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Economics is defined as the study of how society allocates limited resources and goods (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). esources include inputs such as labor, capital, and land and are used to produce goods. Goods include products such as food and clothing, as well as services such as those of barbers, doctors, and firefighters. Often goods and resources are deemed scarce because of society's demand for them vs. their availability (Stapleford, 2012). Economics, then, becomes the study of how goods and resources are allocated when scarce. It also allows us to anticipate the outcomes of changes in governmental policies, company practices, or population shifts, and so forth.
The market system is one avenue economists use to allocate scarce resources. A market is defined as any system or arrangement where trade takes place (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). In the U.S. there are several markets trading at all times. The study of…
"Economics." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009. Credo Reference. 3 Sept. 2010. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. http://ezproxy.adler.edu/login?qurl=http://www.credoreference.com/entry/ebconcise/economics
Funderburk, D.R. (2012). Is the "New Economics" Either New or Economics?. National Social Science Journal, 38(2), 20-28.
Stapleford, T.A. (2012). Measuring America: How Economic Growth Came to Define American Greatness in the Late Twentieth Century. American Historical Review, 117(3), 899-900.
The production possibilities curve represents the maximum level at which a country can produce. Freer trade, such as what the EU has promoted since its inception, allows countries to do two things. The first is that it allows them to produce at their production possibilities curve. This occurs because the country under free trade conditions is going to produce those goods in which it has a comparative advantage. This improves the efficiency of production because the country is producing goods at which it is better at producing, and as it produces more of those goods than it otherwise would the country will also have better economies of scale. A country will produce at a higher level of efficiency after free trade than it did before, bringing it closer to the production possibilities curve.
The other thing that happens under free trade is that the production possibilities curve is that…
Investopedia. (2011). Economics basics: Production, possibility frontier, growth, opportunity cost and trade. Investopedia. Retrieved February 2, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics2.asp#axzz1lFGk3bQ3
Riley, G. (2006). Production possibility frontier. Tutor2U.net. Retrieved February 2, 2012 from http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/as-markets-production-possibility-frontier.html
Rittenberg, L. & Tregarthen, T. (2010). Principles of Microeconomics.
Weihrich, H. (1999). Analyzing the competitive advantages and disadvantages of Germany with the TOWS matrix -- an alternative to Porter's model. European Business Review. Retrieved February 2, 2012 from http://www.usfca.edu/fac_staff/weihrichh/docs/germany.pdf
Economic Principles and Purchasing a House
Economics Principles and Purchasing a House
This essay discusses principles of economics as they apply to making decisions about purchasing a home. The essay also reviews the decision making process and how it is affected by marginal benefits and marginal costs. The health of the economy and also international trade are factors to think about too, along with looking at conditions which could have lead to making a different decision.
Supply and Demand
Buying a home is one of the single most important economic decisions that most people make. Because it is such a big decision, it is important to look at all the right considerations. The way to do this is to understand how economic principles apply. One principle that affected my decision was the law of supply and demand.
The number of homes available for sale is influenced by supply and demand.…
Brown, S.J. (2012, March 19 -- March 30). Weekly economic commentary. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from: http://www.raymondjames.com/monit1.htm
Nguyen, J. (2011). 4 key factors that drive the real estate market. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/mortages-real-estate/11/factors-affecting-real-estate-market.asp#axzz1pj62jpXH
RealEstateABC.com. (2012). Existing home sales -- March report. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from: http://www.realestateabc.com/outlook.htm
Tarbox, K. (2012, February 8). How 'shadow inventory' is killing the housing market. Time Magazine online. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from: http://business.time.com/2012/02/08/what-is-the-shadow-inventory-how-many-homes-could-be-for-sale/
Economics: Application of Concepts
An Analysis of the Economic Situation in the U.S.
In the last five years, we have seen the U.S. economy expand but at a pace that is seen as being relatively moderate. In conducting an analysis of the current economic situation in the U.S., I will largely limit myself to inflation, interest rates, and unemployment.
Although the current economic situation is better than it was five years ago, there are signs of uncertainty that continue to suppress economic activity. This is more so the case taking into consideration the prevailing unemployment rates. For the most part of year 2008, the unemployment rate was stuck between 5% and 6% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013). As at January this year, the nation's unemployment rate stood at 7.9% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013). This is an indication that in comparison to five years ago, the total unemployed labor force…
Baumol, W.J. & Blinder, A.S. (2007). Microeconomics: Principles and Policy (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (2012). Why are Interest Rates being kept at a Low Level? Retrieved March 2, 2013, from the Federal Reserve website: http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12849.htm
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics website: http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14
Gwartney, J.D., Stroup, R.L., Sobel, R.S. & Macpherson, D.A. (2010). Macroeconomics: Private and Public Choice (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Economics of Alcohol Abuse
Econcs Of Drugs & Alcohol
How an Economist Might Approach Alcohol Abuse
One answer would be to raise price by decree. Holding all other factors the same, this artificial price increase would initially reduce quantity consumed, but there would still be demand that went unfulfilled, which implies foregone profit at the new lower quantity and higher shelf price. Were supply restricted, say through a fixed number of licenses, this triangle would represent profits producers would want to capture but could not under the artificially high price. Were the price rise caused by say input costs, in the long run producers who could achieve economies of scale would increase production, so price would fall back to the original at higher quantity (Chen, 2007, p. 1), but this would be impossible were supply artificially limited, and if the profits were taxed away there would be no incentive to…
Chen, C.H. (2007). Long run supply and the analysis of competitive markets. Course materials for 14.01 Principles of Microeconomics, Fall 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare. Retrieved from http://ocw.mit.edu
Heyne, P. (1998). Limitations of the economic way of thinking. Religion & Liberty 8(4). Acton
Institute. Retrieved from http://www.acton.org/pub/religion-liberty/volume-8-number-4/limitations-economic-way-thinking
Pindyck, R.S. And Rubinfeld, D.L. (2009). The industry's long-run supply curve. Slide 31
economy has recently emerged from recession. During 2009, real GDP declined 2.6%, the largest drop during the study period beginning in 2009. This came following flatlined GDP in 2008. The only similar instance on record was in the early 1980s when GDP declined 0.3% in 1980, rebounded slightly and then declined again in 1982 by 1.9% (BEA, 2011). The most recent recession was, because there was no rebound in the middle and because it was deeper in intensity, the most serious decline in economic output in the last thirty years. hereas the recovery post-1982 was strong (4.5% growth in '83 and 7.2% growth in '84) this has not been the case now (2.9% growth in 2010 and forecasts for 2011 are not much better). The unemployment situation at present roughly mirrors that of the early 1980s recession. During that recession, unemployment moved to 9.7% in 1982 and 9.6% in…
BEA. (2011). Percent change from preceding period in real gross domestic product. Bureau for Economic Analysis. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/TableView.asp?SelectedTable=1&ViewSeries=NO&Java=no&Request3Place=N&3Place=N&FromView=YES&Freq=Year&FirstYear=1979&LastYear=2010&3Place=N&Update=Update&JavaBox=no#Mid
Bernanke, B.; Reinhard, V.; Sack, B. (2004). Monetary policy alternatives at the zero bound: An empirical assessment. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 2004 (2) 1-100.
