Montessori educators provided time for children to stay focused and engaged in the activity that they were participating in, rather than rushing them into the next activity, as this gave the children time to finish their activity and helped them to be confident.
Part B
Working there for two weeks was not enough to learn about Montessori. But now that I have done my research about it, I have more understanding of it. As research has stated that Montessori is an approach to the education of children. It is a way of looking at, and understanding children. It is a view of how children develop and learn. However the Montessori environment is a place for building a positive, attitude towards learning and developing children?s skills by providing them with variety of activities and enough time to play free and individually. Children learn through play and exploring things around them. As Montessori philosophy stated that the discovery of their environment is important as children learn through discovering, exploring and learning, they must be given the freedom to develop physically, intellectually, and spiritually. The Freedom within Limits atmosphere of a Montessori classroom provides an environment which nurtures a sense of order and self-discipline. Therefore the educator?s role is to provide the materials and environment which will assist children?s development and to be ready to take action when help is needed.

Montessori, M. (1966). The secret of childhood. New York: Ballentine Books
Montessori Live. (2010). Montessori Philosophy. Retrieved from

Week 6

I have studied about Steiner back in college Steiner education also recognized as Waldorf education involves a humanistic approach towards learning. Rudolf Steiner conceived of education as an art that is creative, progressive, social, and individual in nature.
However from what I have learnt back on college is that Steiner educators believe that children should not be rushed into adult awareness but allowed to savour their childhood. To assist the young people to learn to know and love the world in childhood, is to begin to develop good judgement in teenage years, to liberally take responsibility for life?s journey into adulthood; as these are educators and parents duty. Steiner?s image of child highlights the fact that all children are equal and they must be given education based on their capacity to absorb the information. Steiner image of child involves assessing the physical, academic, spiritual, and emotional capabilities of child to develop a curriculum based on their need. Steiner views every child as having great potential to learn and improve his learning abilities.
Based on the exploration of Steiner model of education text and discussion with colleagues on the topic has opened new insight dimensions that require assessment of implacability. Steiner model of education works for all children based on the principles of equanimity that does not make any differentiation on the basis of ethnicity class, academic ability, and religion. The central image of the child as in need of nurture and protection and an emphasis on the physical, of movement and of doing, are interesting points of reference for comparative studies (Uhrmacher, 1995).
Many theorists have supported the Steiner model of education. For example, Steiner-Waldorf kindergartens are built on the work of Rudolf Steiner and Emil Molt (Robinson, 2008).
The discussion with colleagues on the topic has highlighted few areas that require expansion. Key questions for research in terms of mainstream education centre on what practitioners in other forms of provision can learn from Steiner pedagogy. One factor in relation to the funding of children attending Steiner kindergartens has been the place of technology in the setting. Traditionally, the Steiner early years curriculum has no place for computer technology and this has been an issue in relation to developing curriculum in the foundation stage. Some of the important ideals in Steiner Waldorf Kindergartens, such as attachment, protection and nurture, challenge mainstream thinking and current government policy (Roopnarine & Johnson, 2005). Research could ask the question as to how Steiner Settings successfully recruit and retain male practitioners whereas the mainstream continues to struggle to attract men to the profession.
Pope Edwards, C. (2002), Three approaches from Europe: Wardlorf, Montessorri and Reggio Emilia. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1),
Robinson, I, (2008), The delusional world of Rudolf Steiner. Australian Rationalist, 78, 2-5
Roopnarine, J., & Johnson, J. (2005), Approaches to early childhood education: Chapter 16: Waldorf approach to early childhood education. 4th edition. Pearson publications.
Uhrmacher, B. (1995), Uncommon schooling: A historical look at Rudolf Steiner, anthropophy, and waldorf education. Curriculum Inquiry, 25(4), 381- 406

week 7 journal Reggio Emilia Part A
The Reggio Emilia Model, known for their creative, sophisticated aesthetic curriculum, first opened in 1963 (a development of preschool run by parents after World War II). Discovered by international scholars in the early 1990s, they have generated broad interest among early childhood educators. Described as an adventure and research undertaken by teachers and children, the operational curriculum is based on teachers' careful observation and documentation of what children say and do, highlighting children's artwork (which constituted the ?Hundred Languages? exhibit that traveled across the globe). The Reggio Emilia Approach, a constructivist approach, is related to constructivist theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky. Piaget and Vygotsky offer theories on ways children think cognitively in a developmental manner. Piaget believes that a child is competent, when a child learns new things it just enhances their skills further. Vygotsky also believes that a child is competent, yet when they are educated it helps them in the process of the zone of proximal development. According to Piaget, children who are in the preoperational thought stage want to learn a lot. They are continuously asking questions and trying to get answers. They move from an elementary thought process to a more sophisticated way of expressing their thoughts and ideas. Reggio Emilia theorist believe that children have many different ways of expressing their knowledge of the world around them.
Part B
The centrality of the micro contexts (teachers' commitments and ownership) combined with shared visions and institutional support is a consistent finding of successful programs. Boo Yeun Lim explored various approaches to aesthetic education in early childhood settings in the United States that were used in Waldorf schools, the Bank Street School for Children, and Reggio Emilia model inspired programs. Each of these programs had a different philosophy, but all were characterized by a child-centered curriculum. Lim found that the teachers teaching the arts, specialists and classroom teachers, shared some common images of aesthetic education, viewing it as a means to help children to see the world with sensitivity and become aware of aesthetic elements in artworks. (Gandini, 2005).Teachers' views were also shaped by the respective philosophies of the individual programs (social beings in the Bank Street School, higher order thinking skills in the Reggio-inspired school, and a focus on spirituality in the Waldorf),. (Gandini, 2005). Reggio Emilia approach focuses on a child?s natural development. Base on philosophy that learning must make sense to the student in order to be effective and meaningful. It?s child-centered and child?s point of view is completely respected. Children have the opportunities to express themselves and they learn through senses play as the learning process. Children are encouraged to interact with other children and allow them to explore the world through material items and relationships. The environments are physical aiming to cultivate creativity across children.(Gandini, 2005).Another Getty Institute research project, initiated in collaboration with the College Board, and conducted by Bresler focused on the integration of music, visual art, dance, and drama into academic subjects in five high schools. The schools, located in South Texas, New Mexico, Washington, Maryland, and Boston, Massachusetts, were chosen for their strong support for the arts integration by principals and teachers and for their diverse student population. Curricular contents, assignments, and evaluation measures encouraged students' higher level thinking and creativity. The arts/aesthetic curricula changed the roles for both teachers and students. For teachers, curriculum design became an act of creation rather than just implementation. (Gandini, 2005). Teachers moved away from reliance on textbooks toward the active identification of overarching themes and broad issues. For students, their emergent ownership of the integrated work was connected with issues of identity, voice, and pride in their ideas and creation. Students' communication of their work to an interested audience of teachers and peers provided an additional aesthetic element and incentive to excel (Bresler, 2004). However educators and the children now take so much pride in their environment and are happy to learn through the interests and play of the children.
Bresler, L. (Ed.). (2004). Knowing bodies, moving minds: Towards embodied teaching and learning. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Gandini, L., (2005). In the spirit of the studio: Learning from the atelier of Reggio Emilia. New York: Teachers College Press.

The essay is to be based on "Reflective Practice" in the workplace and has to demonstrate what the use of formal reflection has given me.
My workplace is commercial vehicle workshops and my role is a senior manager/director.

I have completed two learning logs for appendices which the chosen management field in these logs is the "importance of communication".
Therefore the main theme of the essay is the importance of communication.
My key learning points from my logs are to be discussed in the essay as well as weaving in academic theory, material and models. My learning points are flexible but all relate to communication and reflection.
The academic discussion should be underpinned by appropriate referencing.
The essay is to have an introduction, main body of academic discussion and a conclusion.
Prefer UK based info rather than USA.

1. Identify what reflective practice is.

2. Explore the process of reflective practice.

3. Identify the importance and benefits of reflective practice to nursing as a profession and to your self as reflective practitioners.

4. Using the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) competency standards for nurses (available at apply these identified benefits.

Other elements
1. follow full academic writing conventions.

2. Research the literature.

3.Present a well structured argument that is clear and logical.

4.Provide APA 5th edition referencing format.
5. Word limit - 750 words.
There are faxes for this order.

Instructions to students:

For this assignment you are required to explore and reflect upon your learning and development since starting your masters programme. This will enable you to become more conscious of your development needs and strengths and optimise your own development through reflection and action.
The assessment will consist of a reflective practice assignment at the end of the module (100% of final mark). This will consist of the final version of your learning agreement which has been approved by your tutor and a reflective learning statement about the extent to which development objectives have been achieved. The statement should be supported by reference to appropriate learning logs and a portfolio of evidence of the skills and knowledge developed. An action plan for ongoing future development should also be included. (Minimum of 3,000 words.)

The output of this assignment is the documentation of that process in the form of a Reflective Practice Assignment which should contain the following:-

1) Introduction to the theoretical concepts of reflective practice/experiential learning and a commentary and reflection on your initial reactions to PDP. (15% of overall mark)

2) The final version of your Learning Agreement which has been signed off by your module tutor. In your introduction to this agreement, you should provide some justification for the development objectives you have identified. (25% of overall mark)

3) The main body of your work which explores the extent to which you have achieved your development objectives and which is underpinned with relevant academic research. Also, you should use evidence from your learning logs to support what you say and evidence from other sources where you feel this is appropriate. All supporting evidence should be included in an appendix at the end of your statement. (40% of overall mark)

4) An Action Plan for ongoing future development which should indicate strategies and resources required to achieve your future aims. (10% of overall mark)

5) Formal report format is not required but work should be clearly presented and Harvard Referencing protocols adopted throughout the main body of the assignment and in the bibliography. Supporting evidence should be included in an appendix. (10% of overall mark)

See sheet below for assessment criteria/marking sheet

Student ID:
Tutor Feedback
Introduction ??" 15%
? Setting the scene for the assignment
? Introducing concepts of reflective practice, experiential learning
? Commentary and reflection on initial reactions to PDP
Learning Agreement ??" 25%
? SMART objectives for action plan based on evaluation of development to date and analysis of current strengths/weaknesses
? Justification of the most appropriate way to meet development needs, having considered alternate approaches
? At least 3 learning objectives identified
Main Body - 40%
? Discussion of whether the objectives in the Learning Agreement been achieved
? Explanation of any changes to the objectives
? Description of the obstacles and how have they been overcome
? Evidence from learning logs etc
? Analysis supported by appropriate academic references on development areas
? Evidence of how learning strategies have been informed by appropriate research
? Evaluation of personal development in the period
Action Plan -10%
? Evidence of application of ideas to future development
? Relationship to future career/educational objectives
Presentation etc -10%
? Clarity of writing
? Harvard Referencing
? Bibliography
? Supporting evidence in Appendices

Mark awarded: %

Please I want the same WRITER the Writer?s Part I (1.5 page)
Part II (1.5 page)

I. Being self-aware and self-reflective are qualities that can help a person in any profession, but they are especially helpful in psychology. Based on your research in this unit, please address the following:
? Share the reflective practice model you have chosen and discuss why it fits your personal needs.
? Identify your strengths and weaknesses related to personal and interpersonal skills.
? Share your thoughts about how you plan to begin and practice good self-reflection and become more self-aware.
Include references for any resources used to research your discussion. Use APA guidelines to format your references. Demonstrate the upper levels of Bloom?s Taxonomy in your response.
Post your initial comments in the discussion area.
II. Ethics is a central concept to any career in the realm of psychology. As you read in the case studies, sometimes the issue is clear, but the solution is difficult to determine or vice versa. Ethics is not always as clear as it appears on the surface. It is important as a psychology professional to be able to identify a dilemma, think through the possible options, and find the resources necessary to guide your choice.
For this discussion:
? Choose one of the specialization cases.
? In one or two sentences, summarize the problem.
? What do you see as the ethical issue or issues involved?
? Can you relate the issue to a specific item in the APA code; and if so, which one? How about the Capella code of ethics?
? To what degree do the APA code of ethics address the ethical concerns you identified?
? How would you go about resolving the problem? What steps would you take?
In responding to this discussion, be sure to properly cite and reference the APA Code of Ethics, Learner Code of Ethics, and any other sources you may find. Indicate the particular parts of the code that are pertinent to the case.
Post your initial comments in the discussion area. Please note that you will be graded using a more specific grading rubric.

Two files for this order available on fax board. We will pay more for this!!


Written in Arial. Harvad with one and half spacing, 12 point size with one inch margins.


Using mainly the articles faxed to be used mainly as references; the purpose of the paper is to draw on the PHILOSOPHICAL STANCE OF PRAXIS in nursing to investigate and critic what potential is there for evidenced based nursing practice(EBP) or evidenced based decision making. (which was reported by Estabrook Carole 1998 Will evidence-based nursing practice make practice perfect, Canadian Journal of Nursing research Vol. 30,no 1,pp15-36 (article included in previous fax documents). REFLECTIVE PRACTICE is considered to be the answer as critical reflective practice and empirical science use a wide range of beliefs and knowledge which is experientially based rather then research based/ evidenced based. Recognizing the different relationships + philosophical issues of evidence based in particular with mental health nursing which is my field of work and primarily examine issues and problems in the debate of the use of evidenced based practice in nursing. Using the frameworks of critical reflection and drawing initially on the PHILOSOPHICAL STANCES of Paulo Frerie and Jurgen Habermas (1972) and have included in the previously faxed material an article by Brenda McCormack 2006 Evidence-based practice and the potential for transformation in Focus Commentary Journal of Research Nursing vol. 11, (2) pp89-94 which will assist in answering that component of paper. For EBP generates controversy because its nature and methods are inextricable interwoven with the way it has become politicised and professionalised. The paper is recommended to follow to a just way of working by the use of reflection by using David Boud,Keogh, Rosemary, David (eds) 1885 on page 31 located (chapter 1 Promoting reflection in learning: a model, in Reflection. Turning experience into learning, Kogan Page, London & Nicholas Publishing Company, New York, pp18-44.) who stated that reflection is for when we desire to process our experience and to extract some learning outcomes.

REFERENCES: as included above and refer to articles sent previously faxed.

1. Blackwell Synergy Nursing Philosophy 2006 vol.7 Issue 4 pages 216-224. by Mark Avis + Dawn Freshwater.2006,Evidence of practice, epistemology and critical reflection Nursing Philosophy Blackwell Synergy Vol.7 Issue 4 pp216 -224 so as TO SUPPORT WITH ONE OF THE MOST CURRENT INFO AVAILABLE regarding the debate.

2. Included article in previous fax by Rolfe,Gray 2006 Nursing Praxis and the Science of the Unique,Nursing Science Quarterly Vol. 19 no1, pp 39-43.

3.Paley, John., 2006 Evidence and Expertise. Nursing Inquiry 13:2, pp82-93.

Request for support materials on the following:
This is a portfolio to be submitted for Post graduate certificate in education in the area of Economic, Finance and Accounting teaching undergraduates. The piece of work should include a comprehensive critical reflective commentary on each of the point identified below. That would a reflective portfolio. E.g. to discuss understanding learning, focus should be on the various characteristic for learning, Theories of learning, teaching models, Group teaching techniques should involve for example small group teaching, preparing for a tutorial, large group teaching and preparing for lecture. Write a reflection using Bloom taxonomy what formal lectures are likely to achieve write a micro- teaching brief as part of the reflection. A constructive.ILO and explain how I can get a feedback from the ILO. Leaners feedback what aspect are less successful as a learner and why. Include self-evaluation of micro-teaching, micro-teaching evaluation Use of graphs, table and chart for analysis where appropriate an formatted in a way that they can be moved around easily. The portfolio should include a constructive 3 self-observation and peer group observation. The reflections should be made with a critical reference to literature relevant mostly to the subject area identified above. The ideal candidate to submit the portfolio is from a third world African country and this most show in the reflective background comparatively to the additional learning in an advance country educational system. The reflection should include experience of teaching a diversify class of students from all over the world including abilities. A narrative approach is necessary
The idea of the portfolio helps to develop and make a case as evidence of customers teaching or approach to teaching. It can be thought of as having 3 sources.
A Constructive ideas (in this case), reflections and discussion with colleges (in response to identified critical incidents)
B Teaching experience and material used and generated (will provide this on my own)
C The use of public theories and knowledge about learning and teaching- to challenge, confirm and structure candidates own thoughts (or personal theories)
The Intended Learning Outcomes are:
1. Design and plan student learning activities and /or programmes of study, including the appropriate use of learning technology, to achieve the intended learning outcomes (ILO).
2. Teach (i.e. support student learning) by using methods evaluated to be appropriate to the subject (Economics, Finance and Accounting) and the level of the academic programme (University undergraduate), based on a critical evaluation of current understandings of how students learn, both generally and in the subject.
3. Assess student work and give feedback on it, to promote learning consistent with institutional requirements and guidelines (literature on different assessment of student work etc.). A comprehensive reflection with references to literature.
4. Develop an effective and supportive learning environment, including individual guidance, in a way that respects them equally as individual, autonomous learners while recognizing and promoting the value of their diversity including disability
5. Integrate with their teaching their scholarship, research and/or professional activities, and the implications of the ethical, quality assurance and quality enhancement contexts.
6. Evaluate reflectively the effectiveness of their own practice, and continue their own professional development while contributing to a learning community of teachers
7. Inform all the above with a critical engagement with the relevant research and practice
Note and construct the following
1. Evidence of and appropriate reflection on, microteaching and discipline-specific pedagogic work. A reflection on what you learned via theses core programme components forms an important part of the reflective commentary and should be Intergrated as relevant
2. Evidence of and appropriate reflection on, student and peer evaluation. An hypothetic evidence of observing 3 peers in their teaching developed. I also want reflections on 3 observation of my teaching by peers included with an hypothetic action plan.

