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Merck and Novartis Financial Statements 2012
• hat components of stockholders' equity do each of the companies disclose?
Merck & Co. provides a consolidated statement of stockholders equity on their balance sheet. They disclose the number of shares, share types, retained earnings, and some historical data (Merck & Co., 2013).
Novartis provides a much more thorough and detailed report of their shareholders equity in their annual report. Not only do they report all of the same accounts as Merck, but they also provide a detailed analysis of the movements in shareholders' equity as well as many of the motivations that are responsible for changes (Novartis, 2013)
• Do the companies have preferred stock shares outstanding? If so, what special features do these shares contain?
Both companies have preferred stock. Preferred stock accounts are paid before the common stock accounts. They are given priority when there is…
Merck & Co. (2013). 2012 Annual Statement. Retrieved from Merck & Co.: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTc0MTg1fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
Novartis. (2013). 2012 Annual Report. Retrieved from Novartis: http://www.novartis.com/downloads/investors/reports/novartis-annual-report-2012-en.pdf
Corporations have many stakeholders, of which the shareholders are just one group. There are also, for example, creditors, employees, suppliers and customers. In the case of pharmaceutical giants, society at large is also a stakeholder of a sort. The products a company like Merck develops improve the health and well-being of the population at large. Government can be said to be the stakeholder that represents this interest.
In the case of Mectizan, this may have been a significant factor in the decision to proceed with development. The development and free distribution of the drug generates goodwill on the part of Merck. That goodwill is an intangible asset. Merck relies on governments for a favorable legislative and structural environment in which to operate. It may be the case that the goodwill generated by the occasional apparent act of altruism allows for the perpetuation of that favorable environment. Therefore, even though the…
Reference for Business. Retrieved May 10, 2008 at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Sel-Str/Stakeholder-Theory.html
Rodgers, T.J. (2005). Rethinking the SOcial Responsibility of Business. Reason. Retrieved May 10, 2008 at http://www.reason.com/news/show/32239.html
The acquisition of Medco (by Merck) is a sign of shifts that are taking place in the health care industry. What is happening is there has been an emphasis on providing total health care solutions to consumers. As they are demanding that they have access to: the best services and want to have their different needs combined into one plan. This has lead to changes in the way health care services are delivered. As a variety of managed care plans have emerged to address these issues. Simply put, this is a health organization that will have their members pay them fees for the various services they require. As, this organization will negotiate with health care providers and drug manufactures; to offer their members the most cost effective solutions for addressing these different issues. Part of the reason for this, is because health care costs have been increasing dramatically…
Merck and Company. The Pharma Letter, 1993. Web. 18 Mar. 2011
Merck Medco Managed Care. The Pharma Letter, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2011
It is different than a criminal action, which involves a breach of duty owed to society at large. It is possible that actions are both tors and crimes; but only the state may prosecute a crime, but any injured party may bring a lawsuit against another as a tort ruling. There are a number of different torts; ranging from assault to negligence, all with foundations in the common law tradition (Van Gerven, 2001).
One business tort example is called Ultrahazordous Activity. This tort asserts that there is something so inherently dangerous that a person engaged in that activity can be held liable for any injuries caused to anyone else; even if the person or organization took every reasonable precaution to prevent injury. For instance, a hypothetical company called Xenon might be transporting explosive materials from California to a job site in Colorado via railroad. They have taken precautions, but during…
Financials - Merck. (2010, January). Retrieved February 2011, from 2009 Annual Report: http://www.merck.com/investors/financials/home.html#
Horton, R. (1995-96, January). Vioxx, the Implowion of Merck, and Sftershocks at the FDA. Retrieved February 2011, from the Lancet: http://image.thelancet.com/extras/04cmt396web.pdf
McClellan, F. (1994). Medical Malpractice: Law, tactics and ethics. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Reuters. (2006, December 7). Merck Sees Slightly Higher 2007 Earnings. Retrieved February 2011, from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/07/business/07drug.html?ex=1323147600&en=19d27b5814f1c1e8&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
More than anything else, this case exemplifies a keen sense of legal risk management. The company made enormous profits from the drug while it was selling it; it was highly effective for its on-label purpose and had no known dangerous side effects. After finding that they could be responsible for causing heart problems in patients taking the drug, the company pulled it for ethical reasons and as a means of protecting the company form legal and financial liability -- ongoing cases would have made the drug unprofitable, even with proper warnings (or so it seemed). Then, rather than pursuing cases that it was clearly winning, Merck spent less than one year's profits to settle all pending cases, coming out very much on top financially and in the clear legally. The fact that competitors still offer similar drugs suggests that Merck might actually have been to conservative in its response to…
Merck and Vioxx -- Research Data
How did Merck misuse research data to support their decision for marketing the COX-2 Drug Vioxx?
In November of 1998 the pharmaceutical company Merck submitted Vioxx's application to the Food and Drug Administration seeking approval for the COX-2 inhibitor drug, as a treatment for osteoarthritis, on the basis of clinical trials involving 5,400 patients. Merck said the rates of cardiovascular risk were "similar" among patients taking Vioxx, placebo or other pain relievers. This, however, was not the case. In fact, Vioxx had a higher risk of cardiovascular problems among patients taking Vioxx vs. patients taking the pain reliever naproxen. (Steyer, 2004)
Merck excused this by stating that the pain killers Vioxx was being compared to such as naproxen, the generic form of Advil or Motrin, had additional heart protective effects, although they were less effective in preventing pain. But according to CNN Money, the…
"Merck's Vioxx emails scrutinized." (1 Nov 2004) CNN.com. CNN Money. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://money.cnn.com/2004/11/01/news/fortune500/merck/
Steyer, Robert. (18 Nov 2004) "The Murky history of Merck's Vioxx." The Street. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.thestreet.com/_googlen/stocks/biotech/10195104.html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& ; cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA
Merck & iver Blindness: A Case Study Analysis
It has become increasingly common for large-scale international firms to dedicate some of their resources to the interests of Corporate Citizenship. This usually entails the use of the companies skills, resources and personnel to effect a positive change for a determined population. In this case of our present study, the highly reputable pharmaceutical company Merck is reported to have dedicated its resources to eradicating the condition colloquially known as river-blindness in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the case study by Levine (2005), since 1987 Merck and the World Health Organization have been partners in freely distributing the drug Mectizan to impoverished African populations in the hope of eliminating 'onchocerciasis.'