BLS. (2011). Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm
Bull, A. & Bohan, C. (2011). Obama to lay out deficit plan with focus on tax, spending. Reuters. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/13/us-usa-budget-idUSTRE7321P120110413
Jim Hargrove, CEO
Neptune has over 60 days' worth of inventory and is faced with some interesting solutions to address this issue. This memo will analyze the issue and the proposals put forth by the management team. The memo will conclude with a recommendation for action.
New fishing rules and new technology investments have allowed Neptune to take bigger catches. Despite record sales, the company is still accumulating inventory. There are two proposals on the table for addressing the inventory issue: launching a budget brand and decreasing fleet size.
Analysis of Underlying Issues: The solution should reflect the underlying problem. The company has increased its fleet with new additions. This increase in capacity is permanent. The government's new regulations are also pushing us into richer fishing grounds, again representing a permanent increase in capacity. Other firms in the industry are also facing a long-term increase in capacity.…
Economics a Powerful Determinant ate Direction
Economics and entrepreneurship play significant roles in carrying out social change. The two are effective tools to change the economic fates of the unfortunates. Social change is defined as 'the structural transformation of political, social and economic systems and institutions to create a more equitable and just society' (fundforsouth). Social change organizations are described as an alliance of people working jointly for a cause sometimes challenging service providers, institutions and government agencies through activism. But it's hard to implement change without the funds that are sometimes controlled by the chosen few such as in the case of World Bank and World Trade Organizations. On the other hand, there are entrepreneurs who are up to provide change through their humanitarian deeds, such as the entrepreneurs who are in the business not just for profit but for their advocacy.
These entrepreneurs' main objective is to make…
Dees, J.G., Emerson, J, & Economy, P. (2002). Enhancing the performance of your enterprising non-profit. Social entrepreneurs. New York. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
FundforSouthernCommunities. (2011). Change not charity. What is social change. Retrieved 25
Jun 2011 from www.fundforsouth.org.
together4change. (2011). Outline proposal: Investment for social and economic change.
" (Kee, 2001, p. 139)
To further this discussion of short- and long-term production and cost one must at least briefly understand the just-in-time model. This model was developed by the Toyota Motor Corporation to mirror the ability of certain suppliers to provide just the amount of a product that a market demanded at the time it was demanded. To apply this model to manufacturing one must have a careful set up for short- and long-term goals of production, and potentially this model can effect short run production and be ignored by cost cutting that attempts to buy raw materials in bulk to meet the demand of a bottleneck in the early life of a product. (Ohno, 1988, pp.26-33) Just-in-time has become a goal of many in manufacturing, as they seek to carefully organize short-term and long-term production and cost issues. In the short-term, procurement is lower and waste is…
Dorf R. C and Kusiak, a. (1994) Handbook of Design, Manufacturing and Automation. New York: Wiley-IEEE.
Value, in Economics. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Hegji, C.E. (2001). Fixed Cost, Marginal Cost and Market Structure. Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, 40(1), 17.
Kee, R.C. (2001). Evaluating the Economics of Short- and Long-Run Production-Related Decisions [*]. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), 139.
The situation in the European air cargo industry bears many hallmarks of a cartel, and this was the finding of the European Commission. The OECD (2002) defines a cartel as "a formal agreement among firms in an oligopolistic industry…on matters such as price, total industry output, market shares, allocation of customers, allocation of territories, bid-rigging, division of profits or the establishment of common sales agencies." The main difference between this definition and the behavior of the airlines in question is that the industry is not oligopolistic in the true sense of the word. In an oligopoly, there are only handful of industry players, so any such collusion as indicated in the definition of a cartel would serve to disrupt market forces to the benefit of the companies within the oligopoly. In air freight, however, the prevailing market condition was that of monopolistic competition. This makes is harder to prove…
BBC. (2011). Osborne's budget 'to fuel growth'. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12830224
Chee, F. (2010). BA could face cartel fine up to €80 million. Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from http://uk.reuters.com/article/2010/10/26/uk-eu-ba-idUKTRE69P1X620101026
Europa. (2010). Antitrust: Commission fines 11 air cargo carriers €799 million in price fixing cartel. Europa.eu. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/10/1487&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
OECD. (2002). Cartel. OECD. Retrieved May 9, 2011 from http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3157
Economics of Monopoly Power
Take a position regarding whether the current initiatives of the FCC actually encourage competition in all communication markets and protect the public. Provide specific examples to support your response.
The FCC has over the years been involved in various initiatives to ensure that there is fairer play and a leveled field for the operation of the communication companies in the U.S.A. Though some may point fingers that the FCC has played lip service to the idea of encouraging competition for long, it is apparent that several efforts by the FCC has ensured a more competitive environment especially in the broadband provision.
The reason why the U.S.A. lags behind many countries in the broadband aspect in particular is the fact that there is a stunning lack of competition in this market. It is noticeable that there are a few players who dominate the market and all the…
JSI Capital Advisors, (2011). The FCC's Egalitarian Cable Broadband Initiative: What does it Mean for RLECs?: The "Biggest Effort Ever" to Address Broadband Adoption. Retrieved February 9, 2012 from http://www.jsicapitaladvisors.com/the-ilec-advisor/tag/connect-2-compete
Mike Masnick, (2011). What Has The FCC Done To Actually Encourage Competition? Retrieved February 9, 2012 from http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20111013/16595616344/what-has-fcc-done-to-actually-encourage-competition.shtml
The moral of the story is that even though sticky prices are in no one's interest, prices can be sticky simply because price setters expect them to be" (para. 18). This real life scenario is what Wolfgang Munchau suggests is leading to the global economic crisis. Munchau argues that the world leaders' failure to act has resulted in a global coordination failure, and the global recession that is currently in full force. Indeed, Munchau says, "Not one of [the London summit's] resolutions move the world a small step closer to resolving the global economic crisis" (para. 1). The reason for this, according to Munchau, is because they have waited to make crucial decisions, decisions that they are still waiting to make (para. 1).
Munchau's argument offers a commentary on why some consider governments a part of the coordination failure problem instead of the solution. Governments, at least democratic ones, are…
Mankiw, N. Gregory. "New Keynesian Economics." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. 2008. 18 June 2009.
Munchau, Wolfgang. "The Consequence of Global Co-Ordination Failure." Evro
Intelligence. 4 June 2009. 18 June 2009.
The English premier league has a large television audience and inspires a large amount of devotion among fans that might not have the interest of the sporting world. The English premier league is well-known from London, to other parts of the world.it is very hard to find someone who does not have a favorite football team within the English premier league. Despite all this the we4alth that has come with the famous competitions does not go down to the fans. For instance the lucrative TV deals do not trickle down to the fans. There exists a situation that is very troubling when it comes to the ticket prices. The ticket prices a have gone so high such that even the most loyal fans are no longer able to afford them. For example a ticket for an Arsenal match costs a whooping 126 pounds and there are instance it can…
We analyze the economy's productivity by calculating the Gross National Product, which is "the market value of the sum of all the goods and services produced in the economy." The economy's productivity should have a constantly growing figure in order to ensure the fact that that country is currently developing at its fullest potential.
