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To the extent either men or women all identified strongly with their prescribed gender roles, that could be an obvious problem anytime same-sex individuals entered into a relationship. Each partner would seek to fulfill his or her perceived role. In actuality, many homosexual couples do adhere to basic elements of traditional roles within relationships, wherein the partners fulfill reciprocal roles. However, in many cases, homosexual couples don not define their respective roles as rigidly as do most heterosexual couples.
Within heterosexual relationships, the obvious effect of maintaining traditional gender roles were more than evident throughout American society until relatively recently. Men would always fulfill the role of financial provider, women would rarely work outside the home and would be responsible for maintaining the household. Women would be less comfortable initiating sexual relations and both men and women might even consider it shameful for a woman to enjoy sex as much…… [Read More]
As of August 2001, 12 states, as well as the District of Columbia, had laws banning discrimination based on sexual orientation" (Horvath & Ryan 115). In the case, High Tech Gays v. Defense Industrial Security Clearance Office (1987), a district court held that lesbians and gay men constituted a quasi-suspect class because "homosexuals have historically been the object of pernicious and sustained hostility, and it is fair to say that discrimination against homosexuals is likely... To reflect deep-seated prejudice rather than... rationality"; however, the court also found that federal policy did not pass even rational review and the case was reversed in 1990 (cited in Lewis at 539). Complicating matters for homosexuals and civil rights advocates alike today is the nebulous and hidden nature of some of the discriminatory practices that might adversely affect homosexuals in the workplace today, and these issues are discussed further below.
Types of Discrimination.
Much…… [Read More]
61). In principle, adults tend to be drawn to potential romantic partners at least partly because part of the so-called chemistry between them reflects familiar aspects of their psychological pasts. Therefore, as pertains to marital communication issues, they are quite frequently direct consequences of the initial choice of partner more than anything else.
When researchers examine the specific communication issues arising within unhappy marriages and other committed intimate relationships, one crucial distinction that emerges is that the tonal quality that characterizes communications in relationships is far more significant than any other variable (Cole, p.72; Rokach, Cohen, & Dreman, pp. 55-57; Tyre & Pierce, p.64). In that regard, it was particularly illustrative that so many happy couples negotiated similar marital issues and stresses (financial, child-rearing, jealousy, infidelity, etc.) that unhappy couples blamed for the deterioration of their marriages and relationships. Generally, marital outcome was determined not by the presence or absence…… [Read More]
The traditional approach to sexual education in the United States has emphasized anatomy, physiology, and the mechanics of reproduction and birth control to the virtual exclusion of more meaningful aspects of human sexuality.
A modern comprehensive sexual education program should begin before most students have already begun experimenting sexually rather than afterwards. Likewise, it should include appropriate focus on ethical values and moral concepts that relate directly to sexual patterns and choices and to the reality that many students will become sexually active sooner more than later. To the extent is includes information about sexually transmitted disease, pregnancy, and birth control, it should do so within a framework that acknowledges earlier onset of expected sexual experimentation consistent with current social trends.
Finally, the comprehensive sexual education program should be used to challenge socially detrimental beliefs and expectations based on gender as well as on alternate sexual and gender orientation. Only…… [Read More]
Queer Theory and Oscar Wilde
Analysis of "Queer Theory" by Annamarie Jagose in relation to Dorian Gray's character in "The picture of Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde
In her discussion of "Queer theory," author Annamarie Jagose provides a distinction between the concepts 'queer' and the dichotomous relationship between 'lesbian' and 'gay.' Jagose argued in her discussion of this theory that queer was a concept that had politically evolved through the years in relation to the proliferation of gay and lesbian studies.
What makes the queer concept vital to the study of gays and lesbians, as well as issues of homosexuality and heterosexuality is that it provides a 'gray area' in which no distinctions between male and female and gay and lesbian are found. Queer appeals to the 20th century philosophers and social scientists simply because it offers an avenue through which gender and sex can be discussed without the political…… [Read More]
passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.
Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…… [Read More]
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…… [Read More]
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…… [Read More]
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…… [Read More]
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…… [Read More]
Moral issues should not come to play. Individuals who are against the adoptions do not care about equality or that research does not support their fears. Nor do these individuals care that the American Academy of Pediatrics, among an entire list of other human services and medical organizations for the betterment of children and families has taken a stand that adoption by gay parents and gay parenting in general does not offer real or significant emotional dangers to children. ather, the emotional danger comes when parents -- be they heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual -- abuse their children.
It is how children are raised that is of concern, not who raises them, argues the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children of gay, lesbian and bisexual and transgender parents are similar to children with heterosexual parents with respect to their emotional and personal development. it's the quality of the parent-child…… [Read More]
44). On a final note, Decamps' reporting of the NLHCS indicates that "more than half" of the 1,925 lesbians in the survey reported having been victim of a "hate crime" and roughly one in twenty of the 1,925 lesbians had been "physically assaulted" due to her sexual orientation (Decamps, p. 49).
Consequences of child sexual abuse for adult lesbians. Batya Hyman is a professor of social science at Salisbury University in Maryland; she also has published an article that investigates the ramifications of childhood sexual abuse on lesbians as they get up in years. Hyman goes somewhat deeper into the issue than Decamps had gone, noting that there are several health concerns in adult lesbian women who had experienced abuse as children. Among health concerns: pelvic pain; gynecological problems; migraine headaches; asthma; epileptic seizures; digestive system problems; and an "increased lifetime risk of surgery" (Hyman, 2000, p. 200).
The author…… [Read More]
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…… [Read More]
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…… [Read More]
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…… [Read More]
homosexual teenagers in America. This is because numerous research studies have revealed that both male and female homosexuals are at danger not only from the traditional cultural forces but also from their sexual and non-sexual behavior and habits. Discrimination against homosexuals has been an extensively researched topic. Many scholars have asked for better curriculums and schooling environment for children from all backgrounds so that they grow up to appreciate sexual diversity. People who oppose homosexuality ought to know that this phenomenon is an extremely old tradition and has deep cultural roots and thus should be appreciated like all other ancient cultures. As Carla Mathison (1998) writes "Gay men and lesbians are not identified by their sex, ethnicity, religion, geographic location, socioeconomic or ability level but by their orientation to their own gender that includes, but is not limited to, sexual intimacy. (Carla Mathison, 1998)."
Carla Mathison (1998) further reveals and…… [Read More]
homeless and runaway young people is viewed by many authorities as a human rights condition that grows out of poverty and victimization, often right in their family settings, and later, in the street (Farrow 1992) where they are further exposed to violence and other forms of dysfunction..
The International Perspective on the Health Needs of Homeless Youth uses the terms "street children" to refer to those below 18 years old who live through various ways in the streets. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund or UNICEF estimated that there were between 30 and 170 million street children and youth in the world (Farrow 1992). The UNICEF divided these young people broadly into a larger group and a smaller group, the larger one, consisting of youngsters who engaged in some economic activity in the streets and often returned to their families at night. The smaller group consisted of young people…… [Read More]
Gay Discrimination -- Study Guide
The field study by Hebl, Foster, Man nix and Davidic reveals a number of instances in which gay people are discriminated against. Those instances and situations are marked in this paper with bullet points for clarity and for succinctness. The authors also present details of a research project conducted in a Texas mall; this paper reviews that research and poses five questions after the critique and review of the Texas research project.
In 1996, attitudes vis-a-vis gays and lesbians were still quite biased; a 1996 Gallup Poll showed that half of Americans believe homosexuality is "…not an acceptable alternative lifestyle" (Hebl, et al., 2010, 815)
Earlier, in 1994, a CBS poll showed that 45% of those surveyed believed that relations between gays and lesbians "…should be illegal" (Hebl, 815)
At the time the Hebl article was published, only 11 states had passed laws that protect…… [Read More]
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…… [Read More]
Gay Couples and Child Adoption
Adoption by couples of the same sex has recently been legalized in almost 14 countries, however it has been remained illegal in most of countries as debate spins on in several countries as to whether it should be legalized or not. The concern of the opposing side is whether gay couples are able to adequately provide parenthood.