Slide 2: Action Plan
Because of the inherent challenges of creating and maintaining a Western distribution team of physicians and other trained public health specialists, an Action Plan would emerge that would…
Levine, J.B. (2005). Sharing Power: How Merck and the WHO have sustained a fragile balance of power in their battle against river blindness. Stanford Social Innovation Review.
An ethical question has to be raised as to Merk's direct role in both the research study and the resulting NEJM article. When the drug manufacturer is involved in a study regarding their leading products future, there is a blatant conflict of interest.
The actual marketing of Vioxx does not seem to pose any ethical questions. It was marketed as a drug that would assist with arthritis and other pain treatment. This is true and therefore was highly recommended by physicians. Further, when the initial concerns regarding the cardiovascular issues started to rise, Merck followed FDA regulations and used a warning label.
The evidence pertaining to the unknown emails and memos, however, are indicative of the fact that Merck's executives knew, yet failed to adequately disclose to doctors and patients, information on Vioxx's safety. This case for lack of full-disclosure is even more of an issue when coupled with the…
For Merck, the company is based in the U.S. And uses the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) to compile its financial statements.
Novartis is based in Switzerland, and it uses international financial reporting standards (IFS) to prepare its financial statements. It is allowed to use this as foreign firm, even though it has a cross-listing on the New York Stock Exchange, but it files a different form, the 20-C, to recognize that is a foreign entity with foreign accounting practices.
The external auditors for Merck are Price Waterhouse Coopers. They certify that they have followed the standards set by the Public Companies Accounting Oversight Board. They also followed the internal control integrated framework of COSO. The auditor for Novartis is also Price Waterhouse Coopers. They used the criteria of the internal control integrative framework from COSO and the standards of the Public Companies Accounting Oversight Board.
Merck Form 10-K. 2012 Retrieved November 25, 2013 from http://www.merck.com/investors/financial-reports/quarterly-financials.html
Novartis Form 20-F. 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from http://www.novartis.com/downloads/newsroom/corporate-publications/Novartis-20-F-2012.pdf
Ethical Analysis of Merck and Vioxx
How could Merck management have handled the research, development and marketing of Vioxx in a more ethically responsible fashion, if at all?
On September 30, 2004, Merck & Company declared the drawback associated with Vioxx, its extremely profitable pain reducer for osteoarthritis victims, from the marketplace. This particular move came only 7 days after scientists within the company discovered in a medical trial that subjects who utilized Vioxx regularly over a period of 18 months were prone to a cardiac arrest. Merck chairman as well as CEO aymond V. Gilmartin explained the decision to remove their most profitable product as "the sensible move to make." He was quoted saying, "It's included in our corporate foundations to work in this manner. That's the reason why the management arrived at this particular decision." Within the legal cases that succeeded, nevertheless, harming documents surfaced spreading question on…
Boatright. (2012). Ethics in the World of Business. Always Learning, Pearson.
Carveth, R., Ferraris, C. And Backus, N. (2006). Applying the Potter Box to Merck's Actions Regarding the Painkiller Vioxx. Association for Business Communication Annual Convention. Association for Business Communication.
Biddle, J. (2007). Lessons from the Vioxx Debacle: What the Privatization of Science Can Teach Us About Social Epistemology. Social Epistemology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 21 -- 39.
Bombardier, C., L. Laine, A. Reicin, D. Shapiro, R. Burgos-Vargas, B. Davis, et al. (2000). Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of Rofecoxib and Naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. New England Journal of Medicine 343: 1520 -- 28.
In what has been billed as the largest prescription-drug withdrawal in history, on the 30th of September, 2014, Merck withdrew Rofecoxib (Vioxx) following what Topol (2004) cites as excessive stroke and myocardial infarctions risk associated with the drug. The withdrawal came in the light of an FDA approval five years earlier and $2.5 billion in sales. At the time of its withdrawal, the medicine had been taken by a total of 80 million patients. Topol (2004) is of the opinion that this particular debacle could have been avoided had clear warning signs not been ignored along the way. The primary leaders in this particular case were leadership at the FDA and Merck’s senior executives.
The entre fiasco is representative of a colossal failure of leadership. Rodger Stodgill (as cited in Northouse, 2016) points out that some of the key traits of leadership include “persistence, insight, initiative, self-confidence, responsibility, cooperativeness, tolerance,…
38 per share on the company's common stock for the first quarter of 2005. The dividend is payable January 3, 2005 to stockholders of records at the close of business on December 3, 2004. Growth in the ZETIA and VYTORIN franchises are expected to continue. T
There are currently several candidates in Phase III that Merck plans to file in 2005 as well as Type 2 diabetes treatment and three vaccines. The fourth-quarter 2004 EPS anticipation is stated to be $0.48 to $0.53, which includes the impact of approximately "$700 to $750 million foregone sales of VIOXX. The result is anticipation by Merck for EPS guidance (2004 full-year) of $2.59 to $2.64. These amounts include withdrawal impact and next years negative affects of the DPS by $0.50 to $0.55."
Merck & Co., Inc. announced in a recent report that they had made submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration…
"Merck Board Appoints Special Committee to Review VIOXX Withdrawal" 2004 Dec 2 Whitehouse Stations, N.J. [Online] available at: http://www.merck.com/news room/press_releases/corporate/2004_1207.html
The global pharmaceutical market in 2000 - North America sets the pace (nd) [Online] available at: http://www.ims-global.com/insight/news_story/0103 / news_ story _010 314.htm
Merck Announces Voluntary Worldwide Withdrawal of Vioxx 2004 Sep 30 [Online] available at: http://www.vioxx.com/rofecoxib/vioxx/hcp/hcp_notification_physicians.jsp
25 in 1999, $0.24 in 2000 and $0.23 in 2001. This earning is after deducting cost of sales and operating expenses.
The following were the cash flows from 3 activities of Merck and ICN (figures were in dollars):
Cash inflow (outflow)
Merck & Co., Inc.
ICN Pharmaceutical Inc.
From operating activities
From Investing activities
From Financing activities
Operating cash flow is the cash that the Company generates through running its business. Considering cash flows of both Companies were positive, it can mean that their working capital is more than adequate to meet the operating requirements of the Company.