The fiscal policy is the "means by which a government adjusts its levels of spending in order to monitor and influence a nation's economy." It comes together with the monetary policy by which a central bank controls a nation's capital supply. Fiscal and monetary policies are used in different arrangements in an attempt to direct a state's economic objectives.
Global Economic Growth and Development is the global raise in value of the commodities and services manufactured by an economy. In economics, the terms "economic growth" or "economic growth theory" usually refer to augmentation of "potential output,…
Heakal, Reem (2007) What Is Fiscal Policy? Retrieved December 5, 2007 from Investopedia, web site: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/04/051904.asp
Wikipedia, (2007), Economic Growth, Retrieved December 5, 2007 from Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, web site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_growth
2007) International Trade, Retrieved December 5, 2007 from Americans and the World. Web site: http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/intertrade/summary.cfm#top
Even searching the Internet for information has a cost, the opportunity cost of one's time. Thus, one will consider the cost of obtaining information before seeking it out to make a decision.
The remaining three assumptions of the economic way of thinking deal with the notions of time, personal preferences and predictability. Assumption six makes the point that there are short-run effects and long-run effects for any decision that ought to be considered. For instance, a tariff may increase employment and income in an industry in the short-run, but consumers will decrease their spending on other products in the long-run. Assumption six states the value of a good is subjective and preferences will, therefore, differ between individuals. The final assumption of the economic way of thinking asserts that the test of a theory's validity is its ability to predict how the real world operates. Thus, theory's with greater validity should…
Financial & Investment Dictionary. http://www.answers.com/topic/economics
Heyne, P. Limitations of the economic ways of thinking. http://www.acton.org/publications/randl/rl_article_278.php
The economic way of thinking. http://spruce.flint.umich.edu/~mjperry/notes1.htm
In basic terms, microeconomics and macroeconomics are both branches of economics. While one concerns itself with economic decisions undertaken at the household or individual level, the other explores the functioning of the economy in overall terms. In this discussion, I take into consideration the key differences between these two branches of economics. In so doing, I will give an example of each phenomenon and later highlight decisions made under both the microeconomic and macroeconomic context.
The Key/Main Differences between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
Derived from the word "micros" which is essentially a Greek name for "small," microeconomics' primary focus remains on small individual groups or units. Derived from the word "macros" which is a Greek term literally taken to mean "large" or "long," macroeconomics concentrates on the analysis of the aggregate economy (Mishra, 2010). According to Miles and Scott (2005), the primary concern of microeconomics is the decisions a limited…
Hussain, T. (2010). Engineering Economics. Laxmi Publications
Miles, D. & Scott, A. (2005). Macroeconomics: Understanding the Wealth of Nations. John Wiley and Sons.
Mishra, S. (2010). Engineering Economics and Costing. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
This negative motivation technique was mostly used in the 1930's, while nowadays it is rarely used.
Another advantage of unemployment is that it helps limiting an accelerated growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that cannot be supported for extremely long periods of time because of the resource constraints and environmental impacts also. If the employment rate is high, human resources are not used at their best capacity, which leads to wasting opportunities to produce goods and services, causing problems for the economy on a long-term.
Unemployment also encourages certain people to start their own business. Most of these people are former employees previously trapped in dead-end jobs with no future, that after being fired from their jobs found the courage and the motivation so start a business of their own. This way, many little companies are coming along quite nicely. These small companies create labor demand that is satisfied…
Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey (2006). U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved January 11, 2007 at http://www.bls.gov/cps/home.htm .
U.S.: Low Unemployment Raises an Old Inflation Debate (2006). Business Week online. Retrieved January 12, 2007 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_08/b3972038.htm .
Rebitzer, James B. Unemployment, Labor Relations, and Unit Labor Costs (1988). The American Economic Review. Vol. 78. No. 2. Retrieved January 11, 2007 at http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28198805%2978%3A2%3C389%3AULRAUL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U&size=LARGE .
Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey (2006). U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved January 11, 2007 at
The Canadian government seeks to have a positive balance of payments with the United States. This is, in effect, a wealth transfer. Tracking the balance of payments vs. The exchange rate, we can see the impact of exchange rate shifts on the BOP. The Canadian balance of payments in 2004, when the exchange rate ranged from 1.17 to 1.37, was $29.8 billion. In 2008, when the exchange rate was between 0.97 and 1.29, the balance of payments was $8.1 billion. Tracked against the forex chart, the trend holds for the interim years as well -- when the Canadian dollar is strong, the balance of payments shrinks. This reflects the reduced competitiveness of Canadian goods in the U.S. market when the Canadian dollar's value is high. It also reflects the increased value of U.S. imports. In the U.S.-Canada trade relationship, however, there is an offset, which is oil. Increased strength in…
Currency chart adapted from www.dailyfx.com
Fed Funds rate from U.S. Federal Reserve. Retrieved June 28, 2009 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/fomc/fundsrate.htm
Canadian bank rate from Bank of Canada. Retrieved June 28, 2009 from http://www.bankofcanada.ca/cgi-bin/famecgi_fdps
Canadian oil production statistics from the National Energy Board. Retrieved June 28, 2009 from http://www.neb.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/sttstc/crdlndptrlmprdct/stmtdprdctn-eng.html
Higher interest rates, more capital invested
During the 1980s, when President eagan was attempting to stimulate the economy, he radically lowered taxes. The U.S. was in the grips of 'stagflation,' or high unemployment and high inflation, a combination which historically is not supposed to occur together. The lower corporate taxes and lower taxes for wealthy individuals eventually encouraged more investment in business. "The Fed was resolved to stop inflation…[and] kept raising rates in 1980 and '81, eventually bringing both the economy and inflation to a standstill" (Solomon 2009). By the mid-80s, interest rates were still high, but investment capital in the economy had increased.
Lower interest rates, less capital invested
Low interest rates and low rates of capital invested in the economy are usually characteristic of a recession. This occurred very recently, during the Great ecession of 2008, when the Fed slashed interest rates to historically low levels…
Barr, Colin. (2008). The darker side of interest rate cuts. CNN. Retrieved:
Solomon, Paul. (2009). What led to the high interest rates of the 1980s. PBS.