According to a consensus which was arrived at by psychological, medical as well as social communities, children who have been raised by gay parents are also able to adjust well just like children who are raised by heterosexual parents. This conclusion has also been highly accepted within the developmental psychology field, (Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, 2006). As derived from the available evidence in the field, the Florida's Third Court of Appeal in 2010 was satisfied that this issue was far beyond dispute that it will…… [Read More]
When a child has already been abandoned by his or her biological parents, why would the state not allow for that child to have a brighter future in the care of a couple who would truly care for him or her? In this view, gender plays a miniscule role in the overall well being of the child. ather, "The best interests of the child would certainly be advanced in situations lie those presented here by allowing two adults who actually function as a child's parents to become the child's legal parents," (Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil ights 2004:72). With the concept of legality in terms of a parent-child relationship comes support like no foster parent or orphanage could ever offer. Adoption policies are strict and require parents to meet specific requirements, therefore offering the child the most potential possible. Gay and lesbian couples are no exception…… [Read More]
Gays in the Military
For a long time, the issue of gays serving in the military has largely been contentious though approaches regarding the enlistment of gays in the armed forces differ from country to country. This text concerns itself with gays in the military and the issues, opportunities as well as challenges they face. Further, it highlights the society's contribution to the construction of this group's identity.
Gays in the Military: The Issues, Opportunities and Challenges They Face
It is important to note from the onset that though some countries still have laws prohibiting the enlistment of gays into the military, most developed countries have in the recent past gotten rid of policies seen to exclude gays from enlistment. Currently, gays in the United States can serve openly given the September 2011 lift on the ban prohibiting openly gay individuals from serving in the military (Kevin and Harris, 2011).…… [Read More]
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
.… [Read More]
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…… [Read More]
This option would, however, allow the opportunity to eliminate the issues that stem from the existing policy and incorporate all of our objectives into our new policy.
The third alternative would also require approval from Congress, but would represent a less radical change. Such changes to the law could include bulking up the protections for homosexuals against harassment (in light of the lack of enforcement on the Don't Harass side of the policy); raising the threshold for discharge; the implementation of due process into the discharge process; or changing the discharge status to protect pension and benefit rights in light of a good service record. This alternative may be easier to implement than an entirely new policy because it would leave the homosexual ban nominally intact. This compromise could potentially be more palatable to both Republicans and military leadership.
The fourth alternative would provide a means to gather more information…… [Read More]
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…… [Read More]
Such decisions are made by the courts based on personal values, not empirical data. In 1999, the American Psychologist published one of the first research studies on the topic of adoptive parenting. "Deconstructing the Essential Father" (Silverstein & Auerbach, 1999) concluded that successful parenting is not gender specific and children do not need fathers or mothers. ather, any gender configuration of adults could parent equally well. The implication that fathers were not necessary was extremely controversial.
Since then, numerous studies, such as one conducted last year by yan of the University of Texas School of Social Work, and Averett and Nalavany of East Carolina University (2009), show that there is no difference in emotional problems experienced by the children who are adopted by heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents. In order to determine their findings, the study's authors used survey results from parents who adopted children through Florida's public…… [Read More]
It delved into the historical record of integration of blacks into the military, public opinions and health risks and unit disruption. It also incorporated the findings of scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality and relevant health and legal issues and their implementation. Only one policy would fulfill the President's directive. It would consider sexual orientation as not inherent in determining who may serve in the military. It would set a standard of professional conduct for all personnel in the pursuit of good order and discipline. And it would be enforced in every level of the chain of command so as to maintain effective unit performance (Rostker et al.).