Cash flow from investing activities were aggregate change in a company's cash position resulting from any gains (or losses) from investments in the financial markets and operating subsidiaries, and changes resulting from amounts spent on investments in…
Q1.Why has the attractiveness of the pharmaceutical industry declined so much since the 1980’s? What are the implications of those changes in industry structure for firm strategy?
Despite the tremendous profits garnered by large pharmaceutical companies for so-called blockbuster drugs, pharmaceutical companies must make huge investments in R&D to produce profitable medications. The vast majority of drugs which are developed and tested never go to market. Additionally, once companies produce valuable drugs, they have a limited window on which to capitalize upon a drug’s profitability before its compounds can be sold in the form of a much cheaper generic. The FDA shortened the patient life of drugs from 11-12 years from 17-20, thus vastly reducing the financial ability of companies to cash in on valuable non-generics (Collis & Smith, 2007, p.5).
The industry structure also changed significantly, as more and more companies began to enter into the fray of developing…
The author of this report is asked to analyze and summarize the compensation plan of Merck Corporation, how it can be better, what they are doing right and what they are doing wrong. Inclusive in that will be an overall evaluation of their current plan, the beneficial ratio of internally consistent and market-consistent compensation systems, an evaluation of the current pay structure, two overall recommendations that the author of this report feels that Merck can and should undertake and the types of employer-sponsored retirement plans and/or health insurance plans that Merck makes use of as compared to that of competitors like Johnson & Johnson and others. While Merck, like most other companies, should always work to fine-tune and perfect their compensation plan, Merck is actually going quite well as made possible by their market and internal research as well as its wealth of resources and options that they…
Herper, M. (2013, April 17). Merck Could Return To Greatness If CEO Can Leave His Own Past Behind. Forbes. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2013/04/17/merck-could-return-to-greatness-if-ceo-can-leave-his-own-past-behind/
McIntyre, D. (2013, December 5). Can Walmart and McDonald's Afford a $15 Minimum Wage?. Yahoo Finance. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/walmart-mcdonald-afford-15-minimum-111559234.html
Merck. (2014, February 28). Merck.com. Merck.com. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.merck.com
Thurm, S. (2013, March 20). 'Pay for Performance' No Longer a Punchline. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324373204578372444079319544
Meanwhile, units of production method is computed using the on units of use rather than time. For example, particular machinery is depreciated based on the estimated number of units the Company expected to produce. Both method are more complex compared to straight-line method of depreciation.
Considering that cost of an item will not have the same value compared at acquisition, an accounting method is created to realize an asset's valuation during the period. For property, plant and equipment, as well as goodwill and other intangible assets, the method used to bring down the asset's cost to its realizable value is through deprecation. Depreciation is a process of allocating its cost, excluding salvage value, over its useful life not exceeding the Company's estimated business life. Salvage value can be defined as the worth of an asset upon its maximum useful life of an asset.
As of December 31, 2001 and 2000,…
There is the problem of inaccessibility. Most of the people in these impoverished areas live in regions that are unconnected by roads or any other transportation system, living far from hospitals, pharmacies, health personnel and institutions, and from any commercial system as it is understood in the conventional sense of the word. Superfluous drugs, therefore, languish in government warehouses or end up on the black market, raising additional dilemmas.
Keeping up with free distribution and criterion for stopping free distribution
As the distribution process picks up, it is evident that the organization was increasingly receiving support from civil groups and established health organizations. This means that the distribution strategy is likely to progress until the organization achieves its objectives thus eradicating river blindness. Consequently, the eradication of the ailment will determine the closure of the distribution program. Additionally, development or public health entities may incur distribution costs consequently relieving Merck.…
1) Proceed with self-distribution, whilst investigating whether PR can be established in order to promote Merck's generosity.
2) Temporarily, at least, relinquish the idea of creating a cure for river blindness concentrating instead on other less costly but equally essential concerns such as AIDS.
The Business Enterprise Trust. (1991). Merck & Co., Inc. Massachusetts, MA: Harvard Business School
philanthropic strategy a company choice. In approaching question, essay aim explore process philanthropic strategy formulation organization aspects strategy.
Strategic philanthropy is a practice of companies where they target philanthropic and charitable activates around a cause that will support their business objectives. Companies use philanthropy as a way of benefiting their business interests and the interests of the beneficiary organization. According to Thorne, McAlister, Ferrell, and Ferrell (2010)
strategic philanthropy is designed around creative planning, careful execution, focused research, and thorough follow-up, which is intended to achieve the desired results. Strategic philanthropy should be driven by the company's core concerns and values for it to be effective and rewarding. Strategic philanthropy mainly focuses on builds and changes for the future Carroll & Buchholtz, 2009()
Strategic philanthropy should not be confused with charity. Donations or charity tend to be smaller given by many people that go towards an immediate need or cause.…
Carroll, A.B., & Buchholtz, A.K. (2009). Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Chadwick, R. (2000). The Concise Encyclopedia of the Ethics of New Technologies. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier Science.
Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, G.R. (2008). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach: An Integrated Approach. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Merck. (2013). Access To Health, from http://www.merckresponsibility.com/focus-areas/access-to-health/home.html
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Leveraged buyout refers to the acquisition strategy whereby the target companies is acquired with the help of borrowed money usually bonds or loans. The acquiring company usually borrows money to buy another company and thus minimum equity is involved. Usually LBOs work on the principle of 90/10 debt-equity ratios where 10% money comes from the acquiring company while ninety percent is borrowed funds. Li JIN and Fiona WANG (2001) write: "Most financial dictionaries define a leveraged buyout (LBO) as a debt-financed transaction, typically via bank loans and bonds, aimed at taking a public corporation private. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new corporation, these bonds are typically rated below investment-grade, and are properly referred to as high-yield or junk bonds." There are five important characteristics of LBOs including 1) less equity more debt 2) the bonds are known as junk bond because of their…
Li JIN and Fiona WANG, Leveraged Buyouts: Inception, Evolution, and Future Trends, Perspectives, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2001
PHILIPPE DESBRIERES AND ALAIN SCHATT The Impacts of LBOs on the Performance of Acquired Firms: the French Case- Retrieved online on 6th August 2003
Taken from "Strategic Restructuring: Findings from a Study of Integrations and Alliances Among Nonprofit Social Service and Cultural Organizations in the United States" by Amelia Kohm, et al., June 2000.Avilable online at http://www.lapiana.org/defined/matrix.html
Class actions represent a consolidation of power by plaintiffs and alleged victims in a case, allowing groups of plaintiffs to consolidate their cases and seek a single judgment for collective damages. Though this is primarily a way of strengthening each plaintiff's case and their cases as a whole, it has certain benefits to defendants as well. By dealing with the Vioxx cases as a class action and coming to an out-of-court resolution with the class action, Merck avoided incurring additional legal costs in resolving or bringing to trial each of the individual cases that it was faced with. This is one way of managing the legal risks of the company; given a different set of circumstances, it might have been advantageous to try each case separately and many cases might have been dismissed due to lack of merit; in this case; the harm caused was fairly evident and materially the…
Understanding how a company operates within any industry is dependent upon comprehension of many financial properties. Assessing the financial stability of a company is essential in determining the company's strengths and weaknesses as well as ultimately assessing its profitability. Financial ratios should be considered a useful tool when examining the profitability and efficiency of any company. Some companies are certainly more successful and profitable than others, and pharmaceutical companies in particular seem to have a distinct advantage when measuring financial ratios.