Discuss the alternative theories to profit maximization ranging from perfect competition to strict monopolies and discuss how these two special conditions are theoretical limits
In economics, profit maximization is the process by which a firm determines the price and output level that returns the greatest profit. There are several approaches to this problem. The total revenue -- total cost method relies on the fact that profit equals revenue minus cost, and the marginal revenue -- marginal cost method is based on the fact that total profit in a perfect market reaches its maximum point where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Economists identify four basic types of markets based on the number of firms relative to the size of the market (The size of the market is determined by what the buyers believe to be good substitutes for a firm's product. For example, the market for long-distance calls is national:…
1. "Economics for Business" by John Sloman and Mark Sutcliffe - Prentice Hall - ISBN 0-273-65187-0
Economics for Business" by John Sloman and Mark Sutcliffe - Prentice Hall - ISBN 0-273-65187-0
This situation is perfectly illustrated by the figures. As one may observe, as the units of produced goods increases, the number of units of produced services decreases. The maximum number of units of goods can be produced only if no units of services are produced at the same time.
A d) if the country's economy is producing on its production possibility frontier, the opportunity cost cannot be increased, it cannot be exploited in order to increase the production of goods and services. Therefore, in order to increase production, the country's production possibility frontier must be changed. This could take place by increasing the country's production capacity.
This situation can be influenced by quantities of available resources, on the one hand, and by technological progress, on the other hand. In our case, the situation is influenced by technological progress, which determines increased production with a given quantity of resources.
Production possibility frontier (2008). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 19, 2008 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Production_possibilities_frontier .
Hall & Leiberman (2004). Economics: Principles and Applications. Retrieved September 19, 2008 at http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ101/bhattacharjee/documents/Lecture2.ppt#259,2,OpportunityCost and Society.
Economics and Market Competition
Companies influence and are influenced by market conditions. The competitiveness on the market, the supply and demand determine how companies develop their strategies. There are also other factors that determine their strategy, like market price, average revenue, and marginal revenue. The evolution of these factors and their influence on the market determine companies' behavior.
Market Price, Average evenue, and Marginal evenue
The market price is determined by supply and demand. When the supply of a certain product is high, its price is lower, and when the supply is low, this increases the product's price. In markets with high levels of supply there is usually intensified competition. When the demand for a certain product is high, the price tends to increase. In markets with reduced demand, the prices are lower, and the level of competition is reduced.
Marginal revenue is represented by the extra revenue gained when…
1. Hubbard, R. & O'Brien, A. (2009). Essentials of Economics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
An economic system is basically described as specific set of principles that addresses the production, distribution, and consumption of products and services. The involved parties in the production, distribution, and consumptions processes are usually determined by or dependent on the economic system. Throughout the history of humanity, different types of economic systems have evolved because different societies have placed varying emphasis on distinctive goals and priorities as part of their efforts to obtain answers to certain economic questions. In addition, the difference in economic systems is fueled by the tendency by different societies to develop very broad economic approaches to manage their resources. One of the main reasons for the development of different economic systems is to address the challenge of scarcity. The challenge of scarcity is an essential problem that confronts individuals and nations. hile there are four major types of economic systems recognized by economists, there…
"Economic Systems." Hilliard Bradley High School. Hilliard Bradley High School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Factors of Production." Enotes.com - Study Smarter. Enotes.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Types of Economic Systems." Economic Systems. Shmoop University, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
Economic Final Report
Types of economic systems
Economic systems vary from one nation to another. Traditional economic systems refer to an economic system founded by tradition. The services and goods that people provide through the work they do, how people exchange and use the resources are trends that follow permanent patterns. These are not dynamic economic systems because there are minimal changes. In this economic system, people live on static standards. They do not enjoy much occupational mobility and financial mobility (Gregory and Robert 19). However, it is possible to predict economic relationships and behaviors. People are aware of what they are expected to do, why they trade, they know what others should give to them. In traditional economic systems, the interests of the community are of great priority than individual interests. People collaborate at work and labor proceeds are shared equally. However, in some traditional economic systems, individuals respect…
Conklin, David W.; Comparative Economic Systems: Objectives, Decision Modes, and the Process of Choice. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Gregory, Paul R, and Robert C. Stuartl; Comparative Economic Systems. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co, 2010. Print.
Keese, Mark, Pete Richardson, and Ge-rard Salou. The Measurement of Output and Factors of Production for the Business Sector in OECD Countries: (the OECD Business Sector Database). Paris: OECD, 2011. Print.
Has the 2008 financial meltdown in the U.S. And the ongoing economic crisis in Europe have practically ended the era of economic globalization?
Following the financial crisis that marred the U.S. economy along with other global economies as well as the ongoing Eurozone debt crisis, there have been projected concerns that this predicament would end economic globalization. The purpose of this paper is to assess this claim. Going by Immanuel Wallenstein's World Systems Theory, the political economy of Third World economies and developed economies of the West are mutually dependent. Wallenstein's conjecture is that the growth and expansion of Third World economies relies on constant interaction with Western developed economies seeing as the world is characterized by a structural division of labor where the developing nations of the Third World provide cheap labor and raw materials while the developed economies are the holders of capital and controllers of…
Ebrahimi, H, 2012, "John Lewis warns Amazon's tax avoidance 'will drive UK companies out of business" The Telegraph
Held, David; The Open University, eds. (2004). A Globalizing World?: Culture, Economics, Politics (2nd ed.). London; New York: Routledge, in association with the Open University. p. 84.
Katz, I & Christie, R (2011) "Geithner Called Housing Giants Biggest 'Moral Hazard'" Bloomberg
Lynch, Katherine (2003). The Forces of Economic Globalization. Kluwer Law International
In terms of output and growth, Canada's real GDP was 2.96% higher than it was a year ago, but the growth trend is slowing down from a growth rate high of 3.81% in Q3 2010. Japan's economy has contracted in Q2 2011 by 0.76%. It's rate has been volatile, growing rapidly over the past year only to contract again. The UK's growth rate is 1.63%, and that country has had fairly stable, if sluggish, real GDP growth. The current GDP growth rate in the United States is 2.33%. Real GDP growth is on a downward trend in the U.S. But has maintained healthy levels since Q4 2009.
All four countries were affected by the recession. Each experienced real GDP declines during the 2008-2009 period. Japan was the hardest hit. Yet each nation recovered in 2010, only to see the rate of economic growth slow again in 2011.