Policy for Ending Discrimination
This policy binds all service members to the same standard of professional behavior (Rostker et al., 2000). It draws upon actual conduct, not behavior from presumed sexual orientation. It elicits tolerance and restraint for the good of the…… [Read More]
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…… [Read More]
Cultural Representations of GLBTQ Peoples and Communities in the Mainstream Media
Attitudes and laws in American society concerning the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual and queer (GLBTQ) communities have changed in substantive ways in recent years, and many observers credit the cultural representations of these communities in the mainstream media as contributing to this progress. Notwithstanding the progress to date, though, some observers suggest that the status of the GLBTQ communities today is still comparable to the status of women and blacks a half century ago and there is clearly a need for greater understanding of these alternative lifestyles communities by the general American public. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature concerning current GLBTQ issues in American culture followed by a discussion concerning the manner in which interpretation of mainstream media content such as films, television shows, books, plays or events can provide fresh insights into…… [Read More]
Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Students
It is important that all children feel safe in the school environment. The majority of waking hours are spent at school, so it must be ensured that students feel comfortable, safe, secure, and supported while at school. This is especially the case for lesbian and gay students, who face several challenges in regards to discrimination, self-esteem, and fitting in with other students. It is the responsibility of teachers and school administrators to address this issue and devise strategies for ensuring that lesbian and gay students are appropriately supported in the school environment.
Lesbian and gay students often feel isolated, alienated, and left out at school (Youth Pride, 1997). These feelings of isolation result in several troubling outcomes. Suicide rates among lesbian and gay students are high, with studies indicating that gay and lesbian students are up to three times more likely to attempt…… [Read More]
However, in the United States, the Establishment Clause has created a wall between church and state, and the morality of church policies cannot impact the laws of the land. hile people are free to believe that being gay is immoral or unnatural, their religious beliefs cannot and should not hamper the rights and the liberties of others, including the right to the pursuit of happiness of gay couples who regard their love as natural and good.
Another objection raised to gay adoption that is frequently cited is the idea that children will experience negative psychological consequences because they will be teased at school. But these objections could also be raised against the ability of biracial couples to wed and to have children, or simply the children of any religious or minority group who suffers persecution. The problem is not the teasing of other students, but the prejudices of society. Such…… [Read More]
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…… [Read More]
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…… [Read More]
Diversity Issues for Lesbian, Homosexual and isexual People
The 21st Century has brought us new and greater understanding of issues surrounding diversity as it pertains to lesbian and bisexual issues. In the past it was assumed that homosexuality represented a deviant manifestation of some form of mental illness. It was not until the late 1950s (Hooker, 1957) that this idea began to be questioned as an absolute and the lifestyle brought into closer study. It is to be the purpose of this paper to review issues surrounding the homosexual, lesbian and bisexual lifestyle, to identify the general nature of the lifestyle as it exists today and to examine the state of diversity issues as they pertain to this group.
As previously mentioned, for many years homosexuality and lesbianism, as well as bisexuality were classified as mental illness. Evelyn Hooker (1957) was one of the first to do in depth…… [Read More]
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations).
In most of the world, HIV infection is more prevelant in the heterosexual population, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity. Unforrtunatly, HIV / AIDS also carries with it ostracism, rejection, and discriminiation. This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias (Ogden and Nyblade)
Cultural Issues…… [Read More]
Bisexuality and Marriage Prejudice
According to national studies, approximately 4.1% of women report some degree of sexual attraction to members of both sexes, with only 0.3% reporting only attraction to other women. (he other 95.6% assumably were attracted only to men) he same survey showed that 3.9% of men self-reported some attraction to both sexes, and 2.4% reported that they were only attracted to other men. (With 93.7% assumably being strictly heterosexual) At the same time, only 0.5% of women identified as bisexual, and only 0.8% of men. (Rust, 2000) hese dry statistics point to a very strange conclusion, which is that bisexuality is in reality far more prevalent than homosexuality among both men and women, and yet bisexuals are being "mainstreamed" as it were into either heterosexual or homosexual identities. his gap between actual sexual attraction and sexual identity must result from some sort of social pressure to normalize…… [Read More]
Jack and Ennis, two-19-year-old were gay and involved in a mutually romantic relationship, although one is married with children whilst the other has an impetuous relationship with a woman. The relationship between the men is tempestuous and rocky with only fear of the local killing them due to their 'queer' identity' refraining them from living together. Jack, the more openly gay of the two, is indeed killed by a homophobic mob in 1980 for being "queer." The book is a celebration of two men and their love for each other, and their suffering and dying for this love.