When assessing any organization, for terms of this paper are as follows: Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Merck it is important to consider the profitability and efficiency of the company. This is among the first information investors will explore before "investing" in a company. atio analysis is a critical analysis of the financial structure of an organization. There are four categories of ratios that need to be…
Calculating and Interpreting Financial Ratios. http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Pfizer%20efficiency%20and%20profitability%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2efool%2ecom%2fportfolios%2frulemaker%2f2001%2frulemaker010531%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=2&requestId=cns92890&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS
MBA 681, Fall 2002. "Financial Analysis." http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Merck%20profitability%20and%20efficiency%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2emgmtguru%2ecom%2fmgt499%2fTN4%5f3%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=5&requestId=cns41327&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net website, at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=22415 .
Three -- Steel Dynamics, Alcoa and IE DuPont fell in excess of 6% for the week. The drop in the first two can be attributed to weakness in commodities. The other outlier was Pfizer, which was the only stock to gain this week, up 0.49%. Even fellow pharmaceutical firms JNJ and MRK dropped, indicating specific strength in Pfizer, most likely tied to merger talks. Most stocks in the portfolio, however, roughly tracked the market, which slumped on generally discouraging sentiment with regards to economic recovery, spurred by weak new home sales and durable goods sales, two key economic indicators (Perman, 2009).
Close Sept 18
Close Sept 25
All stock quotes from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/home.asp
No author. (2009). Stock index futures point to higher open. Reuters. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&date=20090925&id=10373441
Gibson, Nevil. (2009). Wall Street Stocks Fall as Fed Keeps Interest Rates Down. National Business Review. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/wall-street-stocks-fall-fed-keeps-interest-rates-down-111655
No author. (2009). Merck Seeks EU Approval to buy Schering-Plough. Associated Press. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/ticker/article.aspx?symbol=U.S.:JNJ&feed=AP&date=20090921&id=10408829
Pfizer can be included in the larger industrial sector of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, although a great part of its revenues come from the pharmaceutical products for which it is renowned. The pharmaceutical companies have specialized in a vast category of drugs, from simple, aspirin- type drugs, to more complex ones, including drugs that inhibit or activate individual molecules in different selected environments. They also produce vitamins and livestock food supplements.
The pharmaceutical industry in the United States (and worldwide for that matter) is considered to be one of the most profitable and continuously booming. It is estimated that globally, over $300 billion worth of drugs are sold. A simple explanation for this high degree of profitability is, of course, the high demand of the sector: no matter what happens, drugs and medicine continue to be one of the necessities of people. Additionally, this demand seems to be on a constant…
Merck's profit margin was 13.6%, while Pfizer scored 34.8%, almost three times as much! This means either that Pfizer is selling at higher prices than Merck (it may be the case that Pfizer provides more specialized drugs that sell at a higher price) or that Pfizer has lower costs (I doubt that this is the main cause here. In general, the main costs in the pharmaceutical industry come from research and developed. As is the case here, it is very probable that these two companies are spending more or less the same amount on R& D. In order to remain competitive).
The return on total assets ratio, obtained by dividing the net income after tax to the total asset value, showed a score of 1.9% in Pfizer's case and of 14.8% in Merck's case, while the ROE (return on equity) amounted for 40.37% in Merck's case and 3.57% on Pfizer's case. The differences, as we can see, are extremely high. I could explain the first indicator, the ROI, with the very high value of total assets for Pfizer in 2003 (this almost doubled from 2002), which made the company less profitable that year, but the difference in ROE is enormous. It does not necessarily reflect a low profit in Pfizer's case (this seems comparable), but a very high value of equity. However, the analysis is even more complicated when we look at the P/E ratio, where the differences are staggering: Pfizer has a reported P/E of 136.92, while Merck has one of only 16.75, with the industrial average somewhere at 28.72. The closest to Pfizer in this case is Bayer, with 96.01.
The conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are somewhat ambiguous. We have had a look at several financial indicators and in many of them, Pfizer has scored lower scores than its competitor Merck. This is mainly the case of the asset management ratio and the profitability ratio. However, one of the most important indicators, the P/E, that shows us the perspective of a company, showed extremely high values for Pfizer, compared to all other companies and to the industrial average. Seeing that many indicators were influenced by the unstable value of the total assets, due to current acquisitions and mergers, investing in Pfizer may be advisable given the fact that a long-term growth is expected in the industry, as well as for the company (see again the P/E).
Actions Estrogen and Progesterone in Endometrium and Breast: Puberty, Pregnancy and Puerperium Including Molecular Actions and Functionally Important Tissue Level Effects
Estrogen and progesterone are essential to cyclical changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy and peurperium. Complex molecular activity influences tissue changes in multiple reproductive organs including the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, breasts and more (Kimbrell & McDonnell, 2003).During a woman's reproductive cycle the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone or luteinizing releasing hormone which stimulates the release of luteneizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (Merck, 2005). This in turns promotes maturation of female ovum and stimulates the body's release of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone during a woman's cycle. Estrogen and progesterone contain carbon atoms and other polycyclic compounds that are created from cholesterol and circulate within the bloodstream via plasma proteins (Merck, 2005).
Unbound estrogen and progesterone compounds stimulate the reproductive system including the endometrium, uterus and breasts to mature…
"Hormones of the Reproductive System of Females." Available:
Kimbrell, E.A. & McDonnell, D.P. (2003). "Function and mode of action of nuclear receptors: Estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D" Pure Appl Chem, 75(11-12): 1671. Available: http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/pdf/7511x1671.pdf
Merck & Co., Inc. (2005). Reproductive Endocrinology. The Merck Manual, Sec. 18, Ch.