BoC. (2011). Inflation control target. Bank of Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.bankofcanada.ca/monetary-policy-introduction/framework/inflation-control-target/
Estrella, A. & Trubin, M. (2006). The yield curve as a leading indicator: Some practical issues. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci12-5/ci12-5.html
Investopedia. (2011). Yield curve. Investopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/y/yieldcurve.asp#axzz1VCSWJAY8
St. Louis Fed. (2011). International economic trends: August 2011. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/iet/
The revelation of the financial crisis that unfolded in United States in 2008 is considered to be the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, 1929. The distinctive causative factors that have contributed to the U.S. economic crisis 2008- 2009 are differentiated by aggravated financial control, higher risks in capital investment, the housing bubble phenomena in relation to the brisk credit expansion. The aggregation of these factors in the U.S. economy directed the economy towards the de- leverage and credit crunches as the bubble burst. The following paper shall be discussing about the degree of correlation between the tax implications policies with respect to the financial crisis in U.S.. The precise review of strong linkages between the taxation and economic crises is the explicit explanation of the crisis that shook America. The paper also highlights the key factors that demonstrated their abilities and rescued U.S. In the economic…
Carr, D.A. (2011). Responses to Local Fiscal Shocks: Path Dependency Effects of the Clean Air Act. Public Finance and Management, 11(2), 160+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5050180027
Hendrickson, J.M., & Nichols, M.W. (2010). Did Commercial Banks Close Branches in Low-income Neighborhoods in Response to the Cra? Implications for Understanding the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13(1), 17+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044499375
Johnson, E.M. (2010, April). Mr. Trust Buster. In These Times, 34, 7+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041402599
Robinson, S.N., & Nantz, D.P. (2009). Lessons to Be Learned from the Financial Crisis. Journal of Private Enterprise, 25(1), 5+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037768696
Economic Crisis Policies
US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…
ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml
Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781
Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/
Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
If there is a risk that one of the family members will lose his or her job, that will add risk to the purchase decision. The riskier the purchase decision, the lower the price will need to be in order to compensate for that. Another factor here is the expected change in housing prices or interest rates. Buyers are inclined to enter the market if they believe that the cost of home ownership will be higher next year, but they may delay purchases if they believe that costs will be lower next year.
ith new home sales last summer, the dip could be in part due to worries about a double-dip recession. The summer was characterized by an inane fight over the debt ceiling, something that shattered confidence of many in the political system, and some of the key actors within that system. A fractured political system is one that…
Hauser, C. (2011, Aug 24). Sales of new homes fell again in july. New York Times, pp. B.6-B.6. http://search.proquest.com/docview/884825381?accountid=35812
Total revenue represents all the company income. Total revenue is calculated by multiplying the price of products with the quantity sold. Typically, total revenue is calculated as follows:
Total revenue = price x quantity
Where price (P) and quantity (Q).
As being revealed in Table 1, total revenue is calculated by multiplying price with quantity, when firm produces 2 quantities of goods, firm's total revenue is $10, however, when a firm produces 3 quantities of goods, its total revenue is $15.
Marginal revenue is an additional revenue that a firm generates when a firm sells additional unit of output. The marginal revenue plays an important role in the perfectly competitive firm where a perfectly competitive firm maximizes its profit when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. The formula used to calculate marginal revenue is:
Marginal revenue= Change in total revenue/Change quantity.
The average revenue is calculated…
Aderton, (1977).Economics. Pearson Education
Sloman, A and Sutcliffe, M (2004). Economics for Business. Prentice Hall.
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
He would be faced with deciding whether he must spend all his available resources on goods or services, or whether he must save some of his income so that he would be able to finance some of his needs of his future. When he is taken as a labor resource, he must make the decision whether he must use his time in working for his pay, or whether he must spend it on sleeping and other leisure time activities. ("Decision making using marginal analysis," n. d.)
Similarly, when he is a labor resource, he must decide how much of his time he must spend on education, so that he may be able to maximize his life earnings. On the other hand, if he were an entrepreneur, then he must make the decision on how many people he must hire, or how much he must spend on acquiring a new product…
Evans, Edward. (2005) "Marginal analysis, an economic procedure for selecting alternative technologies/practices." University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 15 December, 2007 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE565
Johnson, Paul. M. (2005) "Marginal Analysis: A glossary of political economic terms" Retrieved 15 December, 2007 at http://www.auburn.edu/~johnspm/gloss/marginal_analysis
McConnell, Campbell R; Brue, Stanley L. (2005) "Economics, principles, problems and policies" McGraw-Hill Professional.
McEachern, William a. (2006) "Macroeconomics, a contemporary introduction" Thomson
The need for the preservation of these resources is because of the fact that it is finite or limited. Abused utilization of these resources will deplete it and will eventually endanger the future inhabitants of the earth, leaving them nothing for the production of their own needs. Without the resources, there will be nothing to work on in the first place. Achievement of economic stability is the first step in order to achieve the other social goals. Since there are resources, there can be economic efficiency whereby goods can be produced at a lowest possible cost because of the availability of resources. Economic freedom or the right of a man to engage in voluntary economic activities, economic equity or justice particularly in terms of taxation and welfare economics, and economic security or security in employment can be settled between the government and the people in order to achieve them. All…
Economic Depression of Europe
An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.
There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.
One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…
Big Site of History (2011). Social Trends in 17th Century Europe: The Problem of Divine-Right
Monarchy. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://bigsiteofhistory.com/social-trends-in-17th-century-europe-the-problem-of-divine-right-monarchy
Historic UK, (2011). The Great Plague 1665. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.historic-
Economic Challenges Canada Faces
In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.
Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…
Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,
2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: http://www.fin.gc.ca/ECONBR/ecbr04- 12e.html
Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0.02340.en_2649
Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.
"The explosive growth of the global economy threatens the natural systems that sustain life on Earth. Despite some significant successes in reducing industrial pollution and increasing efficiency, globalization is devastating natural habitats, speeding global warming, and increasing air and water pollution" (Anonymous). It is in the nature of such an economic globalization to cause negative effects. Globalization has its benefits as well which hold substantial weight.
Advocates for economic globalization state that it is aimed at removing poverty and increasing wealth among the poor. This has been seen not to be entirely true and the gain of wealth is seen only in the upper or elite classes. The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. Although food has increased, hunger rates have also increased. It is seen that the top class is becoming multibillionaires and today there are more billionaires than yesterday. However the lower class is…
1) Anonymous - Economic Globalization. [Online website] Available at http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/economic.php[Accessed on: 10/11/2005]
2) Anonymous - Mennonite Central Committee "Economic Globalization." [Online website] Available at http://www.mcc.org/us/globalization/ [Accessed on: 10/11/2005]
3) John N. Pearson, Jeffrey S. Bracker, Richard E. White - Article Title: Operations Management Activities of Small, High Growth Electronics Firms. Journal Title: Journal of Small Business Management. Volume: 28. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 20+.
4) World Council of Churches - REPORT OF THE POLICY REFERENCE COMMITTEE II. [Online website] Available at http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/who/cc2001/pr-ii3-e.html#glob [Accessed on: 10/11/2005]
Economic Environment of a Business
The objective of this work is to summarize the economic environment of a business including information relating to microeconomics, macroeconomics, and international trade aspects
The business organization is a "micro-economic unit" and the business environment is that which makes provision of the "macro-economic context within which firm operates." (eddy, ) The business environment can be categorized into the 'economic' and non-economic' and the 'micro- and macro-environment. (eddy,, paraphrased) The firm is an economic institution in a market system with the behavior of the firm reflecting the result of the decisions that were economic in nature that the manager of the firm made.
The economic environment of a business in today's globalized business society is complex in nature. There is an inherent link between the business sector and it relationship with the government, capital market, household sector and the international business sector -- all of which…
Palwar, V.K. (2010) Economic Environment of Business 2nd Ed. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=hNBEId591wYC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Reddy, R.I. (2004) Business Environment. APH Publishing. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NQv9vKgF_3MC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…
Barone, Michael. "The loyal opposition." U.S. News and World Report. 13 June 2003. 14
March 2003 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneweb/mb_020613.htm.