They represent the possible difficulties of working with gay and/or lesbian clients. Actually, Jack and Ennis also present therapists with the additional challenge of working with clients who have undergone trauma, but since this is the lesser challenge of the first and the two combined are beyond the scope of this essay,…… [Read More]
Homosexual marriage does not pose a threat to me or my manhood therefore I am for it." Although I am heterosexual, I know what it means to long for union with another human being. I will choose a woman for my partner, but if another man desires to choose one of his own sex, there is no harm for me in his choice. In fact, since we are both part of humanity, his legal union, as does mine, brings positive reinforcement to the institution of marriage.
As early as 400 BC Plato in his Symposium discussed the mystery of sexual desire, concluding that humans are always searching for their other half, having been cut in two as punishment by Zeus. The whole humans that existed before this action, according to Aristophanes, Plato's debating companion, all had two heads, four legs and four arms. They were of three types: some with…… [Read More]
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…… [Read More]
If they repent and mend their ways, then let them be, and there is no mention of the punishment and the negativity is not so strong and in other cases of deviant behavior from the religion which result in death."
To understand the propensities of the people therefore it is also necessary to observe the orientation of the population and it is claimed that generally Turkish men, as observed by Lynn a. Levine (2010) express more public affection with men rather than with women and today gayness is becoming open. There are local resources in Turkey today for same sex couples. There is also a magazine run exclusively for gays called the Kaos GL.
This shows that the community has finally accepted the gay culture though not on equal terms. Tolerance seems to have crept in for the larger part of Turkey which is now modernized with European contact. There…… [Read More]
This also becomes clear if we consider other mammals and sexual behavior and orientation in the natural world.
On the other and I do not discount entirely the social and social learning theories about being gay. It would be incorrect to argue rigidly against the view that society, culture and social learning play a significant role in being gay. However, what is also very clear from this research is that being gay is predominantly and in the first instance biologically determined.
In the final analysis, while one can continue to discuss for and against arguments in this debate, for me it is just as important to listen to what gay people say about their feelings and situations. As mentioned in the introduction, many gay people state categorically that they 'have always felt different' and that their sexual preferences are internal and innate rather then learned. These are views that I…… [Read More]
Same-Sex Marriage: The Debate
Same-sex marriage is marriage between partners of the same gender (Wikipedia, 2004). This type of marriage is currently legal in only a few countries around the world. In the United States, the degree of legality of same-sex marriage varies between different states. In the U.S., the debate over whether or not to make same sex marriages legally binding remains one of the most controversial political debates of this century.
The moral legitimacy of marriage between same sex partners hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is viewed (Wikipedia, 2004). If marriage is perceived as a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions are key; if marriage is a social institution or an economic coupling, pragmatic arguments hold more force, though moral issues still apply. Gay rights advocates believe that marriage is a right that should not be limited to heterosexual couples. Their opponents…… [Read More]
The subject of this interview is a twenty-nine-year-old homosexual male of African-American descent, originally from Miami, Florida. He has been employed as a Certified Personal Fitness Trainer since his 1997 graduation from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he majored in Kinesthesiology and Movement Science
and minored in Broadcast Communications.