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009:
CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…
Amiya, N. "Va Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis." Publikationsansicht. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Brinkman, S. "Gardasil Researcher Drops a Bombshell." The Bulletin. 2009. Web. 15
"Gardasil Vaccine Safety." FDA. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Acidic and Basic Solutions and the Mechanisms of the Body to Balance These Solutions
The objective of this study is to explain the difference between acidic and basic solutions and the mechanisms the human body has to balance acidic and basic solutions. According to The Merck Manual the "degree of acidity or alkalinity" is an important blood property. (2014, p.1) The acidity of blood increases at the time that the level of "acidic compounds in the body rises" and this may be due to increases in production or increases in intake as well as decreases in elimination or when the "basic (alkaline) compounds in the body falls." (The Merck Manual, 2014, p. 1) The alkalinity of the body is reported to increase when the process reverses. It is reported that the balance of the body between the alkalinity and acidity is spoken of at the acid-base balance. The Merck Manual…
Overview of Acid-Base Balance (2014) The Merck Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal_and_metabolic_disorders/acid-base_balance/overview_of_acid-base_balance.html
The first component is as follows: Net Margin = Net Income/Sales. How much profit Abbott laboratories makes for very $1.00 it generates in revenue, and the higher a company's profit margin the better. The second component is as follows: Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. The amount of sales generated for every dollar's worth of assets. This measures Abbott's efficiency at using assets, and again, the higher the number the better. The final factor of the Du Pont analysis is as follows: Leverage Factor = Total Assets/Shareholder's Equity. The higher the number, the more debt the company has. Abbott's Du Pont analysis is computed using the following equation:
In this case, for the end of 2006, Abbott Laboratories reported a net income of $717 million dollars, sales of $22,476 million, total assets for 2006 of $36, 178 million, and equity of $14,054 for 2006. Placing these figures into the equation above…
Abbott. (2007). About the Company. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.abbott.com .
Epsicom. (2007). Abbott Medical Device Company Intelligence Report. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.piribo.com/publications/medical_devices/companies/abbott_medical_device_company_intelligence_report.html .
McKinnell, H. (2003). Performance Report. Bayer AG 2003 Annual Review: 1-30.
Rogers, M. (2003). Risk Management in Real Options-Based Pharmaceutical
Main Functions of the Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).
The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into…
DHS 2008, 'Developmental disabilities nursing,' Department of Human Services
[Online] Available at http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/spd/provtools/nursing/ddmanuel/companion.pdf ?
Franz 2009, 'Nursing care plan -- renal failure,' Nursing Crib [Online] Available at http://nursingcrib.com/nursing-care-plan/nursing-care-plan-renal-failure
Hudson, K 2007, 'Acute renal failure -- nursing CEs,' Dynamic Nursing Education
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…
American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .
Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .
Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .
HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
A challenger thus goes for an all out attack against the leader in order to gain market share. In the field of pharmaceuticals, for example, Merck would be seriously challenged by Pfizer because both companies are massive in size and are targeting almost the same areas. Some of the strategies attained by a challenger would include Frontal attack (offering new and better products at lower price) Leapfrog (offering treatment in previously untouched areas), Flank (reach a new segment of market) and encircle (develop a niche).
A company may choose to focus on one single segment and hence achieve the title of a specialist. The company is still trying for domination but only in its selected areas. It doesn't want to compete in every single field like the leader or the challenger. For example a firm may try to become a dominant player in discovering treatments for neurological disorders.…
Though the Vioxx incident is one of the more major breaches of this implicit public contract, the issues of improper marketing -- especially in over-promoting a drug's efficacy and unethically downplaying a drug's risks -- are an industry-wide problem (OBM, 2005) for that reason, Merck and other pharmaceutical companies ought to adhere to the same standards as social marketing. Social marketing, which is generally not for a profit, is concerned only with public welfare, and thus faces slightly different ethical issues (Brenkert, 2002). Both commercial and social marketing are concerned with improving the well-being of the consumer, but in social marketing "the intended well-being of the people targeted is not simply an individual or subjective matter" (Brenkert, 2002). The same should be true of pharmaceutical marketing; though these companies must turn a profit, their main concern -- like the main concern for all other sectors and practitioners in healthcare --…
Brenkert, G. (2002). "Ethical challenges of social marketing." Journal of public policy and marketing, 21 (1), pp. 14-25
Hosmer, L. (1994). "Strategic planning as if ethics mattered." Strategic management journal, 15, pp. 17-34
OMB Watch. (2005). "House hearing reveals unethical marketing of Vioxx." Accessed 2 February 2009. http://www.ombwatch.org/article/articleview/2845/1/308?TopicID=1
Rh incompatibility is a condition reported to occur during a woman's pregnancy when the woman's blood is Rh-negative and the baby's blood is Rh-positive. Rh-negative and Rh-positive are references to whether the individual's blood has Rh factor which is a protein reported to be on the individual's red blood cells. (National Heart, Lung and lood Institute, 2014, p. 1)
The problem with the mother with Rh-negative blood carrying a child with Rh-positive blood occurs when the baby's blood somehow crosses into the blood stream of the mother and this is reported to occur most often during delivery of the baby. The mother's body with Rh-negative blood will have a reaction to the blood of the baby as though the baby's blood were a foreign substance and the mother's body creates antibodies or proteins that fight against the blood of the Rh-positive baby. These antibodies are reported to be such that…
Rh Incompatibility: Erythroblastosis Fetalis (2014) Merck Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/womens_health_issues/complications_of_pregnancy/rh_incompatibility.html
The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy (2013) The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved from: http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/The-Rh-Factor-How-It-Can-Affect-Your-Pregnancy
What is Rh Incompatibility? (2014) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/rh/
The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).
Treatment and prognosis for recovery
Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…
"A pinch of salt." Horse and Rider. 2001. February 5, 2010.
"Don't forget the salt." CFC farm and home center. January-February 2006.
February 5, 2010. http://www.cfcfarmhome.net/images/E0228001/horsenewsjanfeb.pdf
FCER Points Out Error to erck; erck Confirms Change"
This commentary illustrates the issue of problematic wording within the medical community. A Doctor of Chiropractic expressed concern to the Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research over improper phrasing written in the erck anual.