Case, Karl E., and Ray C. Fair. "Principles of Economics." Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ 1992.
4. The role that the FDA plays in setting food safety requirements is inherently costly to the economy. The function is not based on economic concerns but rather public health concerns -- the FDA's mandate dates to Congressional concern about the Elixir sulfanilamide disaster and traces its roots to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which documented meat production in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century (FDA.gov, 2009). Thus, decisions about FDA regulations are not made on the basis of economic good, but rather public good. Increased regulations would impose increased costs on business. In classical economics, these costs would act as a form of tax, increasing risk and discouraging investment. Eliminating these requirements would lower these costs, which would allow for an expansion of the food business. It could be argued that the threat of litigation today would counterbalance the need for regulations, but that claim has not been…
Roubini, N. (1997). Supply side economics: Do tax rate cuts increase growth and revenues and reduce budget deficits? Or is it voodoo economics all over again? Stern School of Business. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/SUPPLY.htm
No author. (2010). Classical economics. TheShortRun.com. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.theshortrun.com/classroom/doctrines/classicals.html
McCallum, B. (2008). Monetarism. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Monetarism.html
FDA.gov. (2009). FDA history part I. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm054819.htm
S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.
President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.
The Invisible Hand Principle
The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…
1. Eddlem, T.R. (2009). Obama needs to learn "opportunity cost." The New American. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JZS/is_15_25/ai_n32369481/?tag=content;col1 .
2. Dorrien, G. (2009). Is the Economic Crisis a Sin? Newsweek. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.newsweek.com/id/206095.
3. Steele Calls Obama Health Plan "Socialism" (2009). CBS News. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/20/politics/main5174417.shtml .
4. Remarks by the President on Financial Rescue and Reform. The White House. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Financial-Rescue-and-Reform-at-Federal-Hall .
Thus, a region or nation experiencing economic depression will be unable to use the interest rate lever to boost the economy. Similarly a country with high inflation will be unable to independently raise interest rates to contain inflation. Moreover, Islamic countries, which form a large part of the geography, do not believe in interest rates.
Political barriers -- Political differences between nations make it extremely difficult for them to adopt a common currency. It can lead to a loss in political sovereignty as monetary interests would need to surpass political interests. This is unlikely to be acceptable to most of the nations and the idea of a single currency may be difficult to implement (Gimp, 2008).
Will Pros and Cons change Over Time? Depending On the Country?
The economic conditions to determine a monetary union depend on: the openness and size of the economy involved to trade; the free movements…
BBC. (1997, November 21). European monetary union - pros and cons. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm
Filho, F.F. (2003). Is it possible to achieve a monetary union in MERCOSUR? (South America). Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Vanderbilt University: http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/egnZLy/Ferrari%20Filho%202.pdf
Frankel, J. (1999, August). No single currency regime is right for all countries or at all times. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Princeton University: http://www.princeton.edu/~ies/IES_Essays/E215.pdf
Gimp, F. (2008, June 27). A world currency - pros and cons and can it become a reality. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Piponomics: http://www.babypips.com/blogs/piponomics/a_world_currency_pros_and_cons.html
Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.
Criteria / goals
The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.
Evaluation of alternatives
January 29, 2009, Buying American, the Economist, last accessed on February 5, 2009
Steps in the P.A.C.E.D. Model, the Gus a. Stavros Center for Free Enterprise and Economic Education
http://stavros.coedu.usf.edu/EconomicLiteracy/sld019.html. Ast accessed on February 5, 2009
These decisions necessarily entail that some potentially productive opportunities are sacrificed in order to make what is estimated as the most productive choice.
Supply and demand refer to specific products and services, the ability to provide these, and the level at which they are desired by the target market. uyers desire a product or services, and therefore demand a certain quantity of these at a certain price. The relationship between the price and quantity of desirability is the demand relationship. Supply is the actual quantity of the product or service that the market can provide. The concept of supply relationship is the correlation between supply and the price received by the supplier, who is willing to supply a certain amount of products at the price received.
The dynamic in the relationship between demand and supply has a direct influence on the efficient allocation of resources within an economy, as well…
Energy costs increased substantially and the yen's exchange rate was shifted to a floating rate. The eventual recession reduced expectations of future growth and reduced private investment. Economic growth went down from 10% to 3.6% during the period 1974-79 and to 4.4% in the decade of the 80s. ut despite the oil crisis and its consequences, Japan's major export industries stayed competitive through its cost-cutting policy and increasing efficiency. It reduced industrial energy demands and allowed the automobile industry, along with other industries, to improve. y the late 70s, the computer, semiconductor and other technology and information-intensive industries entered a period of rapid growth. During this high-growth era, exports continued to support Japan's robust economic growth in the 70s and in the 80s. However, the problems encountered on account of its growing balance of payments surplus urged for the opening of domestic markets and a stronger focus on domestic demands…
Answers.com. (2007). Shigeru Yoshida. 4 pages. Encyclopedia Britannica: Answers Corporation
Bernier, B. (1980). The Japanese peasantry and economic growth since the land reform of 1946-47. 40 pages. Vol 12 issue 1. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars: Questia Media America, Inc.
Luu, L.T. et al. (1996). Summary report on Japan. Team # 6. Chinman: University of Hawaii..
Retrieved March 14, 2007 at http://www2/hawai.edu/~chiman/file2,htm
There are a number of different metrics that can help to measure the health of an economy. The GDP is one of those numbers, and can be obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Following a decline of 2.6% in 2009, the GDP grew in 2010 by 2.9%. GDP rates fluctuated by quarter, with a low of 1.7% in Q2 following by escalating growth in the last two quarters. This represents a slow recovery from the steep declines of 2008-2009. Another measure of economic health is unemployment. The current unemployment rate from the Bureau of Labor Statistics is 9.0%, a decline of 0.4 percentage points from December. This rate is historically high, it is lower than at any point in the past year, again showing a sign of slow recovery. A third measure of economic health can be found in the inflation rate. The best measure of inflation is…
Bureau of Labor Statistics: CPI Detailed Report December 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpid1012.pdf
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment Situation Summary. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm
Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross Domestic Product: Fourth Quarter and Annual 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/2011/pdf/gdp4q10_adv.pdf
Producers do not want to produce too much, lest there be waste. Consumers do not want to spend too much, because their resources (for most people anyway) are inherently scarce.
Hayek makes the point about there being different types of knowledge. In his free market economy free from centralized planning, he argues that each individual has different knowledge -- each specializes. This allows the millions of people who are making economic decisions to have the ability to gather and process as much information as possible. ith more information, better decisions are made. By delegating decision-making to millions of economic actors, each operating within their own specific area of expertise, decisions are going to be better. They will be based on more information and more specialized knowledge to interpret that information.
He argues that economic planning inherently must be based on cycles, such that there is day-to-day adjustments. Such a situation…
Hayek, F. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American Economic Review. Vol. 35 (4) 519-530.
