Attitudes Toward Physical Education in Fourth Graders Essay

  • Length: 3 pages
  • Sources: 4
  • Subject: Education
  • Type: Essay
  • Paper: #44993627

Excerpt from Essay :

Title: The title includes the precise identification of the problem; it contains the independent and dependent variables and target population. It must be clear, concise, and fully descriptive of the study. The recommended length is 12 words.

The Difference Between Fourth Grade Boys and Girls Attitudes Toward Physical Education

Abstract/Overview: The abstract summarizes the contents of the manuscript. The abstract should begin by broadly summarizing the problem and importance of the study in 2-3 sentences. The abstract should then clearly and concisely state the purpose of the study. Next, the abstract should contain a brief description of the target population, sampling methodology, description of the sample, and sample size. The abstract should also identify the research design and methodology. Finally, the abstract should name the instrument and explain the procedures for data collection and statistical analysis. The abstract should not contain any in-text citations. The recommended length is 200–250 words.

Physical education is an essential and necessary component of every child’s life. In order for maximum effect to be realized, children must have a healthy, positive attitude towards physical activity. However, with evidence to suggest that physical activity is on the decline and childhood obesity on the rise, investigating the attitudes of children towards physical education is important to understanding this phenomenon.

This study will research the overall attitudes of boys and girls in the fourth grade toward physical education from three different elementary schools within one school district. Since boys typically enjoy physical activity more than girls after the age of nine years-old, the study will determine how boys and girls view physical education. Also, the study will be important because children need to obtain physical activity to remain healthy and promote appropriate development. The boys and girls will complete a questionnaire about their attitudes toward physical education. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used because there will be a comparison of attitudes of boys and girls.

Research Question: The proposed research question needs to be derived from the problem and purpose statements. A well-formulated research question does the following: (a) clearly identifies (but does not label) least one dependent and one independent variables, (b) is stated clearly and in the form of a question, (c) is testable (i.e. identifies the sample and implies the research design and statistical analysis), (d) does not pose an ethical or moral problem for implementation, and (e) is specific and restricted in scope (i.e., the aim is not to solve the world's problems). List only one focused, testable research question.

RQ1: Is there a statistically significant difference between fourth grade boys and girls overall attitudes toward physical education?

Hypothesis: The null hypothesis needs to be written with words, not symbols. Every research question should have at least one corresponding null hypothesis; however, sometimes more than one is needed. The number of hypotheses should be based upon the number of variables under study and planned analysis. Well-formulated hypotheses are based on the following criteria: (a) the hypothesis stated the expected relationship/differences between variables, (b) the hypothesis is testable, (c) the hypothesis is stated simply and concisely as possible, and (d) the hypothesis is founded in the problem statement and supported by research. Like the research questions, the hypotheses in null form directly influence the statistical procedures used.

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between fourth grade boys’ and girls’ overall attitudes toward physical education.

Introduction: The introduction should catch the audience’s attention by using a “hook” and convince the reader that the topic or issue is important using at least 3-4 scholarly journal articles published within the last 5 years. It provides a general overview of the topic and prepares the reader for the background section of the manuscript. The recommended length is 200–300 words.

The relevance of physical education amongst children cannot be overstated when it comes to not only the development of reflexes, but also the further enhancement of motor skills, and as Donovan, Mercier, and Philips (2015) point out, promotion of healthy lifestyles. It should, however, be noted that past studies have indicated that the attitudes of fourth grade boys and girls towards physical education vary due to a myriad of factors. In basic terms, attitude has got to do with the perception or outlook towards experiences, items, or activities. Towards this end, a person’s attitude towards something could determine his or her feelings and interests towards the subject matter. Therefore, one of the key elements influencing fourth grade children’s participation to physical education is their attitudes towards the same. In the words of Phillips and Silverman (2015), “multiple studies have suggested a more pronounced decrease in attitude, starting in middle school, for girls than boys as they get older” (463). This is a finding collaborated by Donovan, Mercier, and Philips (2015). Wells, Galloway, and Booker (2017) point out that obesity has been on the rise amongst children in recent years. In their research seeking to assess physical activity between boys and girls in elementary school, the authors conclude that “there were significant differences between genders”, with boys being more likely to engage in physical activities than girls.

Participants and Setting:

Begin by describing your target population. This may include the description of a large geographical area or a school district from which the sample was drawn. Real names should never be used.

Next, describe your sample. The sample size, the type of sample, and the sampling procedures (e.g., convenience sampling, cluster sampling, etc.) must be explained. In other words, the sample selection procedures (who, what, when, where, how) need to be explained in enough detail for the study to be replicated. Include basic demographic information (number of participants, sample size, age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) described in narrative form. Since this is a proposal, plug in “place holders” (e.g., the sample consisted of 00 males and 00 females…). Quantitative literature citations must be provided for the adequate sample size (e.g. For this study, the number of participants required for an adequate sample size will be 66 students which according to Gall et al. (2007, p. 145) will the required minimum for a medium effect size with statistical power of .7 at the .05 alpha level).

Next, discuss the setting (e.g., specific course, program, online/offline environment, semester-term, and/or treatment/control group testing location, etc.). Real names for people and schools should never be used. Use pseudonyms for descriptors when necessary (e.g. high school #1, biology lab # 2). The setting, especially the treatment setting needs to be described in sufficient details so that the study could be replicated. The setting is often intertwined with the description of the sample.

After you have described the sample and setting, you need to identify and describe each group (e.g. treatment, control, etc.). Remember: correlational studies involve two or more variables and only “one group.” Explain the groups’ formations (e.g., random assignment, naturally occurring groups, etc.) and demographic information (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, grade level, etc.) for each group. Since this is a proposal, plug in “place holders” (e.g., the treatment group will consist of 00 males and 00 females, etc.). Groups must be explained in enough detail for the study to be replicated.

Instrumentation:

In the instrumentation section, the instrument(s) that are used to measure each variable need to be identified. The instruments may be tests, surveys, questionnaires, or other measurements. Only validated instruments may be used and it is not acceptable to propose to develop an instrument for the purposes of this study. A description of each instrument, its content, its appropriateness needs to be included. The exact procedures for the development for the instrument (i.e. studies to establish validity and reliability, as well as reliability statistics) must be cited. State other peer reviewed studies where…

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