The bothersome statement written in the erck anual was thought to have originated from medical data derived over 30 years ago. This article points the importance of knowing one's own specialty, and having a thorough knowledge of medical terminology so as to correct and prevent medical mishaps.
ackechnie C, Simpson, R (2006) "Traceable Calibration for Blood Pressure and Temperature onitoring" Nursing Standard 21, 11, (2006): 42-47
Correct diagnosis and monitoring largely depend on accurate pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and body temperature measurements. any measurement errors can be minimized by confirming that instruments are calibrated. This article emphasizes to need for instruments to be traceably calibrated to national…
Mackechnie C, Simpson, R (2006) "Traceable Calibration for Blood Pressure and Temperature Monitoring" Nursing Standard 21, 11, (2006): 42-47
Correct diagnosis and monitoring largely depend on accurate pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and body temperature measurements. Many measurement errors can be minimized by confirming that instruments are calibrated. This article emphasizes to need for instruments to be traceably calibrated to national standards.
Nurses are responsible for taking measurements, so it is imperative that nurses be aware of the issues of measurement precision. Unreliable instruments (due to lack of traceable calibration) can lead to inaccurate measurements resulting in misdiagnosis and poor patient care.
According to the Pfizer press release section of its website, discomfort associated with fibromyaglia, a common chronic pain condition, has been shown to be significantly reduced by a new drug developed by Pfizer called Lyrica, "according to study results presented today at the American Academy of Neurology annual meeting" ("Lyrica Significantly Reduced Pain," 2007, Press Release). Pfizer has also developed a new AIDS drug called Maraviroc, which is likely to considerably improve and extend the life of AIDS patients who take the drug, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburg and Columbia University (Altman & Pollock, 2007).
Both Merck and Schering-Plough, two of Pfizer's greatest rivals, plan to combine forces and develop a medicine to rival Lipitor. "The planned drug, meant to reduce levels of the harmful type of cholesterol in two ways, could hit the market when Lipitor's patent expires in a few years" ("Merck and…
Altman, Lawrence & Andrew Pollock. (28 Feb 2007). "2 New Drugs Offer Options in H.I.V. Fight." The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/health/28hiv.html?ei=5070&en=c009b27fab6d02ae&ex=1179460800&pagewanted=print
Berenson, Alex. (10 Apr 2007). "Pfizer Drug for Diabetes Is Lagging." The New York
Times. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/10/business/10drug.html?ei=5070&en=24b0845a8ddbc0d1&ex=1179460800&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1179352594-6dgJ3Hydh0yYFcYeNY+5Fg&pagewanted=print
Lyrica Significantly Reduced Pain and Helped Patients Manage the Symptoms of Fibromyalgia, Data Show. (1 May 2007). Pfizer Press Release. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.pfizer.com
Corporate executive pay needs to be reconsidered. Proponents of corporate greed will claim all sorts of outlandish reasons why their mansion on the iviera is benefitting the worker making $7 per hour in the fields. Companies will even use spurious research methods to justify corporate executive pay. The Institute for Policy Studies and the Center for Corporate Policy (2007) notes that "amounts for restricted stock, pension benefits, deferred compensation, and severance pay" are rarely factored into the evaluations of corporate executive pay to make it look like chief executives are not making as much as they actually are. Hiding money, misreporting money, and misreporting data are just a few of the ways corporate America is ruining America. It is high time the people of the United States took back their nation from the greedy corporate executives. A score of executives are laughing all the way to the bank while millions…
AFL-CIO (2011). 2011 Executive Paywatch. Retrieved online: http://www.aflcio.org/corporatewatch/paywatch/
Anderson, S., Pizzigati, S. Collins, C. & Cavanagh, J. (2007). Selfish interest. Center for Corporate Policy.
DeCarlo, S. & Zajac, B. (2009). CEO Compensation. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/22/executive-pay-ceo-leadership-compensation-best-boss-09-ceo_land.html
Domhoff, G.W. (2005). Welath, income, and power. Who Rules America. Retrieved online: http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…
DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion
and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html
DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm
Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
In general, the price I would pay for this bond will depend on the risk that the company has. My personal risk preference is that I am risk averse. I expect inflation to continue to be very low over the next year, but increasing slightly from current levels. The prevailing interest rates are low, which means I would expect the corporate bond rates to also be quite low. The company I have selected is Johnson & Johnson, and I do not believe that there is any default risk with this company. They are a large, stable company with a large cash position and stable earnings. They have a wide range of products, meaning they are well-diversified. In addition, that company has increased its earnings steadily over the past several years. They compete in a number of different industries as well. Thus, there is little risk that Johnson & Johnson…
Nursing - Asthma
The limitation of airflow in asthma is reported as "recurrent and caused by a variety of changes in the airway." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Those changes include: (1) bronchoconstriction; (2) airway edema; (3) airway hyperresponsiveness; and (4) airway remodeling. Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway edema occurs with the progression of the disease and the inflammation is more progressive and exacerbated by "edema, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and the formation of inspissated mucus plugs as well as structural changes including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle." (Expert Panel eport 3, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007, p.1) Airway hyperresponsivenss is reported to be "an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor response to a wide variety of stimuli. Airway modeling speaks of the permanent structural changes in the airway reported to be associated with "loss…
Asthma (2013) The Merck Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary_disorders/asthma_and_related_disorders/asthma.html
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.); 2007 Aug. Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma, and Natural History of Asthma. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7223/
Thomas J. Morrow, MD J (2007) Implications of Pharmacogenomics in the Current and Future Treatment of Asthma. Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13(6):497-505. Retrieved from: http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/pages%20497-505.pdf
Strong wheezing, indicative of cardiac asthma, is also probable. Noisy breathing efforts make cardiac auscultation hard. Signs like neck vein distention and peripheral edema may occur and indicate right ventricular failure (Arnold).