Unfortunately most growth oriented economic policies such as "supply-side" economic policies tend to exacerbate inequality. A greater role of the government in the economy such as increased taxation on the rich can reduce inequality. Inflation and unemployment are usually inversely proportional in most economies, i.e., increase of money supply through deficit financing reduces unemployment but increases inflation while tight monetary policies reduce inflation but increase unemployment. According to a number of analysts, a major cause of terrorism in the world is an acute sense of deprivation among a large section of the population. Economic measures can, arguably prove more effective in rooting out terrorism than military action.
What, How and for Whom to Produce:
In 'free market economies' decentralized decision making by individuals and firms based on consumers' desires (which determine the price of goods) and the profit motive determine what goods are produced and in what quantities.…
Free Market Economy" (2003). Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. CD Rom Version, 2003.
O'Connor, D.E. & Faille, C. (2000). Basic Economic Principles: A Guide for Students. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The Rural Poverty Trap." (2004). Oxfam Briefing Paper # 59. [Available online] Accessed on January 26, 2005 at http://www.maketradefair.com/en/assets/bp59_The_Rural_Poverty_Trap.pdf
According to FAO statistics more than 900 million people live on less than $1 a day in the rural areas of the developing world (The Rural Poverty Trap, 2004)
Economics impacts on many areas of life subsequently it will impact on many areas of professional life. eflecting on the lessons learned, including the knowledge and skills gained, the real value is in the way that economics concepts can be applied to the real world; not only to explain event that are seen in the macro-environment, but to guide the way personal decisions will be made with that knowledge.
The first indicator of the lessons and concepts taught in the class being absorbed and developing into transferable knowledge has emerged with an increased understanding of the way that the economy operates and the influences which are present in the economy that are driving up prices.
There are many examples of the economic concepts; one example is the way that supply and demand has impacted on oil prices which has had a knock on effect in the economy as…
Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Greimel, Hans, (2012. April 30), Toyota wants high-volume U.S. Prius output by '15; Hunt is on for N.A. hybrid parts suppliers, Automotive News, p4
Nellis JG, Parker D, (2006), Principles of the Business Economics, London, Prentice Hall.
Scholes, Louise; Siegel Donald S; Wilson, Nick; Wright, Mike, (2012, Feb), Private equity portfolio company performance during the global recession, Journal of Corporate Finance, 18(1), 193.
Most particularly, I discuss the economic concept of demand and supply and the determinants of both supply and demand. Further, I also discuss in significant detail the meaning of economic indicators as well as monetary and fiscal policy.
Demand and Supply
Supply and demand are considered some of economics' most fundamental concepts. Indeed, they underlie almost every transaction in a market economy. In basic terms, demand according to Boyes and Melvin (2012), is "the amount of a product that people are willing and able to purchase at each possible price during a given period of time…" On the other hand, supply as Boyes and Melvin (2012) point out can be described as "the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a period of time…" It is the interrelation between these two important economic concepts that…
Boyes, W. & Melvin, M. (2012). Economics (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Wessels, W.J. (2006). Economics (4th ed.). New York: Barron's Educational Series.
Economics of International Trade China
Exploring the Economics of International Trade: China
"Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market," and its expansion has only continued to show powerful growth within the international economic marketplace (Sun & Heshmati, 2010, p 1). After China was reopened to trading with the West in 1978, the country has really took off in becoming one of the world's biggest producers and exporters of a plethora of different goods. China has grown tremendously as nations like the United States have become their biggest trading partners. In response, China has helped refuel this growth with the manipulation of their currency and their heavy investment in the U.S. dollar, which ensures them a more competitive position for their exports.
For generations, China had closed itself off to trading and interacting…
American Manufacturing. (2012). China and currency manipulation. Issues. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://americanmanufacturing.org/category/issues/china/china-and-currency-manipulation
Barboza, David. (2012). Business and economy in China. New York Times. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/business_and_economy/index.html
Congress Quarterly. (1999). The consumer culture. CQ Researcher, 9(44), 1001-1016.
Manzay, Terrance. (2010). China export industry dominates worldwide. Article Snatch. Web. Reprieved September 4, 2012 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/China-Export-Industry-Dominates-Worldwide/3853472#.UEZqYKNIuHY
Looking at the economy from a macroeconomic viewpoint means looking at a more broad approach to individual economic factors, weighing those factors, and making a determination as to whether the economy is stable and improving for the populace. Sustainable growth is one of the goals of economic development, and while there are peaks and valleys, the overall level and growth filters down to many factors. A booming economy, for instance, will create money and produce goods and services while affecting GDP, unemployment, inflation, interest rates, and prices. Policy can change these factors, increase or decrease confidence and spending, and the movement of money. However, in the 21st century, economic health is tied not only to countries, but to global issues of import and export, health of other economies, and the combination of factors that has become even more complex (Alesenai, 2003).
In the U.S. economy, most scholars see…
Credit Ratings: How Fitch, Moody's and S&P Rate. (2012). The U.K. Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/apr/30/credit-ratings-country-fitch-moodys-standard
Economy at a Glance -- The United States. (2013). U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.us.htm
Jobless Claims Fall More than Expected. (February 14, 2013). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/15/business/economy/jobless-claims-in-us-fall-more-than-expected.html?ref=economy&_r=0
National Economic Trends. (January 30, 2013). The Federal Reserve (St. Louis). Retrieved from: http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/net/page24.pdf
Economic Value Added (EVA) Accounting Practice
Although Economic Value Added (EVA) is not a new concept in economics and financial theory and is based on the 19th century concept of "economic profit," it has only been widely adopted recently by business firms as an accounting practice. In this paper we shall describe what EVA is, and look at its pros and cons from the point-of-view of the company adopting the practice and the investors. We shall also discuss how EVA differs from some other emerging accounting practices and the major issues relating to EVA as compared to other commonly used accounting principles. Finally, the possible problems and opportunities that a company adopting EVA principles can face shall be examined.
What is Economic Value Added (EVA)?
Economic Value Added (EVA) is the after-tax cash flow generated by a business minus the cost of the capital it has invested to generate that…
Keen, Peter. (1999). "Economic Value Added.(EVA)" Every Manager's Guide to Business Processes. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.peterkeen.com/emgbp007.htm kel inen, Esa. (1998). "Economic Value Added as a Management Tool." Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.evanomics.com/
Shand, Dawne. (October 30, 2000). "Economic Value Added." COMPUTERWORLD. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/itspending/story/0,10801,53001,00.html
Stewart, Bennet (1999) "What is EVA?" Stern Stewart & Co. Web site. Retrieved on April 20, 2003 at http://www.sternstewart.com/evaabout/whatis.php
This cost reflects both the time value of money and compensation for risk -- the more risk associated with a firm, the greater the firm's cost of capital.
hen I understand what drives people to buy bottled water, I will be in a better position to forecast demand. I expect disposable income, distribution saturation, cleanliness and taste of tap water and price of bottled water will all factor. ith this information, I could understand the price elasticity of demand, for example, or the elasticity of demand relating to any other variable. Going international I would focus on the same, but I would also understand the currency exchange dynamics and the image that my country or region has overseas. In general, however, the types of information I need would be mainly the same, with respect to marketing. ith respect to culture (marketing message) or other such variables unrelated to the economics of the decision, there are undoubtedly some different forms of information that I would need.