3. Records of and appropriate reflection on, teaching observation.

Suggested reading not limited to these below.
Beaty E, 1997 Developing Your Teaching through Reflective Practice, Birmingham SEDA
Bolton G 2001 Reflective Practice, London, Paul Chapman Publishing,
Boud D et al eds 1985 Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning in Higher Education Buckingham: SRHE an The Open University Press
Brockbank A and I Mc Gill 1998 Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education Buckingham SRHE and the Open University Press
Brookfield S.D 1987 Developing Critical Thinkers, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Cousin G (2009), Narrative Inquiry Chapter 6 in Cousin G Researching Learning in Higher Education (93-108) New York Rout ledge
Cowan John 1998 On Becoming an innovative University Teacher reflection in action Buckingham SRHE and the Open University Press
Hartley J, 1998 Learning and studying; A Research Perspective London Rout ledge
Holly M.L 1989 Writing to Grow: Keeping a personal-professional journal, London Heinemann Educational Books
McNiff J 1993, Teaching as Learning An action Research Approach, London Routledge
Moon J 1999, Reflection in Learning and Professional Development, London Kogan Page
Rowland S. 2000, The Enquiring University Teacher, Buckingham, SRHE and the Open University Press
Schon, D (1993), The Reflective Practitioner, New York Basic Books
Schon D1987 Educating the Reflective Practitioner San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Tripp, D 1987 Theorising Practice: The Teachers Professional Journal, London Routledge
Tripp, D 1993 Critical Incidence in teaching: Developing Professional judgement, London Routledge
Walker M 2001, Reconstructing Professionalism in University Teaching Buckingham The Open University
Other discipline specific text in this regards etc.
Please this must be custom made and destroyed from record after this.

Describe in detail Critically Reflexive Practice,.Leadership and Critical Thinking.

-Demostrate critically reflexive thinking
-Identifies possible applications or areas to explore further in the scholar-practioner-leader model.
-Describe specific,personal moments of discovery,action and behaviors that manifested growth or refinement of ones's doctoral identity.
-The paper must reflect scholarly writing conventions,with appropriate in- text citations and references in APA format.
Brookfield,S.(1998 Fall). Critically reflective practice.Journal of Continuing Education in health professions,18(4).197
Ayers,M.(2002, Fall). Leadership.Shared meaning,and semantics.etc Cetera,59(3).287
Elder,L.,& Paul,R.(2003, Winter). Critical Thinking...and the art of close reading (Part I). Journal of Developnment Education 27(2)36.

Rate yourself using the American Organization of Nurse Executive's (AONE) "Nurse Manager Skills Inventory." Access the inventory at

2) Write a reflection of 750-1,000 words in which you identify your strengths and weaknesses related to the four content areas below:

a) Personal and professional accountability

b) Career planning

c) Personal journey disciplines

d) Reflective practice reference behaviors/tenets

3) Discuss how you will use your current leadership skill set to advocate for change in your workplace

4) Identify one personal goal for your leadership growth and discuss your implementation plan to achieve that goal

Apply Reflective Practice, CriticalThinking & Analysis in Health

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT This assignment necessitates identifying aspects of practice and situations derived from the workplace.
Please ensure that workplace confidentiality and privacy are maintained eg. Do not identify the workplace or the client
1. Using a reflective problem-solving approach, give a comprehensive outline of a situation or incident from your workplace.
2. Discuss the impact that this situation or incident has had 3. ldentify aspects of practice which have contributed to the situation or incident. 4. Explore possible solutions using a literature search

Harassment, bullying.


Provides lntroduction

Chooses workplace situation or incident.
Gives comprehensive, clear overview of situation or incident
Gives outline of reflective process used to explore associated feelings and views

Discusses the impact of the problem.
Logical flow of ideas presented

ldentifies aspects of practice which contribute to the situation or incident
Considers impact on client
Considers impact on family or significant others
Considers impact on staff

Explores possible solutions
Considers appropriate nursing interventions

Appropriately uses supporting literature & research
References used are current, relevant & from appropriate literature sources

Provides a conclusion

TITLE: The theory and reflective practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy skills
The subject is cognitive behavioural therapy

AIM: This assignment gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of CBT theory and to critically analyse the CBT model. You are also invited to reflect on your experience with CBT in the role play from the perspective of being the therapist (also as client and observer if applicable).
You are required to critically analyse the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Model and to reflect on your experience in the role play as a CBT therapist (and if you had the opportunity to be a client and observer, you can comment on this as well).


1-Demonstration of knowledge and understanding of CBT theory (45 marks)

2-Demonstration of the ability to discuss and critique the CBT model with reference to the above. (45 marks)

3-Reflection of students experience in the role play of CBT and consideration of the benefits and/or challenges that
working with the CBT model raises. (10 marks)


---.IMPORTANT--- :

1*Please read the question carefully and find the documents which Iam going to send, you can know more about the assignment by :
-reading the attached file about frequently asked questions about CBT
-reading M grade descriptor and feedback sheet.
Please do your best to provide the most important information depending on( MARKING CRITERIA)
I really wish to have the best mark.It would be marked depending on the understanding to the questions and the value of the information.

2**The essay has to be 3000 words no less, but you can exceed 3000 words by just %5 without counting the references.

3***-For the last part I will send some points about my experience as a therapist in the role play. It might be full of mistakes and not very organised because I wrote it in hurry,please read it carefully and take the important things which apply to th third part of the essay and write them in your own words in interesting way.
Use just the information which applys to the question , brief the less important points and please add what you think is valuable to this part depending on what is required in the third part of the question.
(if you think that is necessary to mention the socratic questions that are mentioned in my paper please paraphrase them depending on valuable resources) .

4****-please choose a variety types of the best materials ( Books - Articles - Journals and etc.) better to use new references and available which I can find them later on.
( this an important point ) my university has a very strict system with the references ,so do not leave any thing without references ,otherwise it would be considered as plagiarism and write just the references that you really used in the essay .Thank you.

Teaching That Play a Role

Teacher decision making in regards to instruction:

1. Attitudes and beliefs
2. Reflective practice
3. Teacher philosophy

These are the areas to concentrate on in the formate of a literature review.

Reference these if possibly as they are important ones for this paper on teacher decision making.

The chapters are in Inquiries in literacy theory and practice: Forty-sixth yearbook of the National Reading Conference (1997).

Ruddell, R.B. Researching the influential teacher: Characteristics, beliefs, strategies and new research directions.

Allington, R.C. Why does literacy research so often ignore what really matters?

This may be related:

Grimmett, P.P., & Mackinnon, A.M. (1992). Craft knowledge and the education of teachers. In G. Grant (Ed.) Review of research in education (pp. 385-453). Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association.

Here is a three-step assignment. First, find the Eric Digests on Languages and Linguistics in the Webliography (blue button to your left). Second, choose any article which has implications for a California teacher entering a classroom ever more culturally and linguistically diverse. Third, develop and write a theoretical 500-word "action research" paper based on your new knowledge. Beverly Johnson wrote, "Action research is deliberate, solution-oriented investigation that is group or personally owned and conducted. It is characterized by spiraling cycles of problem identification, systematic data collection, reflection, analysis, data-driven action taken, and, finally, problem redefinition. The linking of the terms "action" and "research" highlights the essential features of this method: trying out ideas in practice as a means of increasing knowledge about and/or improving curriculum, teaching, and learning." Action research is further defined in the three Unit #6 Lectures. Be sure and make explicit connections to the Unit #6 Lectures as well as referencing other required readings as you develop your theoretical action research plan. Please use APA format

Lecture materials:Author: Ferraro, Joan M.
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education Washington DC.

Reflective Practice and Professional Development. ERIC Digest.

Reflective practice can be a beneficial process in teacher professional development, both for pre-service and in-service teachers. This digest reviews the concept, levels, techniques for, and benefits of reflective practice.

In 1987, Donald Schon introduced the concept of reflective practice as a critical process in refining one''s artistry or craft in a specific discipline. Schon recommended reflective practice as a way for beginners in a discipline to recognize consonance between their own individual practices and those of successful practitioners. As defined by Schon, reflective practice involves thoughtfully considering one''s own experiences in applying knowledge to practice while being coached by professionals in the discipline (Schon, 1996).
After the concept of reflective practice was introduced by Schon, many schools, colleges, and departments of education began designing teacher education and professional development programs based on this concept. As the concept grew in popularity, some researchers cautioned that SCDEs that incorporated reflective practice in their teacher education programs were focusing on the process of reflective practice while sacrificing important content in teacher education (Clift et al, 1990). These researchers recommended that reflective teaching combine John Dewey''s philosophy on the moral, situational aspects of teaching with Schon''s process for a more contextual approach to the concept of reflective practice.

More recently, Boud and Walker (1998) also noted shortcomings in the way SCDEs were applying Schon''s concept of reflective practice to teacher education. They took issue with what they considered to be a "checklist" or "reflection on demand" mentality, reflection processes with no link to conceptual frameworks, a failure to encourage students to challenge teaching practices, and a need for personal disclosure that was beyond the capacity of some young teachers. Boud and Walker suggest that these weaknesses can be addressed when the teacher-coaches create an environment of trust and build a context for reflection unique to every learning situation.

Reflective practice has also been defined in terms of action research. Action research, in turn, is defined as a tool of curriculum development consisting of continuous feedback that targets specific problems in a particular school setting (Hopkins & Antes, 1990). As such, it has become a standard concept in teacher education programs. The teacher educator as researcher and role model encourages students to put theories they''ve learned into practice in their classrooms. The students bring reports of their field experiences to class and analyze their teaching strategies with their mentors and colleagues. This collaborative model of reflective practice enriches students'' personal reflections on their work and provides students with suggestions from peers on how to refine their teaching practices (Syrjala, 1996).

Reflective practice is used at both the pre-service and in-service levels of teaching. Coaching and peer involvement are two aspects of reflective practice seen most often at the pre-service level. In a 1993 study of how student teachers develop the skills necessary for reflective teaching during their field experiences, Ojanen explores the role of the teacher educator as coach. Teacher educators can most effectively coach student teachers in reflective practice by using students'' personal histories, dialogue journals, and small and large-group discussions about their experiences to help students reflect upon and improve their practices.
Kettle and Sellars (1996) studied the development of third- year teaching students. They analyzed the students'' reflective writings and interviewed them extensively about their reflective practices. They found that the use of peer reflective groups encouraged student teachers to challenge existing theories and their own preconceived views of teaching while modeling for them a collaborative style of professional development that would be useful throughout their teaching careers.

At the level of in-service teaching, studies have shown that critical reflection upon experience continues to be an effective technique for professional development. Licklider''s review of adult learning theory (1997) found that self-directness -- including self-learning from experience in natural settings -- is an important component of adult learning. Therefore, effective teacher professional development should involve more than occasional large-group sessions; it should include activities such as study teams and peer coaching in which teachers continuously examine their assumptions and practices.

Serving as a coach or mentor to peers is another form of reflective practice for in-service teachers. Uzat (1998) presents coaching as a realistic and systematic approach to ongoing teacher improvement through focused reflection on teaching methods. Uzat also relates the concept of coaching to self-efficacy: Teachers'' beliefs that they affect students'' lives as well as the school motivate them intrinsically to grow.

There are many successful techniques for investing teaching practice with reflection. Some of these have been mentioned above, including action research. Action research conducted in teacher education programs can be designed to engage the reflective participation of both pre-service and in-service teachers. Rearick (1997) describes the benefits of this activity for both groups, as well as for the teacher educator, as used in a professional development project at the University of Hartford. In this project, experienced teachers identified knowledge, thinking, and problem-solving techniques and decision-making processes they used in designing instruction for language arts curricula. Based on these discussions, a pre-service course agenda for teaching reading and writing was developed. Students taking the course developed portfolios, conducting their own action research in the process. These students also formed a critical learning community, developed modes of inquiry, and shared their diverse ways of valuing, knowing, and experiencing.
A review of current research indicates that portfolio development has become a favorite tool used in pre-service teacher education (Antonek, et al, 1997; Hurst et al, 1998). Portfolios encourage beginning teachers to gather in one place significant artifacts representing their professional development. They assemble materials that document their competencies. Portfolios include a reflective component, for when the teacher decides which materials to include, he or she must reflect on which teaching practices worked well and why (Hurst et al, 1998). The portfolios are modified at points throughout a teacher''s career, as the teacher continues to apply learning to practice.

Furthermore, new performance-based assessments for teachers developed by the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) include the use of portfolios. These are based on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) model that enables teachers to demonstrate how their teaching relates to student learning (Weiss & Weiss, 1998).

Participation in some professional development institutes can also be a way to incorporate reflection into practice. Professional development programs need not always focus on specific teaching methods and strategies; they can also focus on teacher attitudes that affect practice. Wilhelm et al (1996) describe the curriculum of a professional development institute that offers teacher interns an opportunity to explore attitudes, develop management skills, and reflect on the ethical implications of practice in classrooms with cultural compositions vastly different from their previous experiences. By its nature, this kind of professional development institute causes teachers to step back and critically reflect not only on how they teach, but also on why they teach in a particular way.

The primary benefit of reflective practice for teachers is a deeper understanding of their own teaching style and ultimately, greater effectiveness as a teacher. Other specific benefits noted in current literature include the validation of a teacher''s ideals, beneficial challenges to tradition, the recognition of teaching as artistry, and respect for diversity in applying theory to classroom practice. Freidus (1997) describes a case study of one teacher/graduate student struggling to make sense of her beliefs and practices about what constitutes good teaching. Her initial pedagogy for teaching was based on the traditions and practices of direct teaching. Her traditional socialization into teaching made it difficult for her to understand that her views of good teaching were being challenged in her practice. But the opportunity for exploration through reflective portfolio work enabled her to acknowledge and validate what she was learning.
Research on effective teaching over the past two decades has shown that effective practice is linked to inquiry, reflection, and continuous professional growth (Harris 1998). Reflective practice can be a beneficial form of professional development at both the pre-service and in-service levels of teaching. By gaining a better understanding of their own individual teaching styles through reflective practice, teachers can improve their effectiveness in the classroom.

Write a critical analysis of Goodmans theory of reflection

Bulman, Chris & Schutz, Sue . (2004). Reflective Practice in Nursing (3rd). ( Blackwell Publishing ) ISBN-13: 978-1405111126

Where possible you should provide the actual item of evidence in your submission as well as
sufficient information to allow the marker to locate the original:
For messages ? copy and paste the message out of DSO, include your group number and the thread where the message was posted and the date and time of the posting;
For actions ? include your group number, where in DSO (or elsewhere) the activity took
place, and what your role in the activity was;
For a reading ? the approximate date you read the piece, a brief summary of the content of
the reading (maximum 50 words) and the full reference of the item your read using the
Harvard referencing style which includes the relevant page numbers;
For an assignment ? when the assignment was submitted and if marked, when returned or
when you sighted the markers comments.

Portfolio submission

LO 1: Apply critical thinking and communications skills to solve problems they are likely to encounter in the workplace.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

LO 2: Apply appropriate methods to prepare for and participate in a simulated job interview.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

LO 3: Apply the principles of group development when participating in team work.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

LO 4: Demonstrate the ability to be productive in a dynamic environment.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

LO 5: Apply the principles embodied in the ACS codes of ethics and professional practice to understand the ethical behaviours and social responsibility required of IT professionals.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

LO 6: Demonstrate the capacity to judge and constructively critique their own and others work.
Evidence (at least one item):
(Include your evidence here) (the evidence in 50 words or less)
Reflective Practice (max 300 words):
(Include your experience, reflection and outcome here)

Yvonne is a 14 years old, Yolnugu girl from Yirrkala- a well-known indigenous community in Arnhem Land.Yvonne is admitted to the medical unit of the local public hospital with fevers and abdominal pain.Yvonne is quiet and non-communicative and regularly leaves her room to sit outside with other members of her community.

Discuss the above clinical scenario focusing on culturally safe nursing practice, including communication and interaction processes between Yvonne and the nursing staff, citing evidence-based practice.The discussion should focus on patient assessment to describe cultural awareness, cultural diversity and specific strategies for culturally safe nursing practice. In addition, identify the processes required for effective clinical decision-making that will assist facilitate appropriate nursing intervention and the planning of care for Yvonne.Specially, this section should include discussion on evidence-based practice to promote optimal outcomes of care for Yvonne. Finally, discuss the relevance of reflective practice to the care of Yvonne and evaluate the benefits of reflective practices as a beginning nurse practitioner.
Customer is requesting that (gobears) completes this order.

WRITER ISAK, Rate yourself using the results from the "Nurse Manager Skills Inventory":

Write a reflection of 750-1,000 words in which you identify your strengths and weaknesses related to the four content areas below:

Personal and professional accountability
Career planning
Personal journey disciplines
Reflective practice reference behaviors/tenets
Discuss how you will use your current leadership skill set to advocate for change in your workplace.

Identify one personal goal for your leadership growth and discuss your implementation plan to achieve that goal.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

RUBRIC. Lists and analyzes strengths and weaknesses based on each of the listed content areas, and draws on evidence from the given Web site.Discusses specific changes that can be made in the workplace are discussed, while giving clear and relevant examples for why changes are necessary. Evaluates how personal skill set can be used to effect change in workplace.Provides a thoughtful reflection on areas for growth. Pinpoints at least one specific goal for leadership growth, and outlines a well-organized and realistic implementation plan to meet the goal.Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.Lists and analyzes strengths and weaknesses based on each of the listed content areas, and draws on evidence from the given Web site.

(Please read thoroughly) There are two sections to this project the first one is listed below:
Iam currently not a teacher, I will like to teach 3rd grade.

You will present a Capstone Project that defines an instructional problem from a learning setting of your choosing, is related to your MAED area of concentration, and proposes a solution to the problem.

The five primary sections of the Capstone Project will consist of the weekly written assignments and demonstrate mastery of the 7 program outcomes for your MAED degree program with the final Capstone Project submitted in Week 6.

In Week 6, you will add the fifth section of your project prior to submission. In Section V, reflect upon the educational leadership principles you have explored in the context of your MAED program and your career, and offer a summary of how your development as a professional educator has informed your practice that led to completion of the Capstone Project and your overall degree program. This summary should be ? to 1 page in length and presented in a coherent essay format (i.e., introduction, body, and conclusion).

Second question 1 page; this is a discussion question..listed below

As you reach the final week of your MAED capstone experience, select one of the seven MAED program outcomes and share a concrete illustration of demonstrated learning mastery you have achieved during your degree program experience. Use the course readings to substantiate any assertions made as to how your example demonstrates learning mastery for the selected program outcome and illustrates reflective practice. Also, consider Kinsella?s (2007) position on knowing-in-action as reflective practice. Include any additional reflections as to how you will continue to demonstrate mastery of the program outcomes going forward into your career.