Interstitial pulmonary edema is diagnosed when clinical evaluation reveals severe dyspnea and pulmonary crackles (Arnold, 2009). Diagnosis is also made by chest x-ray, serum natriuretic peptide or N-terminal-pro NP, ECG, cardiac markers and other tests for etiology. In most cases, chest x-ray is immediately performed and establishes the diagnosis with marked interstitial edema. If the diagnosis is inconclusive, bedside measurement of serum NP levels will help. ECG, pulse oximetry and blood tests are conducted on severely ill patients. An ECG will help identify the cause of the pulmonary edema and direct the choice of treatment. Possible causes of pulmonary edema may be myocardial infarct, valvular dysfunction, hypertensive heart disease, are dilated cardiomyopathy. Severe hypoxemia may also occur.…
Arnold, M.O. (2009). Pulmonary edema. The Merck Manual Medical Library: Merck & Co., Inc. Retrieved on February 6, 2011 from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec07/ch074/ch074b.html
- (2008). Heart failure. Retrieved on February 6, 2011 from http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec03/ch025/ch025a.html
It is expected that the bond will mirror the performance of the S & P. 500. ("Transaction History," 2010)
November 24, 2010
On November 24th several more new purchases would take place to include: General Motors, erkshire Hathaway, the Fidelity Immediate Government Fund and the Strategic Advisors Income Fund.
General Motors was selected, because it could help to provide the portfolio with above average growth. The results were that that stock would see an increase of 1.4%. ("Transaction History," 2010)
erkshire Hathaway was purchased to provide the portfolio with stability and diversification. This investment is expected to outperform the major market averages. The results were up .96%.( "Transaction History," 2010)
The Fidelity Intermediate Government Fund was selected because of their focus on medium term Treasury investments. This is expected to underperform the market averages. The results were that the position declined by 2.55%. ("Transaction History," 2010)
Account Details. (2010). Stock Trak. Retrieved from: http://www.stocktrak.com/private/account/summary.aspx
Ford Posts 68% Rise in Third Quarter Income. (2010). MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39845528/ns/business-autos/
Transaction History. (2010). Stock Trak. Retrieved from: http://www.stocktrak.com/private/account/transactionhistory.aspx
Kavilanliz, P. (2010). Black Friday. CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2010/11/27/news/economy/Black_friday_2010_sales/
Informed Decision Making (Nursing Role)
The nurse has the utmost responsibility in educating the patient and his/her family about the proposed treatment plan, the availability of alternative interventions, and in general plays a vital role in promoting informed decision making. [ANMC], (2005)] The nurse being more familiar with the patient has a better understanding of the patient's understanding capabilities and can therefore decide as to what type of teaching method a patient is best suited for. While for some patients a simple printed information leaflet is suffice for others a more detailed presentation involving a video maybe necessary. This again helps the patient better understand the procedures and helps them in their decision making process. [Mark H. eers, (2006)] In the case of new treatment modalities that are available with recent medical advancements, the nurse can greatly assist the patient in making well-informed decisions about the available treatment choices. Gene…
1) ANMC, (2005), ' Code of Ethics of Nurses in Australia', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from, http://www.nrgpn.org.au/index.php?element=ANMC+Code+of+Ethics
2) Jeanette Ives Erickson, RN, (2005), 'Caring for Patients while Respecting their Privacy: Renewing our Commitment ', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/506840
3) ISONG, (2005), 'Informed Decision Making and Consent: The Role of Nursing', retrieved Sep 5th 2010, from, http://www.isong.org/ISONG_PS_informed_consent.php
4) Mark H. Beers, MD & Thomas V Jones MD et.al, (June 2006) 'The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: Chapter 8: Nursing', Pub by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…
Basal Metabolic Rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Buzzle Web site:
Basal metabolic rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Wellness.com Web site:
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…
Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).
Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…
Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug
Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group
2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.
2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8
In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).
There will also be an all-time…
Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, a. (2004). "Organizational behavior," 6e; [Chap. 17]; [Chap. 18]. Accessed December 19, 2007, from MBA520, eResource, week 5, eBook Collection database.
McShane, and Von Glinow. (2005). "Organizational behavior" (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
); Muret, Don. (1999). "Former Disney VP stresses teamwork at cafe." Amusement Business, 111(49), 22. Accessed August 17, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Frazee, Bonnie. (2004). "Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process" Accessed December 19, 2007, at http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_feature.asp?articleid=698&zoneid=29
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…
Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…
Reference: PDR Network LLC.
Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
" This drug has already won approval for use in Europe and the United tates. tudies conducted show that the drug "targets the tumor to control in four areas: in the site where hypersecretion starts, in GH secretion, IGF-1 and in the symptoms associated with the disease (Unknown, 2004)." While the drug has been approved, there are still contraindications to taking it such as a patient who has an irregular or slow heart rate, or blood sugar levels which are either too high or too low.
Although gigantism begins prior to puberty, the "majority of giants eventually demonstrate features of acromegaly, of which the mean age for the onset is within the 3rd decade of life. Even a congenital onset of GH excess has been suggested by linear growth acceleration occurring within the first few months of life in young children with documented gigantism (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." Although there is no…
Simmons, Kirt E. (01 October, 1999). "Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Changes: Preliminary Data From Studies in Turner's Syndrome." Pediatrics.
Skatssoon, Judy. (21 May, 2002). "NSW: New discovery could lead to cure for dwaftism, gigantism." AAP General News (Australia).
Unknown. (01 June, 2004). "Novartis Sandostatin LAR approved in Japan for Acromegaly. Worldwide Biotech.
Other rivals will have a more secure market share as well, and new drugs may develop. However, although the rise may not be as astronomical, hopefully from AstraZenica's perspective, Crestor's next phasing into the 'decline' phase of the product life cycle will not be as impressive, either.
CNN. Com. (18 Nov 2004) "Merck, FDA grilled at Senate hearing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://cnnmoney.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=Merck%2C+FDA+grilled+at+Senate+hearing+over+Vioxx+-+Nov.+18%2C+2004&expire=&urlID=12326029&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2004%2F11%2F18%2Fnews%2Ffortune500%2Fmerck%2Findex.htm%3Fcnn
Crestor. (2004) "About Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/
Crestor. (2004) "Side Effects: Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/sideeffects.asp
Drugrecall.com. (2004) "FDA says Crestor ads are false and misleading." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.adrugrecall.com/news/crestor-safety.html
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Pricing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_pricing.htm
Marketing teacher." Product Life Cycle." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_plc.