The subject seemed ideal for this interview because he is openly homosexual himself, but acutely irritated by the common homosexual "affect" that he characterizes as a learned or emulated set of effeminate mannerisms and speech patterns that many people have come to associate with (or even expect from) male homosexuals. The subject has repeatedly expressed his disgust with homosexuals whom he describes as "flames" or even "faggots," because as a comfortably assimilated homosexual male, he believes that he (and all homosexual males) suffer from stereotyping and the homophobia that he believes it inspires. Specifically, the subject…… [Read More]
Literature Review on homosexual parenting
For a period extending back to the last twenty years, the number of households headed by same-sex parents in the United States has subtly increased. According to a unanimous agreement in the U.S. In 2010, the number of same-sex couples who stay together was estimated to be 646,464, out of which 514,735 were unmarried couples of the same sex while 131,729 were married couples of similar sex. In another survey carried out in the U.S. In 2000, it was established that almost 163,879 households had children although they were headed by similar sex couples. With about 33% of households belonging to similar sex females, it was found out that bisexual or Lesbians had higher chances of being parents as compared to isexual or gays who accounted for just 22% although these male couples had at least a child below the age of 18…… [Read More]
Gay & Lesbian Studies
Reflection upon an Experience at a Battered Women's Shelter
For the purposes of this paper, the subject of my diversity experience is my visit to a shelter for women who are victims of domestic abuse and any children they might have in their custody. I began by performing some rudimentary Internet research about centers in my area. I was particularly interested in centers that serviced women with children. I wanted to volunteer my time with children who in urgent need of healthy adult contact. I feel children from abused homes especially should have examples of adults who they can feel safe around. I also wanted to provide women in unsafe relationships time to relax and perhaps focus on themselves while someone else responsible, mature, caring, and safe attended to their children. I had a passing conversation with a friend who knew of a center and I…… [Read More]
Advocacy: Facebook for Gays and Lesbians in Canada Today
A growing number of organizations of all types are providing a broad range of social services to the gay and lesbian communities throughout Canada and many of these have used the media to help them achieve their goals. For instance, the group "Dykes on Mykes" has produced a radio show since 1987 to promote community awareness of the challenges facing the gay and lesbian communities in Canada (Macphee & Hogan, 2006). Likewise, Willson, Green, Haworth-Brockman, and Beck (2006) report that they partnered with the Prairie Women's Health Centre of Excellence (PWHCE) in Winnipeg and Saskatoon using a strategy known as "photovoice" to provide impoverished Canadian women with the opportunity to share their experiences using their own words and photographic records of their lives. In the photovoice approach, "Participants are given cameras and training in how to use them; they then photograph…… [Read More]
There are many reasons for accepting the rights and legitimacy of gay couples to marry. The most important of these is the right to personal freedom. The misunderstanding that homosexual stereotypes project are an element that prevents the understanding of gay marriage.
idstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEUNKING STEREOTYPES: AOUT GAY & LESIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Kolasinksi. a. The SECULAR CASE AGAINST GAY MARRIAGE. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1082190/posts
Same-sex couples deserve exactly the same benefits and protections under the law as everyone else. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/pros_cons/gaymarriage/gaymarriage3.html
Shell, S.M. The Liberal Case against Gay Marriage. 2004. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.thepublicinterest.com/archives/2004summer/article1.html
Wright, M. In Favor of Gay Marriage. 2003. Accessed…… [Read More]
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…… [Read More]
Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.
This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…… [Read More]
Sexuality and Stigma in Cinema: Gay and Transgender Representation
According to the sociological theorist Erving Goffman, to bear a 'stigma' is to viewed by society as abnormal. "Stigmatized people are those that do not have full social acceptance and are constantly striving to adjust their social identities: physically deformed people, mental patients, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc." (Crossman 1). Until relatively recently, people in estern society who possessed same-sex desire were stigmatized as 'homosexuals' and deemed to be deviant. The films Maurice and the Naked Civil Servant show two different responses to stigmatization: in Maurice, the hero appears to do all he can to avoid living under such a stigmatized status while in Naked Civil Servant, the hero Quentin Crisp quite blatantly and proudly uses his stigmatized identity as a badge of honor. However, both men ultimately strive to reconfigure society's stigmatized attitude into something more positive and it may be…… [Read More]
This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).