Once I become a teacher I would like to take with me from my program is differentiated instructions for diverse can write from there and provide the outcomes..less than one page is needed. Required Resources:

Review readings from your text, Connecting Leadership with Learning;
Chapter 10 (pp. 171-194)

Kinsella, E. (2007). Embodied reflection and the epistemology of reflective practice. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 41(3). Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
The author explores reflective practice from a philosophical perspective that proposes an integrated manner of knowing + doing that can have an immense impact on the professional educator.

MAED Program Outcomes:

Analyze basic and educational needs of diverse learners within the context of a community.
Identify and apply components of differentiated instructions within the classroom in delivering core content to multiple learning needs.
Analyze and implement assessment strategies for the educational setting and program improvement.
Implement research principles in the design and delivery of instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners.
Demonstrate knowledge of designing effective curriculum and instructional processes within the educational setting.
Apply leadership principles in advancing classroom practices for diverse learning needs within the profession.
Demonstrate reflective and critical analyses of curriculum and instructional delivery models in meeting the needs of diverse learners.

?Effective communication skills are the most essential skill for early childhood
educators?. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Provide evidence to
support your argument.

There is no pre-determined correct response to this statement. Your response will be correct
to the extent that it demonstrates that you have thoughtfully examined the topic in terms of
your own knowledge, appropriate key ideas from academic research sources and your other
units of study. Your essay must be written in formal academic style (Do not use ?I? ?me? ?we?
etc.). Your skill in explaining your ideas clearly within an academic essay format that has
been well supported by research evidence and a quality argument will assist in achieving a
good result.
This essay must be presented in the correct style for the Academic Genre ? Essay Writing
and must include an:
1. Introduction ? that establishes the importance of your thesis statement and indicates the
key issues/points that your essay will address;
2. Significant Evidence ? the ?body? of your essay. This is arranged in cohesive
paragraphs that provide the evidence/key points that you are expounding in your essay.
Accurate referencing is a key strategy of this section where you will be paraphrasing the
ideas you have gained from the literature research. Direct quotes are permitted in your
essay ? but they should be kept to a minimum. It is essential that you are able to
crystallise your ideas as a result of extensive reading;
3. Conclusion ? return to your Introduction and draw together the ideas you have
presented to provide a strong finish to your essay;
4. References ? accurately incorporated into your text and Reference List. REMEMBER
?Google Websites? and ?Dictionary Definitions? MUST be avoided at all times in formal
Academic Essay writing.
Make sure you incorporate quality and appropriate readings ? texts studied in your various
units, reference books from academic libraries and Journal Articles (minimum of 5) that you
have located.
Wikipedia is NOT an appropriate or acceptable reference.
It is strongly recommended that you plan your essay carefully prior to writing a draft and
finally your work for submission. You are also recommended to use the preparation tools
suggested in your texts and tutorials.
Your assessment should be a maximum of 1500 words. Please ensure that you adhere to
this word limit, which has been specified to keep the task manageable for yourself and your
tutor. If you go beyond this limit, the lecturer will stop reading at the 1500 word limit. The
minimum requirement is no fewer than 1350 words.

Learning Resources - (referances should refer to the below)
Essential Texts
Grellier, J., & Goerke, V. (2010). Communication skills toolkit: Unlocking the secrets of
tertiary success (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Cengage Learning.
Turner, K., Ireland, L., Krenus, B., & Pointon, L. (2011). Essential academic skills (2nd ed.).
South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press.
Turner et al. is also available as an eBook:
To get the most out of your Pearson VitalSource eBook you need to download the
VitalSource Bookshelf software to your personal computer or laptop. This software is free to
download and use and can be found here - Pearson
VitalSource eBooks are downloaded to your computer and accessible offline through the
VitalSource Bookshelf software. You can search for key terms or phrases across all the titles
in your Bookshelf, highlight sections and take notes while you read and study. You will be
able to purchase these eBooks directly from
You will receive all the information you need on how to access and use your Pearson
VitalSource Editions when you purchase your copy.
Recommended Texts
You do not have to purchase the following textbooks but you may like to refer to them.
Munter, M., & Russell, L. (2008). Guide to presentations (2nd ed.). NJ, USA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Devito, J. A. (2003). Human communication: The basic course (9th ed.). USA: Pearson
Education Inc.
Hendricks, C. (2009). Improving schools through action research: A comprehensive guide for
educators. Ohio, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Harms, L. (2007). Working with people: Communication skills for reflective practice.
Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press.
Killen, R. (2003). Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice (3rd ed.).
Australia: Social Science Press.
O?Toole, J., & Beckett, D. (2010). Educational research: Creative thinking and doing. Sth
Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press.

Aloud or in Writing, Making
PAGES 55 WORDS 17261

Applied Management Project " International Business

Discussion about helping the World Poor usually focuses on aid projects delivered by charities like the Red Cross and Oxfam, NGOs or the occasional high profile pop concerts. More recently, however, other solutions have been suggested.

Acting as a consultant to a large multinational company, discuss the feasibility of selling to the poor as a route out of poverty.

**NOTE** Some Articles are related to this topic which will be a guideline to do in this project. *In the attach file that I will attach to you in my order.


have a look in Emerald for the abstract template - might be helpful regarding what should be included in the executive summary
Theory framework we might also consider: Marketing strategy (the reasons why companies enter certain market), International trade, International Marketing, Maslow's hierarchy of needs (what makes people comfortable), Consumer behavior (how do poor people decide what to buy), Decision making process.
We are the consultant to a multinational company so, that why we have to focus the one region and industry sector in this projects.
Even though the poor market is wide range so, why the large multinational have to invest in this market because its not much to generate the profit. Although the demand of poor market is very big.
Useful sources: IMF, Corporation IFC, World Bank, UN
No need to write about methodology, we can write about how we collected our material in reflective report
Introduction - we have to create a scenario for the reader, introduce the company, or the country or the sector
we might consider using PESTEL Analysis, but again, not everything has to be covered in PESTEL (e.g. we can omit Political factors)
Should have some statistic, diagram and graph to evaluate the information.
Aim - one sentence
Objectives - not more than 5. One of the objectives should be something like: "To develop a recommendation for the company"
Conclusion - ALWAYS go back to your objectives and make sure you answer your objectives in conclusion
Introduction comes as a subheading under the Literature Review
check out MOYO - author writing about our topic. She is critical of about aid and proposes trade as a way to help out of poverty
Literature Review - ALWAYS raise research questions to answer your objectives
have a look at MIND MAPPING (by Tony Buzan) about assembling the thoughts


Following areas for the consideration: Group dynamics, Time Management, Working in a group, Learning Experience (e.g. "I have tried this but it did not work so next time i'm gonna be using that...")
We can also use the academic literature + personal experience
Kolb's cycle (can be used)
Must have separate Table of Content, separate Title Page and separate References from the Main Report
consider applying Belbin Roles

Handbook guideline in this project



1. Background to the Module 2
2. How it Works 2
3. Report Format 6
4. Referencing 7
5. Reflective Analysis Report 8
6. Administrative Support over the Summer 10
7. Appendix 1 Applied Management Project Marking Scheme 11
8. Appendix 2 Introduction to Reflection 15
9. Appendix 3 Module Information Form 22

10. Appendix 4 Blooms Taxonomy Applied to improving
Literature reviews 26

1. Background to the module

This module should be completed at the end of the taught part of your programme. It is assumed that you have successfully completed the first two semesters of study and therefore have a thorough grasp of the taught elements of the programme. You will be expected to draw on the learning that you have achieved in the taught modules.

The Applied Management Project is the final assessed piece of work of the masters programme. It is designed to simulate a realistic management situation, giving you the opportunity to demonstrate your ability to use the knowledge and skills acquired through the taught element of the course. The purpose is to bring together the taught elements of the programme, re-enforcing their relationships enabling you to move from the understanding of a discrete knowledge base to synthesising and exploring new areas in more detail. It simulates the working environment where individuals are constantly required to combine knowledge in different ways and increase their understanding in different areas.

The AMP gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of business. The aims of this module are to enable you to take the knowledge understanding and skills you have been developing in individual modules and use them in a complex, multifunctional situation.

formulate a problem
identify information needs
retrieve information
synthesise information
produce creative solutions
produce a well argued and supported report in response to the problem identified
work effectively in a group
work effectively in a time constrained situation
reflect on the learning achieved through the process

2. How it works

1. You will be given a business scenario, together with a small number of chosen articles to read. This pack of information will comprise a problem, issue or area of investigation. The task of your team is to decide on the issues, formulate the problem and identify information needs to deal with the issues identified. We call this Enquiry Based Learning as you will be establishing yourselves precisely what to investigate.

2. Following collection of the data by the group, you will write a 12,000 words ( 5%) report. This MAIN REPORT is INDIVIDUAL. Students are expected to use the information gathered by the group to provide an individual analysis of the problem and appropriate actions to deal with it. It may be that you provide a solution to the problem or that you simply analyse the dimensions of the problem.

3. Alongside the completion of the main report, you must produce an individual REFLECTIVE REPORT of 2500 words ( 5%). This reflective analysis will look at the process of the project. You should be self analytical as well as critical of your group.

4. Report Format (12,000 words)
The topic is on the first page:

The AMP simulates the type of task that you will be asked to do when you are employed. The Main Report has a recognised format, which you should use.

Title Page ??" Module Code, Topic, Your Name, Your Student Number
Acknowledgement ??" Only put these in if you have received help from an outside body. There is no need to thank your tutors.
Table of Contents ??" Use a consistent approach to numbering the sections of your report.
Executive Summary ??" One side of A4 summarising the key points of your report
Aims and Objectives ??" This should outline the way in which you are tackling the question set.
Literature review ,Analysis and Discussion ??" This is the main body of the report in which you demonstrate your ability to find, evaluate, analyse and synthesise information to produce an original piece of work
Conclusions ??" This is the section where you summarise the previous section in such a way as to clearly provide a response to the question posed in the topic you were given.
Recommendations ??" If appropriate recommendations for action should be provided in this section.
References ??" All sources from which you have quoted MUST be listed here in alphabetical order according to the Harvard referencing system.
Bibliography (optional) ??" Sources which you have read but to which you have not made specific mention in your work should be listed here in alphabetical order according to the Harvard referencing system.
Appendix/appendices ??" are not a necessary part of the report . It/they contains supporting material you wish to present but which is not essential to the understanding of the main report.

Your report should be prited in Arial 12pt, 1.5 line spacing and bound.

Note: The above format does not apply to Reflective Report (refer Page 8 for the recommended headings for Reflective Report).
4. Referencing

References should be made to sources of material throughout the report. There are various conventions that can be used for referencing and ultimately it does not matter which is used, as long as it is used consistently. Perhaps the easiest and neatest convention is the following one, since it does not take up undue space in the text and thereby does not distract from the flow of arguments.

Effectively, this convention gives enough information in the text to allow full identification of the source from the reference. An author can be referred to in a number of ways.

In the case where the author is referred as saying something in an unquoted way:

Maslow (1970) argues that ....

On the other hand, when quoting verbatim (direct quotation) and needing to attribute the source:

... is no longer a source of motivation. (Maslow, 1970, p 43)

Since the quote is direct, it requires a precise page reference.

The references list at the back should detail all books, articles, etc, that have been referred to in the text, first by author (alphabetically) and next by date of publication. If the source is a book, these details will be followed by the full title (underscored), the place of publication, and the publisher, e.g.

Maslow A H (1970) Motivation and Personality New York, Harper and Row

Another example might be:

Lloyd P Jones A and Brown S (1984) Introduction to Psychology: An Integrated Approach London Fontana

In this instance there are a number of authors, and in the text with three or more authors you should use the style Lloyd et al. (1984). The et al is a shortening of et alia, a Latin term meaning and others.

Referring to journal papers in the text is the same procedure, but they are detailed rather differently. In this case it is the source journal or book that is underscored, the title of the paper appearing in inverted commas, e.g.

Maslow A H (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation Psychological Review Vol. 50 No. 2 pp 370-396

If an author quoted has published two or more items in one year, these should be distinguished between as follows:

Agee (1986a) and Agee (1986b)

Sometimes authors are not identified, but the book is published under the auspices of an institution, e.g. Institute of Personnel Management or The Royal Commission for .......... These should be listed under the names of the institutions.

Proper referencing is a crucial aspect of the dissertation and, in some cases, it can make the difference between a pass and a fail. You are therefore strongly advised to take particular care over this..

5. Reflective Analysis Report

The reflective analysis report is designed to consolidate the student learning from the dissertation experience. It is designed to allow students to examine individual and group experiences through critical reflection. Students are advised to take some cognisance of current theory and application of reflective practice.

The following should be taken into account in compiling this report. Firstly, the analysis is not about demonstrating:
? How perfect you are
? How youve done everything perfectly well
? That others have let you down

Secondly, the analysis is about what you have learnt from the experience, both personally and as a group.

Reflection under the following headings might be considered.
a) Introduction

b) Recollection of experiences
? How the development process worked. Diarised recollection of key stages and events in the development of both the literature review and the integrated marketing plan. Any particular internal crises or elements of enlightenment should be identified.
? In compiling this element, students are advised to keep regular and detailed diaries or logs.

c) Personal feelings and learning from the experience
? Personal feelings regarding the process and ones own contribution to the experience. Identification of any specific personal problems either with content, process or other group members. Identification of how issues were resolved and over what time period.

? How, if at all, was my performance compromised by the actions of others? How might my actions have compromised the performance of others? Any other comments regarding personal feelings and learning.

d) Lessons for future projects
? Identify up to 5 key lessons to improve your performance in future group activities and projects.

e) Conclusion
(a) General conclusions from the process.

You might also consider the following:
? Dont rely on your memory: compile regular detailed progress logs
? Be prepared to discuss issues and feelings with other members of the group
? Prepare for some discomfort and hostile information
? Through foresight and hindsight you can gain insight.

(Hunt, N (2005)Dissertation Handbook)

More detailed information is given in Appendix 2

Appendix 1 - Applied Management Project Marking Scheme

Aims and Objectives

The AMP is designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of business as well as the skills essential to effective operation in a business environment. In particular the aims of this module are to enable the students to take the knowledge, understanding and skills they have been developing in individual modules See below) and use them in a complex, multifunctional situation.

formulate a problem
identify information needs
retrieve information
synthesise information
produce creative solutions
produce a well argued and supported report in response to the problem identified
work effectively in a group
work effectively in a time constrained situation
reflect on the learning achieved through the process

The work to be assessed is in two parts ??" the first a 12,000 word report and the second a reflection on the process of doing the assignment.

Two marking schemes are presented one for each assignment .You should provide a separate mark for each component.

Assessment criteria.

There are two sets of sets of outcomes which are identified in the M level descriptors. The first are cognitive outcomes and the second are generic skills

Broadly speaking the cognitive outcomes can be evaluated through the report, whereas the reflective essay should give an insight into the generic skills. It is however, the case that the generic skills can also be measured by the students success or lack of it in producing an adequate piece of work.
Cognitive outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Should be able to autonomously analyse new and/or abstract data and situations using a wide range of techniques appropriate to the discipline(s) and to his/her own research or advanced scholarship

Should be able to demonstrate a depth of knowledge and a systematic understanding of his/her discipline(s), across specialist and applied areas, and be critically aware of and deal with complexity, gaps and contradictions in the current knowledge base with confidence

Although the task is based on secondary data, there are numerous sources ??" academic journals, newspapers, trade press, government reports, and books - which the student can use as well as! The data may and probably will be contradictory. Students may deal with this by ignoring conflicting findings or by engaging in a debate to examine the reasons for the disparity


Should be able to autonomously synthesise information and ideas and propose new hypotheses, create original responses to problems that expand or redefine existing knowledge or develop new approaches to changing situations


Should be able to independently evaluate current research, advanced scholarship and associated methodologies and appropriately justify the work of self and others

A small group of students complained that they needed more time becauseof the mass of information available so under this heading the ability to recognise worthwhile and less valuable information should be included.

Generic skills outcomes

Although the generic skills will to some extent be obvious in the output of the business report they should also emerge from the reflective essay.

Needs analysis

Should be able to explore the demands of a task and formulate viable proposals for meeting these demands

Performance planning and management

Should be able to plan the task, and meet their own skill-development needs, and gain the necessary commitment from others

Should be able to manage the task, adapting their strategy as necessary to achieve the quality of outcomes required

Presentation and Evaluation

Should be able to present the outcomes of the task in a manner appropriate to the intended audience(s) and evaluate their overall performance


Based on the preceding model, the following guidelines should be used for assessing the students reflections:

Is the work complete?
Is the work thorough
Is the work truly reflective or merely a diarised account of the process?
Does the work identify both personal and group dynamics and evolution?
Is there any evidence of linking the reflection to theory?
Is there evidence of real learning from the dissertation experience?
Is there any evidence of feedback that might help tutors improve the experience for future students?

Tutors are advised to take a holistic view of the students reflections as the work is likely to be presented in a variety of quite different forms.(Hunt.N , 2005)

The following reflection under the following headings might be considered by students.

Recollection of experiences
? How the development process worked. Diarised recollection of key stages and events in the development of both the literature review and the integrated marketing plan. Any particular internal crises or elements of enlightenment should be identified.

Personal feelings and learning from the experience
? Personal feelings regarding the process and ones own contribution to the experience. Identification of any specific personal problems either with content, process or other group members. Identification of how issues were resolved and over what time period. How, if at all, was my performance compromised by the actions of others? How might my actions have compromised the performance of others? Any other comments regarding personal feelings and learning.

Lessons for future projects
? Identify up to 5 key lessons to improve your performance in future group activities and projects.

Appendix 2 - Introduction to Reflection

Aim of the booklet

To increase understanding and utilisation of the reflective process


By the end of this booklet you should be able to:
1. Define reflective practice.
2. Describe the process/stages of turning reflection into learning and Identify the skills required to engage in reflective practice.
3. Recognise strategies, which may promote reflection as a learning tool.


Can be defined as: a technique for turning experience into learning or a way for individuals to become self-reliant and problem solving.

Other definitions:

Kolb (1975) said reflection is central to the process of turning experience into learning.

