Democracy and Pluralism Essay

  • Length: 6 pages
  • Sources: 6
  • Subject: Political Science
  • Type: Essay
  • Paper: #44669207

Excerpt from Essay :

Critically assess the extent to which deliberative democracy, neo-conservatism and/or neo-liberalism promote and/or restrict democratization for groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates presented in the attached readings to make your points and cite your sources.

Civil society may make up a place for democratization, owing to its ability to enable individuals to decide on living their public life and resolving common issues. Individuals who consider deliberation to be the soul of democracy ought to be drawn to a broad form of public domain. Postmodernists, who hold rather divergent views, conceptualizing democracy with regard to agonistic regard formed via identity and difference negotiations, ought to similarly be drawn to pluralism. Democrats ought to support, in general, a state complete in key elements, as appropriately organized exclusion may prove beneficial to democratization and democracy, even from excluded parties' standpoint. All historical decisions taken by governments to ensure inclusion ought to generate exclusion patterns too, which yield, at a minimum, additional state democratization and defencee from state reversal of its democratic promises. In this regard, a democratic, social, corporatist state's development was commendable: labor enjoyed overt inclusion, and numerous other groups suffered implicit exclusion in the same way as labor enjoyed inclusion. Hence, democrats, including difference democrats, ought not to consider democratization to involve state recognition and espousal of a progressively more diverse array of interests and groups (Dryzek, 1996).

There are some specific democratic principles which are out of place within a majority of theories of public choice. Citizenship features or responsibilities don't crop up in public choice studies or models. Basically no concern exists regarding imbalanced status, economic welfare or power distribution. A sense of community, self-growth, citizenship, and other ideals aren't considered. Persecution, whether based on nationality, sex, race, social status, religion or any other grounds traditionally segregating societies, remains obscured. Emerging opposing parties are now enjoying a stronger political presence, which is a clear shift from prior deviancy or dependency on their part, with rationales varying in accordance. Useful policy typically develops directly from court rulings which force statutory action. Justifications for policy are founded upon statements regarding rights, due legal process, access to equal opportunities, etc. For instance, the Clinton government's decisions to allow homosexual individuals entry into the FBI and the American army are explained mostly with regard to their right to provide their services, instead of employing statements supporting their unique fortes which may prove valuable to the Bureau or the army. Their employment is supported based on the argument that their exclusion has no fair bases, and not based on how they can potentially improve FBI or army effectiveness (Schneider, Anne, & Helen, 1997).

The school of political thought known as neoliberalism which expresses the meaning and character of the subject, politics and society, should be comprehended as this expression and form facilitates its appropriation of other fairly more democratic reasons. The permeation of political culture, society and the state with market logic serves to successfully separate political culture and governance matters from political democracy. Take into consideration the following statement: with commercial servicing barriers like class becoming dramatically depoliticized, neoliberals' demand for an equal right of inequality has been newly legitimated, thus putting the official democratic obligation to egalitarianism on the back burner. Neoconservatives consider themselves the custodians and supporters of a possibly disappearing history as well as present, a honorable safeguard against loss, and counsel against earnest competitors for a different futurity (labeled liberalists within and barbarians outside of America). A vital point to bear in mind is that the neo-conservative school of political thought developed partly in response to capitalist destruction of morality and meaning. Early neoconservatives, although against communist politics and society, seldom proved to be passionate free market advocates (Brown, 2006). An even more significant task is to equally gauge the significance of individuals holding other views and those who were excluded by other ideals in decision making.

2. Critically assess the extent to which classical theories of pluralism reveal (or do not reveal) the social justice impacts of public policy on groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates and critiques of pluralism to make your points and cite your sources.

Pluralists are people who support political communities which perceive power as being extensively spread out. Their school of thought has been labeled pluralism. The elitist viewpoint as regards power has been, and has the potential to be, criticized on numerous grounds, including its fundamental assumption that all human institutions have a systematic power structure that forms a central component and replica of organizational stratification. Pluralists strongly and rightly oppose this assumption claiming no definitive assumption may be made regarding power within a given community. Pluralists, in fact, apparently hold a tacit idea that there is no actual dominant force in a given community. Hence, their basic question won't be about who governs a given community; instead it will be along the lines of: "Is there anybody who governs the community? According to pluralists, power might be associated with long- or short-term issues, giving rise to alliances among concerned individuals and groups, ranging in length from temporary to long-lasting. Assuming that the series of community alliances at a particular time represents an eternally unchanging societal structural facet implies including logical impressions on how one represents societal realities (Bachrach & Baratz, 1962).

Case Example: Power in New Haven

The ideal fulcrum for critiquing pluralism is Dahl's latest research into power within New Haven. Initially, one may feel the researcher hasn't tried to describe what "key political decisions" imply. In posing the question…

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