Second student: I would want to know what the trends are for bottled…
Investopedia. (2011). Economics basics: Elasticity. Investopedia.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/university/economics/economics4.asp
No author. (2011). Demand forecasting. Author unknown. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from 10.212.115.113:81/.../Managerial%20Economics/Demand/Demand%20Forecasting.ppt
00). This is below the EU, where they have a rating of 42 or a PPP of $32,500.00. (Czech epublic 2010) 1 When you compare the two numbers, the purchasing power is lower in the Czech epublic in comparison with the EU. This means, that labor costs are much lower in relation to the rest of Europe. When you put this together with the increases in the GDP over the last two quarters and the fact that the banking sector, was undamaged from the financial crisis; means the Czech epublic has outstanding opportunities for addressing the needs of the company. As the country's costs, the business friendly atmosphere and prudent practices of government policies are creating the ideal environment for a European call center to flourish.
Despite the obvious advantages, there are risks of relocating to the Czech epublic the most notable would include: the underlying cost structure. While…
1. Czech Republic, 2010, CIA World Factbooks. Available from
This program is focused onto the following directions:
Generating stability with exchange rates
ebuilding confidence in the monetary policy
Better managing and restricting public debt
eforming and restructuring the banking sector to insure more transparency and the implementation of internationally recognized policies (The Icelandic Government Information Center, 2008).
4. Short-term forecast for the economy
The 2008 has severely impacted the Icelandic economy. In light of the dramatic effects as well as the efforts put into the reconstruction and reconsolidation of the Islanding economy, major growths are not expected. In other words, it is generally assumed that the country will regain its stability through small and gradual victories, which will, for the time being, only manage to stabilize the economy. Growth rates are expected to remain low and for 2010 for instance, the growth rate of the gross domestic product is expected to be close to zero (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).…
2008, Economic programme in cooperation with IMF, The Icelandic Government Information Center, http://www.iceland.org/info/iceland-imf-program / last accessed on August 2, 2010
2008, Economic outlook 2008-2012, Landsbanki, http://www.landsbanki.is/Uploads/Maillist/Docs/economicoutlook2008-2012.pdf last accessed on August 2, 2010
2008, Glitnir releases economic forecast for Iceland, IceNews, http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2008/06/02/glitnir-releases-economic-forecast-for-iceland / last accessed on August 2, 2010
2010, Iceland economic statistics and indicators, Economy Watch, http://www.economywatch.com/economic-statistics/country/Iceland / last accessed on August 2, 2010
Meanwhile, Dwight R. Lee (writing in The Independent Review, 2001) points to a situation where a powerful environmental group (Audubon Society) has cooperated with an energy company and both have profited. Free market environmentalism has shown the way for profits and preservation at the same time in this case. The Audubon Society (AS) owns the 26,000-acre Rainey Sanctuary in the swamps of Louisiana, and while the group is opposed to oil drilling and gas drilling in 99 out of 100 cases, the AS has "been willing to accommodate the interests of those whose priorities are different" (Lee, p. 219). Those interests include allowing thirty-seven wells to be exploited for oil and gas in the Rainey Sanctuary.
According to Lee, the AS has received royalties of more than $25 million from those 37 wells, and in the meantime the technology used in the oil and gas development has prevented any spills…
Anderson, Terry L., and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. New York: Palgrave
Lee, Dwight R. "To Drill or Not to Drill: Let the Environmentalists Decide." The Independent
Review, VI.2 (2001): 217-226.
Source: The Financial Forecast Center, 2009
Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos. One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services. Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases.
2.3 Inflation rate (consumer price index)
The inflation rate represents the "percentage increase in the price of goods and services, usually annually" (Investor Words, 2009). Within…
Ameristar Casinos Inc., Hoovers, 2009, http://hoovers.com/ameristar-casinos/--ID__16260,FRIC__ -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009
Personal Income and Savings, iCharts, 2009, http://www.icharts.net/portal/app?service=external&sp=Y37ayiM=&page=Chartdetail last accessed on May 8, 2009
Investor Words, 2009, http://investorwords.com last accessed on May 8, 2009
The Financial Forecast Center, 2009, http://forecasts.org last accessed on May 8, 2009
Similarly, the subprime crisis represents well the argument between GDP and GPI. The housing bubble resulted in strong profits for the banking, real estate sales and construction industries. Each contributed to GDP growth. Yet, GPI argues that very little real value was created. The sale of a home from one speculator to another increases the GDP, but it creates no value. If that home is flipped three or four times in a year, it inflates the GDP without creating any real wealth for the nation. Churning the economy and growing it are two different things. Therefore in GPI terms, the housing bubble would be deducted from the GDP figure.
Likewise the Iraq ar would be deducted. ar spending increases GDP dramatically, but death, destruction and erosion of goodwill are not "progress" as defined by GPI proponents. hen the negative forces that have propped up the GDP over the past eight…
Cobb, Clifford; Halstead, Ted & Rowe, Jonathan. (1995). If the GDP is up, why is America down? The Atlantic. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/ecbig/gdp.htm
One of the other key measures of our economy is the unemployment rate. This measure provides something of a counterpoint to a growing GDP. The unemployment rate increased in October 2008 to 6.5%. The ability to find meaningful work is a key component of GPI, yet the GDP can grow even if unemployment is high. One of the reasons is that the GDP does not measure wealth distribution. The wealth gap has increased over the past eight years. Average household wealth has increased, but the rate of increase is faster in the top quartile of households. Real wealth in the lower quartiles has stagnated. Again, the GDP would measure the wealth as having grown nationally. But over the past eight years wealth distribution has worsened. hile this clearly constitutes economic success for some individuals, it does not constitute economic success for the majority.
The current account deficit has continued to…
Cobb, Clifford; Halstead, Ted & Rowe, Jonathan. (1995). If the GDP is up, why is America down? The Atlantic. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/ecbig/gdp.htm
When unemployment is high, companies may decide to delay the release of their new updated phone as a means to maximize profit. By withholding the release of the phone, not only does demand build but the ability of more consumers to enter into the market to purchase the phone does occur. At this point, the profit maximization curve peaks earlier and is likely to have a prolonged parabola at the top of the curve which is a short-term profit maximization curve.
With a low employment rate, the likelihood of the smart phone market to do very well is limited by the low employment rate and is subject to constraints when considering the smart phone market and the consumer's ability to pay.
Supply & Demand
Law of demand and substitutes how the demand of these phones are very high. Which again ties back to scarcity but how substitutes are so readily…
The Economist. Science and technology. Babbage Mobile phones. Good night phone. May 30th 2011, 19:33 by G.F. | SEATTLE