Boyd and Fales (1983) suggest that: 'The process of reflection is the core difference, whether a person repeats the same experience several times between becoming proficient in one behaviour, or learns from experience in such a way that he or she is cognitively or affectively changed.'

Rogers (1986) said it was using ones own experience to provide learning, he said that self-initiated learning concerns the whole person, both feelings and intellect, and in this way the learning becomes lasting and pervasive.

Reid (1993) said 'a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse and evaluate and so inform learning from practice' (p 305)

What is Reflection?

The complex and deliberate process of thinking about and interpreting experience in order to learn from it - a conscious process.

Reflective learning is the process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of self, and which results in a changed conceptual perspective (Boyd and Fales 1983).

Reflection Introduced

So often in our every day lives we get caught up with the pressures and demands, we react to situations automatically and find little time to reflect on what we are doing and why. In daily life or on a demanding course students and staff may find similar problems. The pressure to complete assignments, learning new skills, meeting the needs of families and friends may seem to leave little time to ponder one's personal and professional development as one progresses through life or a course. One way of taking time to think throughout experiences and to learn from them is to keep a journal, or notes, on specific happenings. Tthis allows reflection during the writing or at a later time. Many people have been introduced into the reflective process by this mechanism. Holly and McLoughlin ( 281) suggest that keeping a personal/ professional journal is:

'both a way to record the journey of teaching and growing, and to experience the processes purposefully and sensitively. It is a method for exploring our inner worlds and histories; of probing the educational and cultural milieus within which we teach; and of inquiring into the meaning of teaching. Professional development provides the context within which assessment and appraisal reside and make sense'.

Reflective notes tend to be written at times of critical incidents.

Holly and McLoughlin (1989) indicate several benefits of keeping a journal, or notes, on a critical incident.

1. Provides a permanent record, which we can return to from a variety of perspectives. Writing to reflect provides a cyclical process; reflecting as you write and returning at a later date to reflect on what has been written which may provide new ideas for further reflection. Writing necessitates 'time out' for reflection. They argue that time to reflect is not a luxury but a professional necessity.

2. Patterns and the themes of life become apparent over time. We act on our situational perceptions yet our perceptions are dependent on what we see and experience. We tend to function on autopilot and therefore we may not be aware of the patterns and themes in our lives. Writing over time makes seeing these themes and patterns possible.

3. Learning from practice can increase awareness, self-knowledge and confidence. We need not keep repeating our mistakes and defeats. As we write about our professional practice and note patterns and themes in the ways that we influence and are influenced by our circumstances we can learn more about ourselves. We can begin to understand why we do what we do and make unconscious behaviour conscious so that we may change it as appropriate. We can become more aware of our environment and the contexts in which we teach and can begin to anticipate and define events rather than just reacting to them.

4. Writing brings to conscious level much that was tacit. As we write and play with ideas and images other ideas emerge, begin to fuse together and we come to consciously know what we already knew tacitly.

5. Writing provides a comprehensive and ongoing database for professional development. Using words to describe our experiences in practice increases our range of language available to describe our practice to others. Through our writing we may become more comfortable and clear about our ideas and can enter into discussion with others and so enrich our practice. Used in this way the journal mimics the researcher's diary as it accumulates a database for the study of practice. However individual evnts can be written in a similar way.

Learning from Reflection

Reflection is central to the process of turning experience into learning. Boyd and Fales (1983) suggest that:

'The process of reflection is the core difference whether a person repeats the same experience several times between becoming proficient in one behaviour, or learns from experience in such a way that he or she is cognitively or effectively changed.

Since this type of writing is an essentially process of learning from experience the ability to reflect on your experiences will be central to learning.

The Process of Reflection

Recall an experience to mind as soon after the event as possible and write a brief description of what happened. The intention with recall is to get in touch with what you experienced, it is important not to evaluate or judge the experience, (Cell,1984). Next, take some time to write your thoughts and feelings about the experience. This can be quite light hearted and relaxed. Allow your thoughts to flow spontaneously as you write. When you have explored the experience you can begin to focus your thoughts more specifically. The following are suggestions, which might prove useful.

1. What did you do well? How would you support this belief?

2. In retrospect is there anything that you would now wish to change and if so why?

3. What were you thinking about during the experience?

4. How did you behave? How did other people behave?

5. What did you expect to happen in the situation? Did it turn out as you expected?

6. What emotional or feeling responses did you have and what caused you to feel this way, did these affect your behaviour?

7. Were you aware of any interpersonal dynamics and how did these influence you? For example were you feeling cross, hurried or happy?

8. Did you do what you said you would do? If not what happened to change your mind? This can provide valuable knowledge of situations or be useful in future situations.

9. Did you learn anything new as a result of this experience which you could use in a similar situation in the future?

10. Are there areas you feel you need to improve or develop. If so what EXACTLY are they and how can you go about this?

11. Did this knowledge help you in developing new strategies in the future?

12. Did this experience help you to gain greater conceptual understanding?

13. Did any of the theoretical perspectives help to broaden your awareness or aid your understanding of what was happening in this situation?

14. Is there an area of theory you need to brush up on or look up?

Once you have finished writing, read through what you have written

This can be undertaken at a later date if necessary. Are there any aspects that you have taken for granted, assumptions made judgements or implicit values being expressed that you were not aware of at the time? You can use this reading to examine these in order perhaps to clarify, refine or modify any areas. Over time you may begin to see familiar patterns emerging as you read through what you have written.

It is important to see the reflective process as a critical dialogue with your experience and with your observations on the experience. This gives you the opportunity to reflect on the usefulness of the assumptions you habitually make. You can consider alternative ways of viewing situations. It is often valuable to discuss these ideas with peers or those involved in the same experience.

When you are writing in your journal or reflecting on an experience avoid using over generalisations such as "everyone knows", "nobody does that" or "it is always done that way". When you are tempted to use these terms try substituting I, for example "I don't do that".

These entries will enable you to consider the judgements that you make about others and patterns in the way that you interpret your experiences. These are more likely to be noted when you re-read entries after a period of time has elapsed. By reflecting on several entries you can begin to identify the constructs and criteria implicit in your thinking patterns.

Be aware of the thoughts and feelings, which may be evoked when reading through the journal! Through this process you begin to clarify, modify and develop the values, beliefs, criteria and constructs which you use to interpret your experiences.

Clearly not all of these questions would be relevant in every situation but is useful to get into the habit of asking these kinds of questions of your personal experience.

It can be defined as a staged process

First Stage
Awareness of a difficult issue.
Clear understanding that an issue needs to be addressed, as the knowledge the individual was applying in the situation clearly was not effective.
Acknowledgement of an achievement.
Second Stage
A critical analysis of the situation, involving an analysis of feelings and knowledge.
Examination of how the individual affected the situation, and vice versa.
Third Stage
Development of a new perspective. Outcome of reflection is therefore learning:
Clarification of an issue.
Development of a new attitude or way of thinking
Resolution of a problem.
Change in behaviour.

What qualities are needed to become a Reflective Practitioner/Learner?

Skills Needed
Open mindedness
Commitment to change
Recognition of personal biases
Receptive to new ideas
Keen to develop personal insight
Time and energy
Barriers to the development of reflective practice
Lack of time
Low morale
Lack of the theoretical base
Unwillingness to develop self awareness and insight
Lack of skill development
A wish to carry on as always

NB. If you always do what you have done before, you will always have only what you have already got!!

To summarise the criteria for Reflection on Practice
it is part of self appraisal and self awareness
it is an exploration of feelings as a result of experiences
it is describing ones actions and describing the outcomes of actions
its identifying what was worthwhile, what one would do differently and why
it is the analysis of this to explain why things work well or not - it identifies what learning has occurred, and evaluates knowledge level
it identifies what further learning is required, = self growth and personal and professional development

The Potential of Reflective Practice allows critical analysis and synthesis

Examines the components of a situation
Identifies and scrutinise existing knowledge, and how relevant this is to the situation.
Explores the feelings you have or had about the situation.
Challenges any assumptions you may have had.
Allows exploration of alternative knowledge and actions

Advantages to the Practitioner/Learner

Helps you to make judgements
Develops competence through critical reflection on
Generates new knowledge
Gives empowerment
Develops a wider knowledge of social and political change
Examples of models of Reflection

Schon (1983) states:

In the varied topography of professional practice, there is high hard ground overlooking a swamp. On the high ground, manageable problems lend themselves to solutions through application of research-based theory and technique. In the swampy lowland, messy confusing problems defy technical solution. The irony of the situation is that the problems of the high ground tend to be relatively unimportant to individuals or society at large while in the swamp lie the problems of greatest human concern.

To me, an educated person, first and foremost, understands that one's ways of knowing thinking and doing flow from whom one is. Such a person knows that an authentic person is no mere individual, an island unto oneself, but is a being in relation to others, and hence is, at core, an ethical being.

Moreover, a truly educated person speaks and acts from a deep sense of humility, conscious of the limits set by human finitude and morality, acknowledging the grace by which educator and educated are allowed t dwell in the present that embraces past experiences but is open to possibilities yet to be.

A Simple Model of Reflection

1 The Significant Experience The salient events - one's behaviour
- ideas / knowledge
- feelings good / bad
2 The Reflective Process
1. Describe the events. Avoid making judgements
2. Attend to feelings - good ones or negative ones. Casual circumstances or influencing factors
3. Re-evaluate the experience How it felt, self, others, clients Connect existing knowledge and attitudes with ideas and feelings from experience
4. Consider modification of knowledge, attitudes, behaviour for future use Explore and challenge any assumptions you made

3 Outcome
Evaluation of the reflective process

4 Critical analysis A new way of doing something, or an alternative way of dealing with the situation clarification of an issue development of a skill resolution of a problem, greater confidence in one's abilities changed set of priorities

5 Results Action Plan/ goals
Results into practice

Learning needs
Changing practice (Koch 1989)
Future Experiences
Links theory to practice
Stop and take stock then progress (Kemmis 1895)

Enhanced level of confidence

To Summarise

Behaviour 1. Describing the events New Perspective
Ideas 2. Addressing ones feelings Changes in behaviour
Feelings 3. Re-evaluating the experience Commitment to action
The experience 4. The reflective process Outcomes


Learning through reflection places control with the individual Helps the individual with the challenges of practice.

"Experience is never limited, and is never complete. It is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider's web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness, and catching every air borne particle in its tissue." Henry James 1843

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Appendix 3 Module Information Form

Module Code:
BSS000-6 Module Name:
Applied Management Project (AMP)

Description and Rationale
The applied management project is the culmination of the masters programme. It is designed to simulate a realistic management situation, giving the student the opportunity to demonstrate his/her ability to use the knowledge and skills acquired through the taught element of the course.
Its purpose is to bring together all the taught elements of the programme to reinforce their interrelationship and to provide an experience which enables students to move forward from the understanding of a discrete knowledge base to synthesising and exploring new areas in more detail as required by the project.
In this it simulates the working environment where individuals are constantly required to combine knowledge in different ways and increase their understanding in different areas .

Aims and Objectives
The AMP is designed to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of business as well as the skills essential to effective operation in a business environment. In particular the aims of this module are to enable the students to take the knowledge ,understanding and skills they have been developing in individual modules See below) and use them in a complex, multifunctional situation.
formulate a problem
identify information needs
retrieve information
synthesise information
produce creative solutions
produce a well argued and supported report in response to the problem identified
work effectively in a group
work effectively in a time constrained situation
reflect on the learning achieved through the process

It is the vehicle through which masters students can show that they are able to work at Masters level as defined in the Universitys level M descriptor: Students should be working within complex, unpredictable and normally specialised fields demanding innovative work which involves exploring the current limits of knowledge.

Restrictions and prerequisites
Taught element of the course should normally have been successfully completed.

Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of the module, students: Assessment Criteria

1.Cognitive outcome ??" Knowledge and Understanding

Should be able to autonomously analyse new and/or abstract data and situations using a wide range of techniques appropriate to the discipline(s) and to his/her own research or advanced scholarship The AMP requires students to define the problem(s) with which they are required to deal. This learning outcome will be evaluated by the quality of the definition of the data requirements, data gathering and subsequent problem definition and solution described below
An awareness of a comprehensive set of data sources will be required for a high mark. Awareness of only a narrow range of appropriate sources from those available will normally lead to a passing grade
2.Generic skills outcome ??" Needs analysis

Should be able to explore the demands of a task and formulate viable proposals for meeting these demands This skill will be assessed as above and also through the reflective essay.
The reflective essay should show the process of arriving at the final course of action. Just doing the first thing, which appeared appropriate will merit a passing grade if it was appropriate.
3.Generic Skills outcome ??" Performance planning

Should be able to plan the task, and meet their own skill-development needs, and gain the necessary commitment from others In order to complete the project well and within the constrained time , students will have to manage their own workload but also be able to work efficiently with a team of colleagues. These two generic skills can be indirectly assessed in the final report but should be directly addressed in the reflective essay.
Skills can be measured by ability to
meeting the deadlines
negotiation with colleagues
negotiation with staff providing support
planning and rescheduling where necessary
4.Generic Skills outcome ??" Performance management
Should be able to manage the task, adapting their strategy as necessary to achieve the quality of outcomes required
5.Cognitive Outcome ??" Synthesis/creativity

Should be able to autonomously synthesise information and ideas and propose new hypotheses, create original responses to prblems that expand or redefine existing knowledge or develop new approaches to changing situations Students who deal with issues inherent in the case at face value will receive a bare pass. Middle grade marks will be awarded to students who review the issues more extensively. High marks will be awarded to students who produce a detailed discussion of the issues and are able to prioritise them
6.Cognitive outcome - Evaluation

Should be able to independently evaluate current research, advanced scholarship and associated methodologies and appropriately justify the work of self and others This will be demonstrated in the analysis and synthesis section of the 12000 word report. A comprehensive review of appropriate literature will give the student a bare pass grade. More competent critical evaluation of the literature will gain a middle ranking grade and students who present a critical evaluation and original synthesis based on a comprehensive literature will achieve high grades
7.Cognitive Outcome ??" Knowledge and Understanding

Should be able to demonstrate a depth of knowledge and a systematic understanding of his/her discipline(s), across specialist and applied areas, and be critically aware of and deal with complexity, gaps and contradictions in the current knowledge base with confidence The students knowledge and understanding will be assessed through the whole 12000 word report, in particular in those sections of the report that actually deal with the proposed solutions to the problem and discussion of wider areas for further consideration and if appropriate a clear definition of the limitations of the work.
The grade will be based on the quality of the problem definition process, data gathered, synthesis of the information, development and critical evaluation of solutions. Students who produce a well argued coherent report with sound work in each area will receive higher marks, A bare pass will be achieved by students who attempt all areas as described above and who produce a report which covers all areas but in less detail and with less coherence between the sections
8.Generic Skill ??" Presentation and Evaluation

Should be able to present the outcomes of the task in a manner appropriate to the intended audience(s) and evaluate their overall performance
The document should be structured in a coherent way adhering to guidelines unless there is a clear reason to deviate from them. All data presented should be part of the narrative. Additional analyses should be placed in an appendix.
Referencing must be accurate and all work taken from another source must be referenced.
In excellent reports the language will be fluent but it must be at least comprehensible to the markers in order to gain a pass mark.

There are faxes for this order.

Please use info below and previous papers to complete this paper. T Lavinder wrote my first paper.
I need a 1050-1750-word Self-Assessment and Reflection Paper that conforms to APA format, in which I discuss my personal learning style, which assess my strengths and opportunities for growth, and I need to create an improvement strategy based on this assessment. I also need a minimum of two references (both within the paper and on a reference page). The references should be obtained from the a college Library NOT my attached readings.