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Value Chain." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_generic_strategies.htm
CNN. Com. (18 Nov 2004) "Merck, FDA grilled at Senate hearing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://cnnmoney.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=Merck%2C+FDA+grilled+at+Senate+hearing+over+Vioxx+-+Nov.+18%2C+2004&expire=&urlID=12326029&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2004%2F11%2F18%2Fnews%2Ffortune500%2Fmerck%2Findex.htm%3Fcnn
Crestor. (2004) "About Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/
Crestor. (2004) "Side Effects: Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at
Harris, Gardener (17 Feb 2005) "Medical Panel Poses Pointed Questions to Drug Makers Over Risks of Painkillers." The New York Times. Sunday Edition. Retrieved 19 Feb 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/17/health/17fda.html?pagewanted=
Perhaps the some of the most infamous research studies conducted in recent years were the ones currently undergoing FDA scrutiny, regarding the safety of the once-popular COZ-2 inhibitor drugs such as Vioxx and Bextra and Celebrex. An early Vioxx study found that patients taking the medication had more than four times the risk of undergoing a heart attack as those individuals in the control group. Those patients in the control group were taking Naproxen, another common pain pill but not a COX-2 inhibitor. The Merck Company has since stated it believed that the difference might have resulted because Naproxen protected against heart problems in a manner similar to aspirin.
This raises an important question validating the hypothesis of the research study…
For example, towards the end of Falling Free Van Atta finds an old memo in his e-mail with orders to kill the Quaddies: "Item: Post-fetal experimental tissue cultures. Quantity: 1,000. Disposition: cremation by IGS standard biolab rules" (p. 293). Van Atta notices that the order came from "General Accounting and Inventory Control" and was signed by "some unknown middle manager in the GA& IC back on Earth." Van Atta says, "I don't think this twit even knows what Quaddies are." Similarly, non-sensical orders come down all the time in the military, which is organized along corporate lines, from people who know nothing about local situations.
In a large corporation it is difficult to affix moral responsibility on individuals. When scandals erupt (Enron, for example), the CEO will claim he didn't know anything about what was going on. Employees lower in the hierarchy need their incomes, and they may be reluctant…
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
Hyponatremia in a 38-year-Old male
The constellation of signs and symptoms the patient presented with is consistent with a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002, p. 330-331). These include a recent history of gastric distress, partial loss of consciousness, lethargy, dizziness, disorientation, weight loss, hyponatremia, borderline hyperkalemia, low serum and free cortisol levels, and the lack of a rapid cortisol response to ACTH stimulation (Wilson, 2008). Signs and symptoms that may not support a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency include no mention of hyperpigmentation or pallor, and an unremarkable abdominal CT scan. A discussion of these signs and symptoms, and the possible relevance to a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency follows.
True Hyponatremia Diagnosis
There are a large number of conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of hyponatremia, so this symptom alone has limited diagnostic utility (Wilson, 2008, p. 519). The combination of severe hyponatremia…
Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://aace.metapress.com/content/u645qx2217t34124/fulltext.pdf
Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse
Anglin, Rebecca E., Rosebush, Patricia I., and Mazurek, Michael F., 2006. The neuropsychiatric profile of Addison's disease: Revisiting a forgotten phenomenon. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, 450-459.
Betterle, Corrado, Pra, Chiara Dal., Mantero, Franco, and Zanchetta, Renato, 2002. Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: Autoantibodies, autoantigens, and the applicability in diagnosis and disease prediction. Endocrinology Reviews, 23, 327-364.
Nursing Strategies to Encourage Patient Independence
Nurses have a vital role to play in the hospital-based emergency care to home-based hospice care settings. Nurses have evolved from being simple supportive caregivers to having a central role in ensuring optimal care provision for patients. Today's nurses are not only expected to develop critical thinking skills but also to focus on nursing strategies that are designed to promote patient independence, individuality, and dignity as these qualities positively influence patients coping and recovery and minimize their discomfort during the period of their illness. Holistic nursing care includes addressing the emotional needs of the patients as very much a part of the nursing care plan. A brief overview of the nursing strategies that are designed to promote such a holistic care with a discussion of the benefits of such a nursing approach would provide more insight into the topic.
Nursing role is…
1) Mark H. Beers, MD & Thomas V Jones MD et.al, (June 2006) 'The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: Chapter 8: Nursing', Pub by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
2) Dennis Gyomber, Nathan Lawrentschuk & Peter Wong et.al (Mar 2010), 'Improving informed consent for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy using multimedia techniques: a prospective randomized crossover study', BJU Vol 106, Issue 8, pg 1152- 1156.
3) Ann Marie Rosland, (2009), 'Sharing the Care: The Role of Family in Chronic Illness', retrieved Jan 17th 2011, from, http://www.chcf.org/~/media/Files/PDF/F/PDF%20FamilyInvolvement_Final.pdf
4) Royal College of Nursing, (2008), 'Defending Diginity: Challenges and opportunities for nursing', retrieved Jan 17th 2011, from, http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/166655/003257.pdf
Built to Last
About the Book
The authors for Built to Last by James C. Collins and co. author Jerry I Porras, spent six years in research in order to write this book. After their thorough research they confessed that their own presumption about business success were spoiled and ruined by their authentic and concrete findings together with the preconceptions of almost everyone else.
Built to Last is the story that identifies eighteen "imaginative" companies and sets out to find out what is being so particular and unique about them where, in order to get on the list, a corporation had to be well-known, along with an astral brand image, and be maximum fifty years old as well as different such as the al-Marts, the Mercks and the Disneys etc.
Thus, the significance to the success of this book is that the authors didn't waste time in comparison those companies…
ReadingGroupGuides.com. Built to Last by James C. Collins and Jerry I Porras. www.readinggroupguides.com
Amazon.com. Built to Last by James C. Collins and Jerry I Porras.
Built To Last
Commercialization of a Medical Product
It is important to note, from the onset, that patents present the most effective approach to 'locking' the desired market after realizing the fruits of research. This is particularly the case given that the commercialization of medical research in itself brings about a high level of risk to the key stakeholders involved in the entire research process, particularly investors. In the case under consideration, we assume that investors will have a two-year period of market exclusivity, after which the medical research team will lose its patent protection. This effectively means that other companies will be free to manufacture and sell the drug. The relevance of formulating the right strategies to guarantee the profitability of the company after the two-year period cannot, therefore, be overstated.
The removal of patent holder's monopoly not only promotes, but also encourages competition (Joly and Knoppers, 2014). There are several approaches…
Gupta, H., Kumar, S., Roy, S.K. & Gaud, R.S. (2010). Patent Protection Strategies. J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2(1), 2-7.
Joly, Y. & Knoppers, B.M. (Eds.). (2014). Routledge Handbook of Medical Law and Ethics. New York, NY: Routledge