From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…… [Read More]
society has accepted the presence of gays and lesbians, still beneath that facade, lies intense prejudice and discrimination. Society has refused to grant them even some most basic rights such as adoption and foster-parenting. Florida and two other states have imposed strict ban on adoption by same-sex parents, assuming that, children in unconventional family settings often lack emotional and psychological stability. But several studies in this connection have contradicted such notions and have clearly indicated that children of homosexual parents are no different from children of heterosexual couples.
GAY AND LESBIAN PAENTING
The Courts in the United States have tried repeatedly to provide children with a family setting which is recognized by American Family Law. Even the societal changes, which are currently taking place in family structures, the society itself and the legal system of our country have failed to see beyond the myths and misconceptions associated with alternative family…… [Read More]
channels are focused on the heated debate about homosexual marriages. Statutes are passed to allow it, thousands run to get it done before new statutes are put into place to remove the ability. At the center of the human rights tug-of-war, are the homosexuals of America. Many years ago, homosexuals were shunned by society. Their sexual orientation was deemed lewd and illegal and those who were homosexual were encouraged to remain firmly in the closet. For the past few decades, movement has been underway to dissolve the archaic attitudes and replace them with acceptance and tolerance. While this last challenge is faced, the fact remains that homosexuals are still experiencing discrimination and hate crimes. This paper will present an interview styled case study about the life of a homosexual. It will explore the biological, psychological and social aspects of being homosexual from the view point of one homosexual male. The…… [Read More]
It does a great job at removing the political issues associated with this population and instead looks at it in a purely business sense. If you are in the hotel business you want to make money. Being an extremely competitive market, you always need to market towards new clients. Today, nothing makes more financial sense than marketing to the gay and lesbian population.
Hughes, Howard L. Pink Tourism: Holidays of Gay Men and Lesbians. New York: CAB International, 2006.
This book focuses on the world of gay and lesbian tourism from a business and marketing perspective. Its main purpose is to show how marketing can best be used in this field. It begins with an overview of the nature of homosexuality and how these issues effect tourism and hotel marketing. The chapter on accommodation provisions specifically focuses on how hotel managers can market and provide desired services to this traveling…… [Read More]
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…… [Read More]
Bullying and Conflict in Relation to Learning About Gender and Other Forms of Equity
One of the harsh realities of life in the United States is the potential for bullying behaviors to adversely affect the learning environment for young victims, transforming the school environment from a place of learning into one that is dreaded and feared. Moreover, bullying behaviors can have a profound effect on the manner in which young people are socialized concerning gender roles as well as their perspectives concerning equity later in life. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper provides a review of the literature to develop a discussion concerning the issues of bullying and conflict in relation to learning about gender and other forms of equity and the implications these have for students and teachers. Finally, following this discussion, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in…… [Read More]
The questionnaires for the purpose of this particular study were completed by 179 participants. The gender preference breakdown of the participants included 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual females, 39 heterosexual males and 37 gay males (Harkless, Blaine, 2005).
When the study was completed and the data went through analysis it was found that gay men and lesbian women reported a higher degree of post relationship involvement with their former partners than heterosexual couple members reported occurring.
The data reflect how inclusion of sexual orientation can broaden understandings of gender differentiated phenomena beyond more traditional gender-only based accounts (Harkless, Blaine, 2005)."
The study questionnaire asked general demographic data and then moved into couple and gender specific questions. The questions required the participants to acknowledge their relationship with their former partner including whether or not they maintained emotional ties, sexual ties or other types of contact with the former partner. The questionnaire also…… [Read More]
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…… [Read More]