It was three weeks into June, and there I was: still surrounded by portfolios. I was part of a Waterford (MI) School District team researching connections between our teaching, the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards, and the district's new standards-based curriculum. I thumbed through the ten quality portfolios I had kept for in-depth analysis, coming back, once again, to Jenna's portfolio presentation. I remembered her saying,
As I grow, I learn that you need reading and writing skills all through life, you need to vine around it. I have learned a lot this past year, and this portfolio will show how I have grown and bloomed. This will show the evidence of how I vined around every chapter, every topic, every stick and branch I can reach to become the best I can.
When Jenna read her portfolio introduction, we all listened and watched. Peers, parents, and 1, as her language arts teacher, were tangled immediately in her metaphor and its vines of meaning. One of the class portfolio requirements was a self-selected metaphor with explanations of how the portfolio choices fit the symbol. Jenna's choice of the vine was an exquisite description of her fifth-grade learning. Her decision to use "vining" as a verb made it even more complete.
Jenna softly pointed to the spring greens her thin line marker had drawn to swirl and surround her introduction's title page with curls and loops. Yellow buds poked out of the swirls at intervals. The connection didn't stop with the introduction. Each portfolio chapter page held the same vine, but always with additions or growth. Strategies and Thinking had a multitude of yellow buds, not just poking out, but tangled in the vines, and "The vine's thicker," Jenna said. The Choices chapter showed blooming yellow flowers with bright red centers. "The buds are in bloom," Jenna explained. By the Turning Points chapter, her vines were displaying brown maturation surrounding the yellow which was now barely visible. In the last chapter on Quality Evidence, the mature green and brown swirls dominated the page in a thick tangle that almost touched the chapter's title. Jenna was talking about good stuff here. Not only was she drawing growth and change on her chapter title pages, she was showing growth and change with the evidence she chose to include within each chapter. I was thrilled to share in this celebration of Jenna's literacy.
I was reminded of Dorothea Lange, a photographer who documented displaced families and migrant workers during the Depression. During World War II, she photographed American Japanese neighborhoods, processing centers, and camp facilities. She said of her photographs, "You know there are moments such as these when time stands still and all you do is hold your breath and hope it will wait for you" (as cited in Rylant, 1994, p. 1). I felt the same way about the power of Jenna and her portfolio.
What made me keep coming back to Jenna's portfolio and presentation? For Jenna it was the culmination of her literate fifth-grade year. She told all of us a lot about what she had learned. Could Jenna also tell me something about myself and my teaching? Could Jenna's portfolio be the case study for assessment of what was going on in my classroom? Could I somehow use Jenna's portfolio to inform my practice, to see if indeed I had a handle on standards-based curriculum?
Throughout the year I had observed Jenna working hard. She always pushed herself to "write one more line" after the bell or to read "one more chapter" over the weekend. No more was that apparent than the June week before portfolio deadlines when she was at my classroom door every recess and lunch hour to use the computer to generate headings and descriptors. "She even called over the weekend to use my computer," her friend Allison reported the Monday of portfolio week.
Jenna is not "gifted." Her standardized test scores for reading are in the seventh stanine (average). She gave her fourth grade teacher "fits" because she "was slow to finish" any assignment, if she finished at all. Jenna's spelling on her daily work was below average. (Even in her journal she made common errors that most fifth graders catch: "frist," "senences," and "exiting" for exciting.) In September, Jenna came into my classroom reading R. L. Stine. Stine is often a choice of fifth-- grade boys and all fourth graders. I do not observe many fifth-- grade girls, even in September, reading much R. L. Stine. But Jenna did show signs of a writer's gift for observation, even in September. She responded to Up North at the Cabin (Chall, 1992) in a September journal free write:
There is a small wooden bridge that goes over a small stream that leads to the lake, all of the leafs on the trees are all colored with red, orange, and yellow. When I look across the lake it's like a mirror the trees on the other side of the lake are upside down in the water the wind rustles the leafs and I go inside the cabin and the fire is going. I lay with my family and watch the wood burn. It makes us tired and drowsy."
Jenna was an average fifth grader with an outstanding portfolio. Her story could be the story of over two thirds of my students. I put aside the other nine portfolios and concentrated on Jenna's. Her portfolio and the transcribed recording of her portfolio presentation became my primary sources: a collection of artifacts detailing not only what had happened to Jenna's literacy during one school year, but what had happened to my own teaching. As Bissex and Bullock (1987) said,
The process of observing even a single individual sensitizes us that much more to other individuals ... case study research is directed largely toward understanding; such descriptive research requires us to suspend judgement and just look. Researching in this way can be transforming because it changes the way we see others and ourselves. (pp. 14-15)
In a teacher as researcher group I was part of, we had been studying Denny Taylor (1993) and her book, From the Child's Point of View. Taylor's (1993) work taught me to question my own practice as it is reflected in a child's learning. I was drawn to Taylor's view that when teachers question their own practice,
Teachers and children [can] work together, becoming coinformants as the reading writing strategies of the one inform those of the other. This approach enables teachers to rethink the ways in which they can provide realistic instruction in situations that make sense to the children and to themselves. It also enables children to become involved in personal evaluations of the ways in which they are becoming literate. (p. 43)
Hubbard and Power (1993) observe, "The most important tool you have as a researcher is your eye and your view of the classroom life. You need to look hard and deeply at yourself and students at work" (p. 10). That summer, looking first at my own teaching and how it was exemplified by Jenna, and second at the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards and how they fit into my teaching, Jenna's portfolio became my eye and view back into the classroom.
When I had facilitated the students' portfolio preparation I had used my own teacher portfolio as a model. It had served students as they built their portfolios and helped them reflect upon their own learning. Now I planned to use student portfolios like they had used mine, only this time in reverse, as a model for my teaching and learning, as it was and as it could be. Thus, the double mirror image, reflecting backward, reflecting forward. This study was first initiated by my school district. As I dug deeply into the evidence for my own classroom, I needed to remember the district purpose to find ways to match student learning to a standards based curriculum and to the standards themselves. If I found a match how could I clarify and share my findings with an audience of teachers who wanted to know how the evidence occurred in the classroom, not just that it did? Good teachers can not merely teach, we must be practitioners who understand our craft enough to share it with others. To become a true artist we must draft, compose, revise, reflect, mold, observe, and remodel our classrooms continually Shelley Harwayne (1992) says:
Quality texts are nonnegotiable .... Reflective teachers are also nonnegotiable. They are always asking "Why?" They are always stepping back to ask, "What's working, that I can build on?" "What's not working that I can eliminate?" Our work will always bear the label . . . "to be continued." (pp. 337-338) The evidence in front of me was my invitation to study my craft . . . to reflect on Jenna's portfolio to understand my own teaching, and use that reflection to inform my own classroom of the role of standards.
My ideas about portfolios and how they can best inform student learning change yearly. Jenna's portfolio was part of my evolving concept of what portfolios should be for fifth graders. Three years before Jenna came to my classroom, it had been a collection of student work, written and published in Writers' Workshop. A growth narrative and a process paper as suggested by Rief (1992) was included. Whatever their shape, portfolios have always served as a "big picture" part of year-end evaluation. They need to help answer the questions of "who a student is becoming and who he or she might become-as a writer and reader" (Atwell, 1998, p. 314). But portfolios must also do more. Atwell (1998) suggests that "our responsibilities as evaluators involve collecting and sifting through the evidence that reveals what a student can do and can't do, understand and doesn't understand, has accomplished and needs to accomplish" (p. 314). However, the student portfolios in my classroom focused on writing.
I wish I had shown them even more of my actual process of assembling the portfolio.
Last year, after observing my principal, Suzanne Antonazzo, evaluate new teachers who were required to have a portfolio, I enlarged my concept of portfolios. Each teacher portfolio showed authentic evidence of teacher growth and reflection and was a showcase of what the teacher practiced in her classroom. I extended my student portfolios beyond a focus on writing to include reading and drew on the concepts concerning authentic evidence I had observed in the new teacher evaluation.
Paralleling this change in focus was my own compilation of a professional portfolio as part of the teacher evaluation process. I drew on many models to assist in building my own personal portfolio. I remembered my experiences with student portfolios and my own observations of new teachers. I studied expert models and considered Graves' (1994) description of his own portfolio:
I begin with myself. I have to renew what it means to keep a portfolio constantly So I put in pieces, or artifacts, that I've written in class, letters, all different kinds of things to reflect my literacy Of course, I'm showing myself even more than the children. I'm going through the process of saying what is important to me. Although I share my portfolio with children, make no mistake, I'm keeping it for myself. I need to do that as the children do. And I need to write short three to four sentence statements about why I've selected the pieces I've put in. (p. 186)
The process was exhausting. I collected piles and piles of teaching materials that I thought might be appropriate for the ten required sections recognized on the formal teacher evaluation. The chapters included: instructional skills, classroom management, planning and preparation, content knowledge, human relations, understanding child development and growth, use of materials, lifelong learner, and goals. Sorting and organizing "all that stuff" was time consuming, but valuable for reflection upon my teaching. To help make a whole out of the different parts and highly varying data I organized each section into its own chapter and connected them with the theme of A Journey of a Lifelong Learner. Finally, I referred to my own process of portfolio building throughout the year as my students worked on their portfolios.
In September, I alerted students to their own portfolio requirements, outlining general criteria along with the changes. Students understood they were to throw nothing away-they would be keeping all drafts, student work, reading records, etc. in designated files. Journals were also viewed as living textbooks of their learning. I shared some of my own ongoing portfolio process: the collection, selection, reflection, and production. Toward the end of the year, we went through my finished portfolio, page by page. Now I wish I had shown them even more of my actual process of assembling the portfolio and not just the beautiful product. The mere weight of the volume suggested the hours of effort, however.
We then drew on our shared experiences. Many of the students had been in the fourth-grade section of Readers' and Writers' Workshop (not Jenna, however) the previous year and I had kept their portfolios for models. These portfolios were also used as a baseline for growth and reflection. After close observation and reflection upon all the available models, the students and I collaboratively set up the criteria and organization for this year's portfolio. The students and I labeled the portfolio sections or chapters: Strategies and Thinking, Choices, Turning Points for Me as a Reader and Writer and Quality Evidence.
Discussions and mini-lessons during the weeks before presentations centered on what a quality portfolio should look like. Student-generated focus questions helped target the collection and organization of evidence. Class time was used to set up a rubric with the criteria points we had decided would be evaluated. Students were given plenty of class time to use all their available resources: themselves, their peers, the school, the teacher. More time was spent on developing the logic and reasons for collecting evidence than the product appearance.
During this preparation one lesson reviewed metaphor selection for individual portfolios, drawing examples from the models of previous years. The portfolio metaphor used a student-selected symbol that could "grow" and would metaphorically connect literacy changes. We had studied metaphor in our readings and writings, but our poetry discussions, especially, offered many chances for indepth discussion of symbolism. Brooks and Brooks (1993) describe power of metaphors when they observe that "Metaphors help people to understand complex issues in a holistic way and to tinker mentally with the parts of the whole to determine whether the metaphor works" (p. 116). Another lesson involved small groups writing focus questions for each chapter in order to better guide selection and reflection. Peer conferences, both formal and spontaneous, were held during workshop time the week before scheduled portfolio presentations to rehearse for the presenting of portfolios. Peers used the focus questions and the rubric to center the discussions. Peers asked their partners about their collection of quality evidence which drew from saved student work, drafts and published pieces, reading records, and journals. They wanted to know how this evidence "fit" into the portfolio, how it demonstrated student learning and how the selected theme connected everything in the portfolio together.
Presentations were to happen in the classroom in front of peers, teachers, and invited guests. Guests included parents, administrators, teachers from our own and other schools and from other classrooms at our school. I especially wanted the middle school teachers who would "inherit" these kids to hear the presentations, but in most cases, scheduling could not be worked out. Students understood the expectations for portfolios. The portfolio was a large part of their final "grade" in language arts, as well as being a requirement for entering middle school. Each student would receive extensive feedback on the established criteria they had helped to create. Parents, teachers, peers, and presenting students all used the criteria to evaluate portfolios.
Parents were required to fill out a feedback form and listen to their child's presentation. A letter went home explaining this process. Parents could fill out the form at school if they attended the classroom presentation. If this was not possible, students took their portfolios home and held a student-led conference with their parents. There was never an expectation that parents wouldn't hear their child and respond in writing on the provided form. With a little pressure (and a few phone calls) I had 100% participation. The parent comments were wonderful, full of positive and affirming statements that truly showed they understood their child's learning.
Peers filled out feedback forms during and right after completion of each portfolio. Again, there was never an expectation that peers would not also evaluate each other, positively Active audience listening, questions, and comments, in the end, were purposeful and insightful. I too filled out a form as each student was presenting. I found that my comments were much more pertinent to the individual student if I made them "on site."
This was the context from which Jenna's portfolio emerged. I now turn to how I used Jenna portfolio to help me think about standards and my own teaching.
With Jenna's portfolio, a year's worth of lesson plans, and the Content Standards in front of me, I knew I first needed to organize my data. I started asking myself questions. When I was confused on how to explain ideas in the classroom, what had I done to clarify simplify, and make sense out of the muddle? If my students didn't understand a concept or were having trouble gaining depth, what did I do that helped? I followed the steps outlined in Figure 1 to design a chart that would help me reflect on all the data.
I began my chart on the computer and the first decision I had to make was labelling the columns. What were the main ideas I wanted to see on my chart? Jenna's Portfolio, Content Standards and Benchmarks, and Classroom Lessons, these were the three concepts I wanted to connect. These became my columns. (See Figure 2)
But where could I start for the horizontal rows? I needed a basis, an anchoring framework. By completely unpacking Jenna's portfolio I realized that I would have the data for the first column, the first set of rows. Everything she included in her portfolio, I included in my chart. Her written words and oral description explaining the inclusions were quoted. The actual physical evidence she included was printed in bold.
In the second column, I matched Jenna's portfolio comments and contents with the Michigan English Language Arts Standards, going back and forth, and back and forth, identifying which was best shown or demonstrated with the evidence I had before me. I found there was much overlapping of content within the standards themselves and I had to be selective on which standards or benchmarks were mostly shown. The chart development process gave me the opportunity to dig deep into content standards. I learned much more about the content standards, what they meant, how they were shown, and which way they could be demonstrated best. Because I mapped the standards onto Jenna's portfolio, the ordering of the standards on the chart resulted in a re-ordering of the sequence of the standards (In Figure 2, I have preserved the original numbering of the standards).

Many school districts are using professional portfolios as part of their hiring, retention, evaluation, and promotion process. This article provides educators with guidelines and resources for developing professional portfolios that reflect their experiences, training, and achievements as educators. Although the guidelines are presented in the context of educators entering the profession, they can be adapted by educators who have been teaching for several years. You applied for a teaching position in a local school district by sending a letter of interest, a resume, and a completed employment application. A week later, the superintendent's office contacts you and asks you to come in for an interview and to bring your professional portfolio. How would you feel? What would you do? Like the district in this vignette, many school districts are increasingly using professional portfolios as part of their hiring, retention, evaluation, and promotion processes (Green & Smyser, 1995). If you attended one of the growing number of universities that require their teacher education students to complete a professional portfolio representing their teaching experiences and training (Bloom & Bacon, 1995; McCrea, 1998; Pleasants, Johnson, & Trent, 1998), you would probably respond to this request by happily, and perhaps a little nervously, scheduling the interview and reviewing your portfolio. You may realize that sharing your portfolio with others at the interview will help you make a favorable impression and allow you to feel more comfortable as you support your oral responses with visual evidence of your skills and experiences, such as successful reading and content area lessons you have taught (Guillaume & Yopp, 1995). However, if you completed a teacher training program that did not require you to develop a professional portfolio, your excitement about being called for an interview may be combined with a bit of panic and confusion. Once you overcome your panic, you start to work on putting together your portfolio, asking yourself such questions as ? What is a professional portfolio for teachers?; ? When and how should I start to develop my portfolio?; ? What items should I include in my portfolio, and how should I organize them?; and ? How can I package my portfolio? This article is designed to help preservice and inservice teachers and other professionals address these questions and provide them with guidelines for developing professional portfolios that reflect their experiences, training, and achievements as educators. Although the guidelines are presented in the context of educators entering the profession, these guidelines and resources can be adapted by inservice educators who want to develop professional portfolios that allow them to apply for new positions, document teaching effectiveness and professional competence as part of the teacher evaluation process, foster reflection and self-assessment, and identify and address professional development needs. The guidelines also can be used to assist teacher educators in implementing professional portfolios as part of their teacher education programs and in helping their programs move toward performance-based licensing (see the sidebar "Benefits of a Professional Portfolio"). What Is a Professional Teaching Portfolio? A professional portfolio is a thoughtful, organized, and continuous collection of a variety of authentic products that document a professional's progress, goals, efforts, attitudes, pedagogical practices, achievements, talents, interests, and development over time (Winsor & Ellefson, 1995). Portfolios are both product- and process-oriented and involve educators in the purposeful, collaborative, and reflective process of selecting and compiling multiple sources of information that reveal their beliefs, skills, knowledge, accomplishments, unique characteristics, and commitments with respect to a variety of teaching and learning experiences (Guillaume & Yopp, 1995). Through the development of professional portfolios, prospective and practicing teaching professionals can document their development and reflections as educators and can showcase their knowledge, skills, and accomplishments (Antonek, McCormick, & Donato, 1997). Dietz (1994) delineated three types of professional portfolios: a presentation portfolio, a working portfolio, and a learner portfolio. A presentation portfolio is one that documents and showcases a teacher's achievements, strengths, and areas of expertise. A working portfolio is one that contains items that are selected to conform to a set of prescribed competencies and standards to meet requirements for licensure or to certify the achievements of educators seeking national certifications such as the National Board of Professional Teaching standards or the Council for Exceptional Children's Professionally Recognized Special Educator. A learner portfolio offers a framework for reflecting on and providing evidence related to a set of learning outcomes. When and How Should I Start to Develop My Portfolio? The earlier you begin to collect items for your portfolio, the better (Heskett, 1998; May, 1997). The professional portfolio may be assembled near the completion of your teacher education program; however, you can start to select and collect items for inclusion in your portfolio each semester. Therefore, during each semester, it is recommended that you identify and save potential portfolio items by storing them in a box or folder and dating and annotating them so that you will remember their significance when putting your portfolio together (Wolf, 1996). If you are unsure about which items to store for possible inclusion in your portfolio, you may want to speak to your professors, advisor, and peers to help identify potential portfolio items. What Items Should I Include, and How Should I Organize Them? The items included in and the organization of a professional portfolio will vary from individual to individual and will depend on the purpose(s) and context for developing the portfolio (Wolf, Whinery, & Hagerty, 1995). Although others may offer guidance to assist you in identifying potential items, it is your portfolio and therefore your responsibility to select the items to be included. When making these decisions, you must choose from a wide range of potential items that you have produced during your training program. Where appropriate, it is recommended that you include authentic items such as actual products you developed and implemented; work samples from your students; and photographs, recordings, and videos of classrooms and classroom activities. When including photos, video, audio recordings, and samples of students' work, make sure you have the necessary permissions, maintain confidentiality, and use caption statements to provide the reader with a context for understanding the item. In selecting items, carefully examine each potential item and consider what it reveals about your teaching ability, philosophy, strengths, growth, self-reflection, unique characteristics and experiences, as well as who will be looking at your portfolio and for what reasons they will be examining it (Giuliano, 1997). Briefly, in choosing portfolio items, it may be helpful to ask yourself several questions: 1. What does the item reveal about my skills, knowledge, growth, experiences, self-reflections, and attitudes? 2. Is the item consistent with my educational philosophy and best practices? 3. Does the item demonstrate my best work? 4. Is the item free of grammatical and other errors? 5. Is the item authentic, and does it showcase my skills and experiences in working with students, families, and other professionals? 6. What processes and experiences did I engage in to produce the item? 7. What does the item reveal about me on a personal level? Another factor affecting the selection of items is the organization of the portfolio. The organizational structure of the portfolio has a reciprocal relationship with the items selected for inclusion in the portfolio. This means that the items you select may help you determine the ways to organize your portfolio, and the ways you organize your portfolio also may guide you in selecting items to include. Although your portfolio should be structured so that it is easy for others to follow, it can be organized in a variety of ways. Some educators organize their portfolios according to the chronological order in which items were produced; others develop theme-based portfolios (Dollase, 1996). For example, a portfolio of a special educator might be organized around the theme of the actual roles and tasks special educators perform in schools. We propose several potential categories for organizing a professional portfolio and offer a variety of potential portfolio items that relate to these categories. Introductory Information To assist the reader in understanding the organization and value of the portfolio, it is suggested that you include a table of contents (Heskett, 1998). The table of contents also orients the reader to the range of items included in the portfolio as well as assists them in locating specific items of interest. Some individuals supplement the table of contents by including a letter of introduction that provides a summary of the artifacts in the portfolio and states their career goals (Heskett, 1998). This section should also include a title or cover page that provides the reader with your name, address, and telephone number. Background Information The portfolio should include a section that provides background information about yourself. This section offers the reader an overview of some of your professional experiences and achievements. Potential items relating to this section include ? an up-to-date resume; ? transcripts, national and statewide examination results, certification documents, awards, honors, fellowships, and letters of recognition; ? a narrative about yourself or an educational autobiography of your experiences as a learner and a teacher; and ? letters of recommendation. Because many school districts are looking for staff members who can lead extracurricular clubs, teams, and activities, this section of your portfolio can also include a listing of your hobbies, interests, and special talents. In addition, because many school districts are serving students and families from linguistically diverse backgrounds, an indication of the languages you speak can also increase your chances of being hired. Educational Philosophy and Teaching Goals Potential employers will be particularly interested in your educational philosophy and teaching goals as these provide an understanding of the principles that guide you as an educator as well as offer insights into your personality. Because an understanding of your educational philosophy can also help you and the school district determine if you are compatible, an important part of your portfolio should be a narrative statement outlining your teaching goals and your core beliefs about education, teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment, classroom management, diversity, family involvement, technology, and collaboration. The statement can also address how you arrived at these beliefs and include the theorists, theories, and experiences that have shaped your goals and beliefs, as well as the implications of these goals and principles for teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment, classroom management, family involvement, technology, and schools. The educational philosophy section of your portfolio can also be supplemented by relevant papers you have written and assignments you have completed that are consistent with or that expand on your educational philosophy and teaching goals. Fieldwork Experiences Potential employers also will be very interested in your experiences working with a range of students and professionals and in a variety of educational settings; for this reason, I suggest that your portfolio include a section that not only lists the number of fieldwork experiences you have had but also summarizes the nature of these experiences. The section should describe each of your fieldwork experiences, your responsibilities, and the types of students and professionals with whom you worked. This section can also present your observations and reflections regarding these experiences and outline the projects and activities you completed during each fieldwork or practicum experience. The narrative summary of your fieldwork experiences can be supplemented by use of accompanying photographs, recordings, and videos of the settings in which you worked; the students, professionals, and family members with whom you worked; and the products you developed. Educational Assessment Skills Special educators are asked to use their educational assessment skills to participate in many important educational decisions regarding students, including determining students' educational placement and need for related services, identifying teaching and Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals and objectives, assessing students' mastery of skills, and evaluating the effectiveness of the educational programs of their students. Because of the importance of educational assessment, school districts want information displayed in your portfolio about your ability to employ a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques to identify students' needs, develop instructional programs that address these needs, and monitor students' progress on a continuous basis. Your skills at using assessment techniques that are typically part of the multidisciplinary team planning process can be documented in your portfolio by including the following: 1. a comprehensive assessment report you wrote including a school observation; family, teacher, and student interviews; and the administration of several standardized tests; 2. an IEP you developed; 3. products that reveal your participation in the process for identifying appropriate testing modifications, alternative testing techniques, and assistive technology for students; 4. examples of your use of nondiscriminatory assessment techniques with students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds; and 5. a summary of your experiences in differentiating cultural and linguistic differences from learning problems. Your skills at using informal assessment techniques to demonstrate evidence of student learning can be evidenced by inclusion of such portfolio items as authentic/ performance assessments and rubrics you have developed as well as copies of a curriculum-based assessment, a miscue analysis, a running record, and a functional assessment you have conducted. Including examples of a portfolio assessment performed with a student, self-evaluation questionnaires, think-aloud techniques, student journals, and learning logs also can document your ability to perform a variety of student-centered assessment techniques. Examples of teacher-made tests and testing modifications you have employed also can document your skill at designing procedures that provide students with the opportunity to perform at their optimal level. Your ability to employ a range of observational techniques such as anecdotal recording can be revealed through the inclusion of student observations, weekly progress notes on students, and summaries of student reactions to lessons. Because many school districts are using technology-based assessment techniques to evaluate their students, evidence to show your skill at using technology-based testing to tailor assessments to the skill levels of students also would be appropriate for inclusion in your portfolio. Instructional Skills School districts seek teachers who can link assessment and instruction and who can understand, develop, and implement developmentally appropriate instructional programs that promote student learning in a variety of content areas. They look for educators who are knowledgeable about curriculum, learning styles, and instructional resources, and skilled at using learning strategies, peer-mediated instruction, student-centered and culturally relevant instruction, and instructional adaptations. Potential items that can showcase your teaching effectiveness include ? videocassettes or audiocassettes of your teaching; ? evaluations of your teaching from students, instructors, cooperating teachers, peers, and employers; ? samples of students' work as a result of instruction they received from you; ? photographs and/or descriptions of materials, learning centers, and bulletin boards you developed; and ? evaluations of curriculum materials or software programs that you have completed. Your instructional skills also can be demonstrated through the inclusion of product-based portfolio items such as sample lesson plans, units of instruction, instructional materials, cooperative learning activities, learning packets and IEPs you have developed, examples of your use of instructional technology (i.e., Web sites and Internet-based lessons you have developed), culturally relevant instruction, learning strategies, individualized instruction, multi-level instruction, and adapted materials for diverse learners. Classroom Management Skills When making hiring decisions regarding educational personnel, school districts place a high priority on a prospective educator's classroom management skills. In recognition of the importance of classroom management skills, your portfolio can provide evidence that shows you are able to create and manage effective, efficient, and appealing instructional environments that promote learning and foster appropriate behavior in all students. Your ability to design and manage effective learning environments can be demonstrated by such portfolio items as a copy of a behavior change project you conducted to increase an appropriate behavior or decrease an inappropriate behavior of a student or a group of students, graphs to demonstrate your success in helping students acquire new behaviors through use of self-management techniques, and a copy of a classroom management plan that you developed. The classroom management plan can include rules, routines, and procedures that students and teachers follow in your classroom as well as how you would organize space, time, materials, and furniture in your classroom and a drawing or photograph of a classroom you have designed. Other potential portfolio items that address your classroom management skills include self-reflections of your use of different classroom management techniques, examples of your use of student contracts, affective education strategies and peer-mediated techniques, and your analysis of a case study or incident involving classroom management issues. Collaborative Skills The ability to work collaboratively with families and other professionals is important for successful functioning as a special educator. While collaboration skills are employed in all types of special education positions, they are especially important when you are applying to work in inclusion and resource room programs. Therefore, your portfolio should include items that provide an indication of your ability to work collaboratively with families and other professionals, such as a summary of your interactions with families and your experiences teaching or working collaboratively with other professionals, samples of correspondence sent to families and other professionals (e.g., class newsletters and notes to parents), and examples of products you developed for families and products developed with other professionals. Your ability to work collaboratively with others can also be revealed in your portfolio by including items that address your community-based experiences and your involvement in extracurricular activities. For example, your involvement in community events and after-school activities can be documented by copies of thank-you letters you received from community organizations and groups and a summary of your involvement in community events and extracurricular activities. Commitment to Professional Development Education, particularly special education, is a field that is constantly changing and evolving to respond to new research, model programs, instructional strategies, and legislation. In light of these changes, school districts are looking for educators who keep abreast of new developments in the field and continue to develop their skills by engaging in professional development activities. Therefore, you want your portfolio to include items that serve to document your commitment to being a lifelong learner who takes advantage of opportunities to grow professionally. Potential items relating to this section include 1. a listing or summary of conferences and workshops attended, visits to model programs, observations of and meetings with master teachers, presentations you have given to others, and articles you have published; 2. a summary of your involvement in professional and community organizations (e.g., activities, leadership positions held, and memberships in professional organizations) and mentoring experiences; 3. an abstract of a research project you conducted; 4. copies or summaries of articles and books that inform your teaching; and 5. additional training you have received in specific areas (e.g., crisis intervention or peer-mediation training). In addition, your portfolio can include a professional growth plan that includes personal and professional goals and activities for professional development in the future. Reflective Thinking Skills An integral aspect of a professional portfolio is evidence of your reflective thinking, "a means of reliving and recapturing experience in order to make sense of it, and to develop new understandings and appreciations" (Wade & Yarbrough, 1996, p. 64). Through the inclusion of portfolio items that reveal your reflective thinking, you can demonstrate that you are an ethical practitioner who continually examines the impact of your decisions and actions on yourself and others. In addition, examples of your reflective thinking provide prospective employers with insights into how you learn from past experiences and dilemmas, analyze these experiences and dilemmas, view them from multiple perspectives, and apply new learning and perspectives to your future endeavors, goals, and professional development activities. A reflective thinking component of your portfolio also helps connect your experiences and the items included in your portfolio and offers the reader a context for understanding it better. You can build self-reflection into your portfolio in a variety of ways (McCrea, 1998). Each item that you select can include a caption statement reflecting on what the item reveals about your learning or growth as an educator (Wolf, 1996). For example, attached to each portfolio item, you can include such statements as ? Why did I select this item? ? What did I learn from this activity or experience? ? Was this activity or experience successful? Why or why not? ? What would I do differently? and ? What does this show about my growth as a teacher? (Antonek et al., 1997) Your ability to be a thoughtful and inquiring professional can also be documented by including specific reflective thinking items in your portfolio such as reflective journal entries or self-reflective narratives examining lessons you taught, assessment and instructional strategies you implemented, interactions with others, problematic situations you encountered, reactions to case studies, and the impact of students' cultural backgrounds on learning (Dieker & Monda-Amaya, 1997). In addition to using caption statements and including specific reflective thinking items, you can write an essay that reflects on how your portfolio as a whole demonstrates growth and changes in your skills, viewpoints, commitments, and knowledge base. In writing your reflective essay, you can consider the following: ? What is (are) the purpose(s) of your portfolio? ? What principles guided you in developing your portfolio? ? What does the portfolio reveal about you as a professional and as a person? ? What does your portfolio reveal about your experiences in your teacher education program and the skills you have developed as a special educator? and ? What does the portfolio reveal about your beliefs and attitudes about education? How Can I Package My Portfolio? Your portfolio should be neat and manageable in terms of size. It can be bound in a 2" to 3" three-ring binder or assembled using file folders, accordion file folders, and boxes with dividers. Binders are often preferable to folders because they allow you to add or delete items easily and limit the likelihood of items being lost (Stahle & Mitchell, 1993). In packaging your portfolio, consider your organizational framework and use dividers and pages with headings to delineate sections, and place things in sections using a logical sequence such as chronological order or thematic relevance (Giuliano, 1997). Your portfolio can be personalized, so be creative and use your imagination. For example, you may want to decorate your portfolio with photographs, logos, drawings, and other features that showcase your relevant interests, skills, and abilities. However, as you attempt to personalize your portfolio, remember to focus your displays around professionally related themes and features and avoid symbols that may be controversial or misinterpreted by others. You can also use technology and multimedia to create an electronic portfolio. In addition to having your portfolio readily available to others on diskette and CDROM, an electronic portfolio has the added advantage of allowing you to display and showcase your skills at employing technology. Electronic portfolios involve using software and hardware tools to create and record portfolio items and add sound and text. For example, you can use a digital camera to take pictures of a bulletin board you created and a videocassette recorder to record various classroom activities you directed. These recordings can then be scanned into your electronic portfolio. Resources are available to assist you in creating your own electronic portfolio. Several software-based portfolio programs are commercially available to assist you in creating your professional portfolio. These programs allow you to scan and organize portfolio items and enter sound, video clips, graphics, and text. A variety of resources on portfolios are also available through the World Wide Web. Summary Whether you are entering the profession or have been teaching for years, at some point you will probably be asked to develop a professional portfolio. The guidelines presented in this article are designed to assist you in developing your own professional portfolio, and you will want to adapt it to the unique skills and demands associated with your professional responsibilities. REFERENCES Antonek, J. L., McCormick, D. E., & Donato, R. (1997). The student teacher portfolio as autobiography: Developing a professional identity. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 15-27. Bloom, L., & Bacon, E. (1995). Using portfolios for individual learning and assessment. Teacher Education and Special Education, 18, 1-9. Dieker, L. A., & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (1997). Using problem solving and effective teaching frameworks to promote reflective thinking in preservice special educators. Teacher Education and Special Education, 20, 22-36. Dietz, M. E. (1994). Professional development portfolio. Boston: Sundance. Dollase, R. H. (1996). The Vermont experiment in state-mandated portfolio program approval. Journal of Teacher Education, 47(2), 85-98. Giuliano, F. J. (1997). Practical professional portfolios. Science Teacher, 64, 42-45. Green, J. E., & Smyser, S. O. (1995). Changing conceptions about teaching: The use of portfolios with pre-service teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22, 43-53. Guillaume, A. M., & Yopp, H. K. (1995). Professional portfolios for student teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22, 93-101. Heskett, M. (1998). Perfecting the professional portfolio. CEC Today, 4, 6. May, A. P. (1997). The professional performance portfolio. In American Association for Employment in Education (Ed.), 1997 job search handbook for educators (p. 18). Evanston, IL: American Association for Employment in Education. McCrea, L. D. (1998,April). Self-assessment tools: Reflective practices with preservice teachers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, Minneapolis, MN. Pleasants, H. M., Johnson, C. B., & Trent, S. C. (1998). Reflecting, reconceptualizing, and revising. The evolution of a portfolio assignment in a multicultural teacher education course. Remedial and Special Education, 19, 46-58. Stahle, D. L., & Mitchell, J. P. (1993). Portfolio assessment in college methods courses: Practicing what we preach. Journal of Reading, 36, 538-542. Wade, R. C., & Yarbrough, D. B. (1996). Portfolios: A tool for reflective thinking in teacher education? Teaching and Teacher Education, 12, 63-79. Wilcox, B. L. (1996). Smart portfolios for teachers in training. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 40, 172-179. Winsor, J. T., & Ellefson, B. A. (1995). Professional portfolios in teacher education: An exploration of their value and potential. The Teacher Educator; 31, 68-74. Wolf, K. (1991). The schoolteacher's portfolio: Issues in design, implementation and evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 129-136. Wolf, K. (1996). Developing an effective teaching portfolio. Educational Leadership, 53, 34-37. Wolf, K., Whinery, B., & Hagerty, B. (1995). Teaching portfolios and portfolio conversations for teacher educators and teachers. Action in Teacher Education, 17, 30-39. ~~~~~~~~By Spencer J. Salend Spencer J. Salend, EdD, is a professor of special education in the Department of Educational Studies at the State University of New York at New Paltz. His research interests relate to educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms and meeting the educational needs of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including migrant students with disabilities. Address: Spencer J. Salend, Department of Educational Studies, SUNY at New Paltz, 75 South Manheim Blvd., New Paltz, NY 12561. BENEFITS OF A PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO In addition to providing a picture of your knowledge and skills to prospective employers, professional portfolios benefit educators and schools in a variety of ways. For example, professional portfolios assist educators in understanding the portfolio process and using portfolios to examine the growth and progress of their students (Guillaume & Yopp, 1995). Portfolios help prospective teachers reflect on the complexity and subtlety of the teaching and learning process and serve as a framework for engaging in self-assessment to identify your strengths and weaknesses; to share ideas about teaching, learning, and the profession with others (Wilcox, 1996); to plan for your professional development (Green & Smyser, 1995); and to structure mentoring and collaborative activities (Wolf, 1991). Professional portfolios can also be used to evaluate teacher education programs by offering feedback to validate successful aspects of training programs as well as areas in need of revision.
Copyright of Intervention in School & Clinic is the property of PRO-ED. Copyright of PUBLICATION is the property of PUBLISHER. The copyright in an individual article may be maintained by the author in certain cases. Content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.Source: Intervention in School & Clinic, Mar2001, Vol. 36 Issue 4, p195, 7p

You are to write a 3-page paper. Please read the article below and then answer the discussion question. State the Question first and then continue to answer. *Do Not Use Outside Sources.*
Discussion Questions

1.How can adulthood be socially constructed? What does it mean to say that something is "socially constructed"?

2.What are the strengths and weaknesses of an individual or social perspective on adult learning? Is one more relevant than another in certain contexts?

Linking the Individual Learner to the Context of Adult Learning: by Caffarella & Merriam
As educators of adults we have long been driven by two primary perspectives in how we work with adult learners. Until recently, focusing on the learning process of individual learners has dominated the way we think about adult learning. This perspective still permeates much of our practice from our continued belief that responding to individual learning styles is critical in working with adults, to a wish for some kind of magic memory pill that will help us learn more efficiently. In the second perspective, the context within which adults learn becomes an essential component of the learning process. There are two important dimensions to the contextual approach to learning what were calling interactive and structural. The interactive dimension acknowledges that learning is a product of the individual interacting with the context. The most effective learning is that which takes place in authentic, real life situations. Translated into practice, this has led to incorporating internships, role playing, simulations, and apprenticeships into our instruction. The Structural dimension of context takes into consideration the social and cultural factors that affect learning such as race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power and oppression. The structural factors have long been a part of our educational systems. There are some who strongly favor the more psychologically driven paradigm of viewing learning as a process internal to the individual, while others clearly adhere to the contextual approach to learning. As researchers and practitioners, we have for the most part viewed these two perspectives as separate and distinct ways of conceptualizing learning in adulthood. One side speaks from the merits of seeing every learner as an individual with unlimited potential, while the other fights for basic social change as fundamental to education practice. Although both of these perspectives are important in understanding adult learning, we believe that either perspective by itself is too limiting in addressing the complex array of issues and problems we face in working with adults. Therefore, we advocate a third way of conceptualizing adult learning that of thinking the individual and contextual perspectives. For us, advancing this third perspective has been a major change in our thinking and a challenge to incorporate into our practice as teachers and scholars. While we were both schooled primarily in the individual perspective, it has come clear to us in recent years that often the two are so interwoven that our practice is incomplete if we only address one. This change in our thinking and practice has come from our continued in depth review of the adult learning literature, and in particular, feminist and critical theory and our experiences with diverse learners and cultures in both formal and informal settings.
The individual learner
A focus on the individual learners has a long tradition and history in adult learning and has until recently been how both the researchers and practitioners in adult education have fashioned their craft. Two basic assumptions from the foundation for this perspective. First is that learning is something that happens primarily internally, inside our heads. In essence the outside environment is given little if any attention in the way what we think and learn. Second, this perspective is based on the assumption that all adults can be effective learners, no matter what their background or situation. A sampling of topics that are grounded primarily in this perspective include: participation and motivation, self directed learning, andragogy, transformational learning, memory and learning, learning style, intellectual and cognitive development, and the neurobiology of learning. Three of these topics are discussed illustrate this perspective: participation and motivation, self directed learning, and transformational learning.
Participation is one of the more thoroughly studied the areas in adult education. We have a sense of who participates, what is studied, and what motivates some adults and not others to enroll in a course for undertake an independent learning project. Beginning with the landmark study of Johnstone and Rivera, scholars have sought to describe the typical adult learner. What is interesting is that the original profile put forth by Johnstone and Rivera has changed little over the past 30 years. Compared to those who do not participate, participants in adult education are better educated, younger, have higher incomes, and are most likely to be white and employed full time. This accumulation of descriptive information about participation has led to the efforts to build models that try to convey the complexity of the phenomenon. The work on determining why people participate that is, the underlying motivational structure for participation has been carried on most notably by Boshier and others using Boshiers Educational Participation Scale. Between three and seven factors have been delineated to explain why adults participate, such as expectations of others, educational preparation, professional advancement, social stimulation, and cognitive interests. A number of other models, grounded in characteristics of individual learners, have been developed to further explain participation; several of these models also linked a more socio-demographic or contextual approach with that of the individual backgrounds of learners. Studies in participation and motivation have had wide reaching effects on the practice of adult education. Many of those have come to expect the instructor will take into account their individual needs and desires and may leave programs when these are ignored. In addition, an area that always seems to interest educators of adults are ways to motivate and retain learners once they are enrolled in programs. This interest in motivation and retention is both a function of wanting to address individual participants needs in motives for attending as well as an economic necessity for adult education programs that operate as profit centers. We also design and market numerous programs in adult education related to what we know about why adults participate. The many job related programs that are offered by a variety of organizations are good examples of matching program content with one of the major reasons why adults participate in formal educational programs.
Self-directed Learning
Although learning on ones own or self-directed learning as been the primary mode of learning throughout the ages, systematic studies in this arena did not become prevalent until the 1970s and 1980s. The majority of this work is grounded in humanistic philosophy, which posits personal growth as a goal of adult learning. Therefore, understanding how individuals go about the process of learning on their own and what attributes can be associated with learners who are self-directed have been the two major threads of this research tradition. The process of self-directed learning was first presented as primarily linear, using much of the same language we use to describe learning process informal settings. As more complex models were developed, this emphasis began to shift to viewing the self-directed learning process as much more of the trial and error activity, with many loops and curves. In addition, as in the participation literature, contextual aspects of the process, such as the circumstances learners found themselves within, were found to also be important. In pactice, the study of self-directed learning has led instructors and program planners to use such teaching tools as individualized learner plans or contracts and to test learners for their readiness to engage in self-directed learning. For example, individual learning plans and contracts have been used in a variety of ways, from framing the whole program of professional development and even graduate study, to being used as one format among many within a set of learning activities. The use of learning contracts allows participants to write their own learning objectives, choose how they will learn the material, and evaluate what they have learned; in essence, they are given the opportunity to individualize their own learning. In addition, a number of organizations have chosen to equate self-directedness in learning with the ability to be lifelong learners. Many public schools, colleges, and universities, for example, now include the promotion of self-directed learning as a part of their mission statements.
Transformational learning theory
And other major strand of research that is grounded primarily in this individual perspective is transformative or transformational learning theory. First articulated by Mezirow in 1978, transformational learning theory is about changedramatic, fundamental changes in the way individual see themselves and the world in which they live. The mental constructions of experience, inner meaning, and critical self reflection are common components of this approach. Self reflection is often triggered by a major dilemma or problem and may be undertaken individually as well as collectively with others who share similar problems or dilemmas. The in result of this process is a change in ones perspective. For example, a person has a heart attack and though a process of self-examination decides that the type A lifestyle that she has lived is no longer a positive action; or a newly divorced, single-parent reworks his understanding of the parenting role. Although there are a number of writers who have or would like to connect this transformational learning process more to it a social action, the predominant work has been and continues to be done from the individual perspective. Only the few educators have looked at how to operationalize the work on transformational learning into the formal practice of Adult Education. Cranton and Mezirow, for example, have offered both philosophical discussions and practical strategies and techniques that instructors use in fostering and supporting transformational learning. Yet the implementation of transformational learning brings with it many practical and practical questions. Do we have the right as adult educators to ask people to examine and change the basic life assumption as part of our educational programs? Can we expect learners to freely share this type of learning experience? Should we actually precipitate such a learning experience by posing real dilemmas or problems that forced learners to examine who they are and what they stand for as individuals (at least if they want to pass a class or earn a certain credential)? And it do we have the competencies as a dove educators from our current training to assist learners through a transformational learning process? What makes these various orientations individual is the presumption that adult learning is primarily an individual, psychological process only relatively shaped by contextual factors. As noted throughout this discussion of the individual learner perspective, though, some of the work has taken into account the contextual factors that we explore more in depth in the next section of this chapter. Actually in the last decade it has become more difficult to place topic areas into one camp or the other. Still, the majority of work on these and other topics mentioned draw heavily from psychology and are grounded in thinking about learners as individuals.
The contextual perspective
The contextual perspective takes an account to import elements: the interactive nature of learning and the structural aspects of learning grounded in a sociocultural framework. Although the contextual perspective is not new to adult learning, it has resurfaced as an important consideration over the past decade. The interactive dimensions acknowledge that learning cannot be separated from the context in which the learning takes place. In other words, the learn the situation and learning context are as important to the learning process as what the individual learner and/or instructor bring to that situation. Recent theories of learning from experience, situated cognition, cognitive and intellectual development, and writings on reflective practice in form the dimension of the contextual approach. In exploring the interactive dimension of the contextual perspectives we focus and two interrelated areas: situated cognition and reflective practice.
Situated cognition
In situated cognition, one cannot separate the learning process from the situation in which the learning takes place. Knowledge and the process of learning within this framework are viewed as a product of the activity, context, and the culture in which it is developed and used. The proponents of the situated view of learning argued that learning for everyday living which includes our practice as professionals have been only among people acting in culturally organized settings. In other words, the physical and social experience at situation in which learners find themselves in the tools they use and that experience are integral to the learning process. And practice situated cognition can be incorporated into the learning process through attending more closely to our everyday world to developing highly sophisticated simulations of real-world activities and events. For example, in the teaching of well baby care to low income mothers, new mothers are encourage to bring their newborns to class and actually practiced their new knowledge and skills. In addition, the old staff visit these mothers to see how their home situations can either enhance or detract from actually using what they have learned. The old staff may even more toward changing aspects of the context by helping these new mothers access adequate healthcare and decent housing. As another example, technological base simulations of real-life bring to bear all of the possible outcomes than the learner might have to face and carrying through a particular job or responding to a crisis situation. A flight simulator in which a pilot flies a plane in all kinds of weather conditions or computer simulations of floods or hurricanes for relief workers are examples of how technology has made situated cognition and integral part of education and training programs. The tenants of situated cognition are often played out in reflective practices. Reflective practices allow us to make judgments in complex and murky situations, judgments based on experience and prior knowledge. One way that Adult Education have integrated and interactive reflective mode into their work is through what to Schon has termed reflection-in-action. Reflection in action assist us in reshaping what we are doing while were doing it and is often characterized as being able to think our feet. In addition to Schon work, useful models of using reflective practice and a conceptual way in clue the new work of Boud and Walker, Boud and Miller, and Usher, Bryant, and Johnstone. The interactive reflective mode has been incorporated into practice in a number of ways. For example, in training instructors on how to a teach adults, the practicing teacher and learner are asked in the middle of a teaching scenario to reflect on what can Schechter has done that has been helpful to the learning process and what can be improved. The practicing teacher at the end either continue and incorporate what she had learned as she commences teaching, or she may start the teaching of the soul over again after she has had a chance to revise the lesson. The second way to incorporate this form of rflective practice into our teaching is to have learners pay attention to the here and now of the learning situation that is, what they are thinking and feeling now about whatever content is being discussed. Tremmel terms being mindful and awareness of the present moment. Mindfulness moves away from mindless absorption in the endless parade of thoughts through the mind. When one is mindful, one lives in the present and pays attention pure and simple.
The structural dimensions
The second dimension of the contextual perspective, the structural dimension, argues that factors such as race, class, gender, and ethnicity need to be taken into consideration in the learning process. Being white or of color or being male or female, for example, does influence the way we learn and even what we learn. The structural dimension of a dealt learning is interwoven into a number of research trains, such as work on a dealt cognitive development, a dealt development and learning, and participation studies, and indigenous learning. The strongest voices for the structural dimension are those scholars writing from a feminist, critical, or postmodern viewpoint. Those that a adult learning from these theoretical perspectives asked questions regarding whose interests are being served by the program being offered, really has access to these programs, and who has the control to make changes in the learning process and outcomes. Further, our assumption about the nature of knowledge including what counts as knowledge, where it is located, and how it is acquired are also a challenge. Fundamental to these questions are the themes of power and oppression in both the process and organization of the learning enterprise. Are those who hold the power really operating in the best interests of those being educated? Do our behaviors and actions as educators actually reinforce our power position, or do they acknowledge and use the experience and knowledge of those with whom we work, especially those who have been traditionally underrepresented in our are dealt learning program(such as the indigenous, or people of color)? Do we use our power as instructors and the leaders in Adult Education to either all void or band discussions about the importance of race, gender, ethnicity, and class and the adult learning enterprise? Some of the clearest messages on how to translate this structural contextual dimension into practice have come from feminist and multicultural writers. For example, using insight from both multicultural education and feminist pedagogy, Tisdell has explored how to make our practice as adult educators more in schools of people from a variety of backgrounds. She emphasizes the importance of understanding both the specific learning context of the classroom or learning activity and the organizational context in which one is working. Is there something within either of these contexts that would inhibit learners from speaking and especially from challenging predominate views and ideas? Or does the instructor incorporate ways for the learner to challenge what they are being taught in an open and positive way? Tisdell goals all and to suggest specific ways to create the inclusive learning environments including acknowledging the power disparity between the teacher/facilitator and the students considering how curricula choicest implicitly or explicitly contribute to challenging structured power relations, and adopting emancipator teaching strategies. Other insights for practice have come from people writing about the learning of indigenous cultural groups. Cajetes book on the tribal foundations of American Indian education is a useful example of this type of material. In his book, Cajete speaks to the importance of tapping into the ethnic backgrounds and ways of knowing for indigenous people. More specifically, he emphasizes techniques such as storytelling, dreaming, and artistic creation as methods for doing this. What is interesting about Cajetes observation is that he captures both the conceptual perspective of learning and the spirit of individual learners and teachers. As he states: the integration of the inner and outer realities about learners and teachers must be fully honored and we must engage both realities to make our educational process complete. He and others including ourselves have argued that both perspectives, the individual and the contextual, should inform our practice as educators of adults.
Linking the perspectives
Linking the individual and contextual perspectives can provide us with yet another way of gaining a more comprehensive understanding of learning and adulthood. What this means is that those of us who work with a belt learners need to look at each learning situation from two major lenses or frames: an awareness of individual learners and how they learn, and an understanding of how the context shapes learners, teachers, and the learning transaction itself. A number of adult education scholars acknowledge the importance of taking into account both the individual and contextual perspectives. Their work provides a starting place for both researchers and practitioners who want to gain a better understanding of this integrative perspective of adult learning. For example, Jarvis writes that learning is not just a psychological process that happens in splendid isolation from the world in which the learner lives, but that it is intimately related to that world and affected by it. Likewise, Tennant and Pogson highlight both psychological and social development and their relationship to a double learning. They shreds that the nature, timing, and the process of development will vary according to the experiences and opportunities other individuals and the circumstances in their lives. Heaney emphasizes that a narrow focus on individual in the head images of learning separates learning from its social conscience, both the social relationship which are reproduced in us and the transformative consequences of our learning on society. From Heaneys perspective, learning is an individuals ongoing negotiation with communities of practice which ultimately gives definition to both self and that practice. In a more practical vein, Pratt and associates outlined alternative frames for understanding teaching in a way that captures both the individual and contextual nature of adult learning. Some teachers, for example, focused more on individual learning in their practice those who fall under Pratts nurturing perspective, others adopt more of what Pratt terms a social reform perspective more contextual in nature, and still others combined frames and therefore address both the individual and contextual side of the learning transaction. As teachers and program planners, we are often challenge to consider both what the individual brings to the learning situation as well as the life circumstances of the learner at any particular point in time. Furthermore, the organizational context in which learn takes place will have an impact on the nature of the learning transaction. Taking a course in computer technology and the university is part of a credit program, versus a three-day training session at work, versus a workshop sponsored by community agency such as local library, will make a difference in how the course is taught and what learning takes place. To illustrate how taking account of both the individual learner and contextual factors can eliminate our understanding of learning, we offer the following three scenarios and comments.
Scenario 1
Marie a first generation Hispanic is an assistant supervisor of a production unit in the local automotive plant. She would like to be promoted by lacks a high school diploma, an essential credential for a supervisor. She decides to attend an evening class to prepare for the GED. After finding childcare for her two young children, she attends classes readily, making progress in preparing for the exam. After several weeks she no longer shows up for class. For an individual learning perspective the teacher would explain the recent behavior in terms ofher ability to actually do the work, or perhaps detest anxiety as the time for the GED exam grew closer. She might also question whether Marie really wanted a promotion, which appeared to be the major motivating factor for earning her GED, from a contextual perspective the teacher would view the situation quite differently. She would not automatically assume it was Maries fault or problem, but would consider other issues. For example, were there pressures from family members not to contribute? Perhaps they feel she does not need any more education especially when it means leaving the kids home with a sitter a couple of nights a week. Were there childcare problems, and if so, as she convinced the company that it would be in their own best interest to provide childcare services as a part of the program? After all, as a result of this program, at least Marie would have be potential to be promoted according to the company policies, the teacher might also consider whether her teaching methods more appropriate for Marie, at first generation Hispanic woman. Could the teacher better connect the skills she was teaching to Maries work and home life? In reality more recent research on participation and retention in adult literacy programs often ignore a social context of learners livesthe world learners live in and deal with everyday life and therefore the most literacy programs minimize or overlook cultural, social, economic, ethnic, and gender injustices not everyone has a fair and equal chance in society. If a literacy curriculum helps learners to problematize there world so that they can see that their situation is not necessarily their fault, they can begin to gain greater control over their lives.

Scenario 2
David is an elementary teacher, teaching children with diverse backgrounds all from low income families. Like many teachers nationwide he is being pressured by borough is principal at the local district to bring up the state and national task force of his students in reading and math. He decides to enroll in a three-day summer workshop offered by a well-respected national professional association so he could learn new ways to approach this problem of low test scores. Part of the requirement for attending the workshop is to bring a team of people from Federal Building. He convinces three of his fellow teachers to join him. During the first three hours of the workshop, team members are asked to identify major issues they are facing and attempting to raise test scores. Davids team members list items like 850% turn over instant during each academic year, second language problems, and a principal who gives them little, if any, tangible support for addressing the problems. The team is excited that they are finally in a workshop where their needs would be addressed. The facilitators thank each of the teams for their input, and in and out they are predetermined agenda, saying they would incorporate the issues identified that each of the teams. The afternoon constitutes a basic introduction to the academic problems of low test scores, material Davids team is already familiar with. Even though they found the afternoon session useless, they decide to come back the second day as their morning discussion has been stimulating. The second day is even worse. Not only on the problems they identified the work, but all of the examples used to illustrate how schools were able to raise their test scores were set in middle and upper class districts and require new resource. David and his colleagues did not bother to come back the third day. Although it appeared that the needs of individual learners and this workshop for going to be considered, those of David and his colleagues were not. Rather then be inched options being situated or anchored in the participants real-life context in the case of David Steen, schools located in poor neighborhoods they were given information that was either too general or so out of context that it was not worth their time or effort to continue to attend. For this workshop to have been useful to David and his team, illustrations or case examples from school and low common districts with high student turnover rates and English-language problems would have been more meaningful as would have sharing new ideas for no or low-cost instructional materials and techniques.
Scenario 3
In a gradual class and adult education one of the authors who delighted to find out that the Taiwanese student who rarely contribute to the clients discussion and written an outstanding paper on the assigned topic. The paper was so well written that the professor decided to read it to the class as an exemplar; she also hoped that by recognizing the student in this way, the student would have more confidence to participate in class discussions and activities. While she read the paper the student will now with her head in her hands, and barren; subsequent papers were not quite as outstanding, nor did her participation increased as the teacher had hoped. In this scenario the teacher is focused on the individual learner. Though well mention, ignoring the students hold true context impacted negatively on the students subsequent learning. For some Asian students, their culture has talked them that to be singled out from their peer group the other students is acutely embarrassing and jeopardizing their position in the group; to be singled out is a risk being marginalized. Not wanting to stand out from the group, the need to save face, and respect for authority, especially that of teachers, all mitigate against contributing to class discussion and activities as an individual. In a sense their learning style favors direct interaction with the written materials and nonpublic assessment of their work. Pratt, Kelly, and Wong (1998) have questioned whether we can in polls as a part of our practice of adult education our Westernized assumption of teaching and learning. More specifically, Pratt asserts that: Adult Education within any country is not simply a neutral body of knowledge and procedures there are significant cultural and ideological differences in how adulthood is defined which must be considered when exporting or importing educational practices and procedures. What we have hoped to make clear and the last section of the chapter is that paying attention to both the individual learner and the context of learning provides yet another way to gain a richer understanding of adults as learners. In considering our own practice, we might ask ourselves questions that incorporate both perspectives such as: how can I recognize in the learning process strengthens learners bring to the situation that had been culturally engendered for example, the importance of the group, of silence, of the oral tradition? As programs are being planned, what power relations among participants, teacher, and/or organizational personnel should I address? Can I, as a teacher, respond to both the individual needs of learners in my group as well as consider the contextual factors act as barriers or supports or learning? How can I use both the collective for example, being white, a woman, a man, a person of color and individual experiences of learning in my teaching? How do I, as a teacher, inadvertently reinforced the show actual assuring some learning, and what can I do to resist reinforcing the status quo? In responding to such questions, it is our hope that our practice as adult educators can be richer, more inclusive of differing perspectives, and more comprehensive and our actions. Although we strongly endorse both further study and incorporating in practice the integrative perspective on a belt learning, we recognize there are limitations to our acknowledge position. First, some might read into our stance that expanding research efforts in this way would mean ignoring scholarship and attention to the individual and conceptual frames. However, rather than curtailing work from either of these perspectives we suggest more effort be put into identifying and then focusing on questions that offer cause the mst promising information for our enhancing practice. For example, from the individual perspective what we are currently learning about the neurobiology of learning has the potential for greatly expanding knowledge about adults with learning disabilities, the importance of emotion in the learning process, and how biological changes in adulthood are linked to learning. Likewise, we still need more in-depth exploration of the interactive and structural dimensions of the conceptual perspective of learning, including such areas as reflective practice, and the influence of race, gender, class, and ethnicity on how and what adults learn. We acknowledge that the integration of the individual and conceptual frames into our everyday work roles is challenging at best and actively resisted by some. Raise the issue of power and knowledge construction or even questioning how our institutional norms, structure, and assumed ways of operating shapeup the up the learning transaction can be a threatening and disruptive undertaking. Embracing this frame involves not only changes in how we as individuals do our jobs, but also major realignments in the ways our formal institutions are organized and what is considered to be acceptable practice.

This assignment is for a discussion question. There are two questions for this assignment. One page for each question. Please cite correctly and answer all aspects of the questions. first question, read chapter 2 and 4 and answer the following question. Answer the question as if it was pertaining to you...I will upload the ebook to you.
Read from your text, Connecting Leadership with Learning:
Preface (pp. ix-xv)
Chapter 2 (pp. 9-25)
Chapter 4 (pp. 43-55)

question 1

In Chapter 4, Copland and Knapp (2006) noted that a professional learning community values research and sets up cycles to facilitate ?schoolwide inquiry into learning and teaching performance and participating in professional inquiry as a colleague.? In this discussion, reflect upon your own research experiences in the MAED program and your continued role as an educator-researcher. Do you agree with the authors that ?inquiry into learning? is an essential component of the professional learning community? Why or why not?

This article below will answer question #2

Smith, M.K. (2009). Donald Schon (sch?n): Learning, reflection and change. Retrieved from
Thia article provides an overview of the theories developed by Donald Sch?n and his contributions to learning theory especially related to reflective practice.

question 2
The Reflective Practitioner

Donald Sch?n (1983, as cited in Smith, 2009) noted that acting as a reflective practitioner enables educators to spend time exploring actions and observations on what has occurred. In so doing, reflective practice is developed as a mode of inquiry resulting in praxis. Present a profile of your own current professional educator role as a reflective practitioner or the educator role you will pursue after earning your MAED degree. Be sure to incorporate Sch?n?s concepts on (a) reflection, (b) practice, and (c) learning systems into your profile.

Learning Communities

there are two questions. Each question should be one page each. I will upload the ebook under resources

question #1

Read from your text, Connecting Leadership with Learning:
Chapter 3 ? Establishing a Focus on Learning (pp. 29-42)

Brodie, P., & Irving, K. (2007). Assessment in work?based learning: investigating a pedagogical approach to enhance student learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(1), 11-19. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
This article addresses the use of appropriate assessment approaches to support work-based learning and to enhance the student learning experience.
Recommended Reading

Ash, S., & Clayton, P. (2004). The articulated learning: An approach to guided reflection and assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 29(2), 137-154. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
This article shares a reflective model that presents concepts on quality reflection in the learning process to facilitate academic mastery and performance-based skills. Authors offer illustrations to expand the use of reflection in learning assessment.

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week's Discussion link in the left navigation.

Assessment and Critical Reflection

Brodie and Irving (2007) stated that as educators, regardless of the type of learning setting, ?we need to ensure that students will know:
what learning is, (learning implies change)?learning theory;
how to do it best, (the style, approach, fitness for purpose)?learning theory;
when they have learnt, (description of and reflection about the learning)?critical reflection;
what their learning is informed by (its validity; how it stands up to scrutiny against outside evidence )?critical reflection;
what they need to learn (future learning)?critical reflection;
what they have learnt, know more about, become more able at doing (analysis and evaluation of the learning)?capability? (p. 14).
In this discussion, reflect upon your experiences throughout your degree program in selecting assessment methods and designing assessment tools to evaluate learning, and explain how assessment can be used for both individual learner mastery and continuous quality improvement of the instruction. Please also offer your thoughts on how critical reflection is essential in the assessment process not only for the educator, but for learners as well.

Be sure to support your assertions with references from the reading, and reflect on at least two of your peers? postings.

question 2

Donald Sch?n (1983, as cited in Smith, 2009) noted that acting as a reflective practitioner enables educators to spend time exploring actions and observations on what has occurred. In so doing, reflective practice is developed as a mode of inquiry resulting in praxis. Present a profile of your own current professional educator role as a reflective practitioner or the educator role you will pursue after earning your MAED degree. Be sure to incorporate Sch?n?s concepts on (a) reflection, (b) practice, and (c) learning systems into your profile.
(iam currently not an educator but,I would like to teach 3rd grade once Iam finish with my degree)


Read from your text, Connecting Leadership with Learning:
Preface: A Call for Leadership That is Focused on Learning (pp. ix-xv)
Chapter 2 ? Essential Ideas and Tasks for Learning-Focused Leaders (pp. 9-25)
Chapter 4 ? Building Professional Communities That Value Learning (pp. 43-55)

Smith, M.K. (2009). Donald Schon (sch?n): Learning, reflection and change. Retrieved from
Thia article provides an overview of the theories developed by Donald Sch?n and his contributions to learning theory especially related to reflective practice.
Recommended Reading

? The job role is an sales assistant at marks and Spencer
? Smart objectives can be made up in relation to the job role
1. E.g. You could increase the amount of hours worked monthly to help learn the skills and techniques required to become a supervisor.
2. Another smart objective could be concentrating on dealing with customers on the shop floor and learning and the importance of leading a team in an organisation.
? Long term SMART objective could be to become the store manager of marks and Spencer.
? You can measure your progression gradually
? The objective has to be achievable and realistic]
? I also needs and estimated time period.

.Assignment 2- Personal Development Portfolio (3000 words)
Your assignment for this module requires you to develop and produce a Personal Development Portfolio which identifies, demonstrates analyses and evidences your performance, development and learning in relation to a set of negotiated Aims and Objectives.

You will need to take a very structured approach to this assignment. Compiling a portfolio of this nature is a lengthy and ongoing process demanding good planning and organisational skills over the designated period.

An overview of the recommended portfolio writing process is as follows:

The first and perhaps most important task in this assignment is the setting of some Aims and Objectives. You are required to identify two Aims each with one SMART Objective, relevant to your job role and professional development needs.

You will then be required to start writing a Learning Agreement for each of your objectives. Each of these agreements must be supported by a range of supporting evidence relating to the various tasks and activities in which you have been engaged.

When you have completed the writing up both of your Learning Agreements, you can then write the final stage of your portfolio, the Critical Evaluation.

The next section in this Guide will take you through the Portfolio requirement in step by step and in great detail.

Getting Started on your Portfolio

?the Introduction!

Introduction Section

This first section of your Portfolio should set your work role, employment and employer in context.

Start by giving a brief description of your organisation. If you work within a particular
department/section then describe this briefly.

Explain your specific job role

What are your responsibilities and what are types of activities in which you are involved?

A copy of your job description and an organizational structure chart would both be useful additions to this section. The aim of this Introduction Section is to ?set the scen ?for the reader so that they will understand the content of your portfolio.

This section should end with a brief comment on how and why you chose your particular A&O?s and the final page in the Introduction section will be a copy of your agreed Aims and Objectives form.

Setting your Aim & Objectives!

As mentioned earlier, this is a task that you can be working on as soon as you start your module and have familiarised yourself with your job/department/company (if you are new to the job!).

When drafting some ideas for your Aim & Objectives it will be useful to think of what YOU want to achieve during your period of study on this module in terms of both your professional and personal development. You must also consider the job/role that you will be undertaking and the opportunities that will be open to you whilst working in this particular job. Your job description will be a useful tool to help you gather some ideas and then draft a set of Aims & Objectives that are both functional and personal. It is very likely that you will come up with lots of ideas (once you get going!) and that you will want to discuss your ideas with both your Tutor and your Employer. Your Performance Review/Appraisal (if you have one!) could be useful in coming up with some ideas.

Unless otherwise indicated by your tutor, you are required to identify and agree TWO aims. Each aim will then have one related SMART objective. In order to address your learning and development as broadly as possible, it is useful to have a different focus for each of your two aims.

What is the difference between an Aim and an Objective?
An Aim is a general statement reflecting the area /topic of your intention. In other words the aim states the overall purpose of what you want to achieve!

An Objective is a specific statement relating to a defined aim and describing how you intend to achieve your aim! It is likely that any aim will have several objectives.

It is a good idea to think of your two aims in terms of the following:

Aim 1

Your first aim should relate to your job role/function/workplace responsibilities

e.g. To develop my knowledge and understanding of various key activities within the sales department.

Aim 2tt

Your second aim should relate to your personal/professional development within the workplace.

e.g. To develop and enhance relevant business related skills.

Now that you have established two aims for your Portfolio, you need to decide on one SMART objective for each aim.

What are SMART objectives?

Each of your two objectives must be SMART!

If they are not, it is will be much more difficult to produce a thorough, detailed and successful Learning Agreement. Attention to detail and the phrasing of your objectives can make all the difference! The ways in which your objectives are expressed and the order in which they are done are also key factors to consider.

How do you ensure that your Objectives are SMART!

You must make sure that each objective:

When you have identified a set of Aims & Objectives that you, your tutor and your employer have agreed upon, these should be transcribed onto the Aims and Objectives? form included in the appendix of this Guide (or a similar document). If during the course of your work based learning your role changes significantly and you?re A&O?s become impossible to achieve you must consult with your tutor. Changing agreed A&O?s will only be considered in extreme circumstances.

So, now with you?re A&O?s agreed, you can start planning how who are going to achieve your objectives. It is a very good idea to start logging and recording various aspects of your work; your experiences and activities. It is also a good idea to start gathering relevant evidence so that you have lots to choose from when you are writing up your
Learning Agreements; you can then select the ?best bits? when you are compiling your portfolio later in the process!

Learning Agreement
A Learning Agreement is a written agreement that you make in relation to each of your objectives. You can think of it as a tool to help you to plan, describe, assess and reflect upon the various activities, and learning experiences that you encounter when working through and hopefully, achieving your objectives.

The agreements have a very structured format with defined headings. Although the structure and headings will be identical for both agreements, the content will of course be unique to each agreement.

Each agreement will have two distinct stages: a Planning Stage and a Reflective Stage.

Within each agreement you will need to identify and then supply ?evidence? to support and prove that you have undertaken the tasks, activities or developments that you have included in your agreement.

Learning Agreement Structure

So, each of your Learning Agreements will have two distinct stages. The Planning Stage and the Reflective Stage.

The structure and headings within each of your two Learning Agreements are identical.

The first six headings make up the Planning Stage of your agreement and this stage can be written as soon as your A&O?s have been agreed.

These headings are as follows:

1. The Objective
2. Activities Required
3. Skills Required
4. Resources Required
5. Criteria for Success
6. Planned Evidence

The key to writing an effective Planning Stage is to be very, very specific and detailed under each of the six headings. Write every relevant idea/ aspect/step required in order to work through to achieving your objective.........nothing is too small, insignificant or irrelevant!

You may find it useful to write this stage of your agreements in a bullet point/list style within the headings.

The final three headings make up the Reflective and Analytical Stage of your agreement. You will only be able to write up these sections when you have achieved your objective (or otherwise!) or when you have done as much as possible by the portfolio submission date.

These headings are as follows:

1. Skills Developed
2. Evidence Submitted
3. Achievement

The key to writing an effective Reflective/Analytical Stage is to be as honest and detailed as possible in reflecting upon your performance and the achievement and challenges that you encountered during the process. (see Section 7 WBL and the Importance of Reflective Learning) This process is designed to get you to think about your abilities, attributes and skills, as well as any areas that may need developing and enhancing! It is quite possible to write an excellent Learning Agreement, despite not achieving the objective by demonstrating an understanding and insight into your development and learning during the course of the journey! There are Learning Agreement worksheets included in the appendices for your use.

Here is a reminder of how each agreement should be structured and more information on what should be contained within each section.

The Learning Agreement ? Planning Stage

Objective: Copy the objective in question from your Aims and Objective form.

Activities: What tasks, actions do you think that will you need to undertake in order to succeed in the objective? Be very detailed and do not leave out what you consider to be ?the obvious.? List all the tasks and activities you can think of.

Skills Required: How many different skills can you identify that you think will be required in working to achieve your objective. Consider the various tasks/activities that you have identified above and think about all the skills required in undertaking these effectively. These may include skills about which you are already confident or skills that you know you will need to develop/improve upon.

Resources Required: What resources do you think will be required in order to achieve your objective? These may be simple or complex but list as many as you can and again, do not forget to mention the obvious e.g. time and people!

Criteria for Success: How do you think that will you know when you have achieved your objective? How will you measure your level of success?..? or otherwise?

Planned Evidence: What type of evidence do you think that you will be able to submit in support of your work/progress in meeting this objective?

Learning Agreement ? Reflective Stage
This stage of your Learning Agreement should have a very different tone and style from the preceding Planning Stage. You cannot use descriptive lists/bullet points in these section as you need to adopt a much more analytical and reflective style of writing. There may be opportunities within these sections to include some links to relevant academic theory/model. Making links between academic theory/understanding and your workplace experiences is a valuable facet of work based learning.

Skills Developed: What skills have you actually managed to use/develop in the process of undertaking this objective? These may include: all of the skills that you identified in the Planning Stage or just some of them or none of them or several that you did not even think of at that stage. Reflect upon this when describing how you used the skills.

Submitted Evidence: Describe and explain the relevance of the evidence you have actually submitted to support the claims you have made. Ensure that if possible, you have a balance between product and testimonial evidence as appropriate. Number each piece of evidence cited appropriately.

Achievement: Analyse your achievement and assess your performance in working through and achieving /or otherwise this objective. Grade yourself honestly using the standard CAF A+ - F- system. This should focus your mind!

Evidence - what kind of evidence should I plan to collect and provide?

There are two main types of evidence that you are likely to use within your agreements; product evidence and third party or witness testimony evidence.

Product evidence includes documents such as emails, letters, reports, minutes of meeting, performance review/appraisal documents. In fact any ?product? that is available as a natural consequence of a particular task or experience that you have included in your agreement will be appropriate evidence.

There will be some situations or experiences which will not naturally provide product evidence; these are likely to be ?behavioural? situations. E.g. You may wish to demonstrate that you have behaved in a particular manner in a specific set of circumstances. In this type of situation you must try to obtain witness testimony evidence. This will require you asking a relevant individual/s who witnessed you dealing with the situation, to write a brief, descriptive statement. This statement should describe the situation in question and verify your behaviour e.g how you dealt with the situation, what skills/ attitude/behaviour you exhibited. All Witness Testimonies should be signed, and dated.

The Critical Appraisal
The final stage of your Personal Development Portfolio is the Critical Appraisal. The term ?critical? in an academic sense means to make judgements about information and to evaluate the quality of the information.

You are required to look back at your experiences in relation to the assessment required for this module. Think about the task of deciding upon and negotiating a useful set of Aims & Objectives set at the start of the module. How did you feel being asked to identify specific Aims and Objectives? Was it a simple or quite a difficult task? Why?

How did you respond to working in a very structured approach with the Learning Agreements? How well do you think that you have used your agreements as tools to identify and then reflect upon your learning throughout this module? Would you consider using this approach again in the future?

Was identifying, collecting and logging the Evidence a simple task or did it present you with any challenges?

What about your Reflective Practise? Have you developed your reflective and analytical skills during this process? Was this a comfortable or challenging process? Did you gain any valuable insights through this process about your development needs for the future?

Ask yourself the question, given the chance to start this module again, ?what would I do differently??.and why??

This final section in your portfolio might give you another opportunity to identify and comment upon any links that you have been able to make between the world of work and the world of academic theories/models. E.g In one of your agreements, you may have described an experience that involved, team working, a particular communication styles or a particular management/leadership style. All of these subject areas have a considerable level of academic underpinning and are examples of opportunities to demonstrate your academic knowledge/reading and to quote/refer to theoretical models/ideas!

Evidence Log
The very final section in your portfolio will be the Evidence Log. Each piece of evidence that you have mentioned in the ?Submitted Evidence? section of your agreements should be simply numbered as cited in the agreement and filed at the back of your portfolio in numerical order.

So, your completed portfolio should be structured and submitted in a folder as follows:
1. Introduction Section (including a Job Description)
2. Aims and Objectives Form
3. Learning Agreements (1and 2)
4. Critical Appraisal
5. Evidence Log

Assessment Criteria

The Personal Development Portfolio will be assessed against the following criteria:
? Extent to which the student writes a clear and well written Introduction section placing their employer and job role in context
? Extent to which the student negotiates and produces a set of two relevant Aims for their portfolio.
? Extent to which the student produces one relevant SMART objectives for each of their Aims
? Extent to which the student completes both the Planning and Reflective Stage for each of their two Learning Agreements using the prescribed headings
? Extent to which the student uses their Learning Agreements as tools to effectively plan and then reflect upon their experiences, learning and development
? Extent to which the student includes a supporting log of relevant evidence
? Extent to which the student writes their Critical Appraisal in a reflective manner reviewing their development and learning via the portfolio task
? Extent to which the student makes reference to relevant academic theories/models/links

4 Pages

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Type: Research Paper

there are two questions. Each question should be one page each. I will upload the ebook under resources question #1 Readings Read from your text, Connecting Leadership with Learning: Chapter 3…

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9 Pages

Leadership Development and My Workplace

Words: 2897
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Essay

? The job role is an sales assistant at marks and Spencer ? Smart objectives can be made up in relation to the job role 1. E.g. You could increase the amount…

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