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School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
The fair / unfair distribution of school resources. In 2000, the ACLU filed suit (Williams et al. v. State of California et al.), claiming that the obligation of the state to provide all students with "basic educational necessities" was not fulfilled. One million of California's students are deprived of educational basics, such as qualified teachers, decent school facilities, and appropriate textbooks.
An important part of these problems are caused by the inadequacy of the school system funding in the state. Others are problems to be solved by individual school districts, since they are seen as a local management problem.
The new concept behind the reform of school finance of California is the "weighted student formula" or "student-based budgeting," which is believed to be a way to a more equitable and effective school funding system. Still, skeptics doubt that it the concept is applicable to California's 9,000 schools serving 6 million…
1. Californians rank low in education, highway spending
Larry Barrett. The Business Journal. San Jose: Jun 17, 1996. pg. 1
2. Tiebout and tax revolts: Did Serrano really cause Proposition 13?
Kirk Stark, Jonathan Zasloff. UCLA Law Review. Los Angeles: Feb 2003.Vol.50, Iss. 3; pg. 801
Williams Case Settlement
Mr. Governor, our youth represents our state's future - addressing and correcting the discrepancies that will be addressed in this memo should be a main priority and maybe even the ultimate objective of the Williams Class action lawsuit educational budget adjustments. The Courts have spoken and have obviously concurred that the California Educational System has been broken for quite some time and is in need of serious financial reform. The decision reached by the courts in the Williams' Class action lawsuit affirms the requirement of the State's obligation to provide an adequate educational process for this state's citizens.
The Williams' Class action lawsuit has become a successful demonstration that points out the blearing differences between an education received by our states rich and poor children when it comes to a K. through 12th grade education. The California State Legislature has confirmed that there is a significant funding…
Hill, John (2002). School Cutbacks Concern Analysts. Bee Capitol Bureau.
School cutbacks concern analyst
Hill warns lawmakers the governor's proposed budget-cutting plan could cause undue harm in classrooms.
John Hill -- Bee Capitol Bureau
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
The experience has proven to be a real world confirmation of what I want to do in my professional life. I was charged with handling financial computations, modeling, forecasting and transactions. While doing so, I knew I have found my niche in life and need only gain both theoretical training and further real world experiences to become the best I can be in my chosen field. Once I have completed my graduate studies in Finance, I intend to apply for work at leading firms specializing in international finance and trade. This will enable me to apply knowledge learnt in undergraduate and graduate studies. Graduating from two prestigious institutions in the United States will accord me the opportunity to practice anywhere in the world since I have had the global education necessary. It will be a different world since I would have left the secure confines of the academe and enter…
There is no evidence yet that federal involvement in the education system has improved outputs, which would be a prerequisite for efficiency. Part of this problem is data deficiency -- it is simply too early to tell if students reared under NCLB are more competitive because the first wave have barely left school, if they have left at all.
ith respect to Liberty, certainly federal involvement in education funding has constricted liberty. Even a small amount of federal funding can result in a strong federal influence on policy (Shelley, 2007). This influence on the system contributes to the erosion of state control. hile the states control the curriculum de jure, they are subject to varying degrees of influence from the federal government, depending on their dependence on Title I financing.
US Department of Education website. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-org-us.html
No author (2007). Congress to eigh 'No…
US Department of Education website. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-org-us.html
No author (2007). Congress to Weigh 'No Child Left Behind'. CBS News. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://cbs2chicago.com/politics/No.Child.Left.2.278792.html
Shelly, Bryan. (2007). A Small Lever: Federal Funding and State Compliance to No Child Left Behind. Wake Forest University. Retrieved April 21, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/9/8/5/6/pages198564/p198564-1.php
For example, many of the large investment banks may choose to deal only with large deals will have minimum transaction sizes. Therefore, the first consideration may be the suitability of the bank given the size of the organization. There may also need to be consideration of the degree of attention and expertise that the investment banker direct with the company, even if the minimum is met, large organizations with a large number of clients may have a higher level of expertise that can be directed, but they may also be more focused on large clients. This can only be assessed by talking to the relevant investment bank.
Prior to taking on any investment bank it will be necessary to allow the investment banker to make a pitch. oss details of the organization's financial position may be given prior to this pitch, but an investment banker should be willing to sign…
Friedman, Benjamin M, (1982), The Changing Roles of Debt and Equity in Financing U.S. Capital Formation, University of Chicago Press
Miller, M. H, (1988), The Modigliani -- Miller Propositions after Thirty Years, Journal of Economic Perspectives 2(4), 99 -- 120.
Turo, J, (2013, October 2), How to Choose The Right Investment Banker to Sell Your Business, Entrepreneur, accessed 27th April 2014 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/228671
here are variations on these four schools but, in essence, these four schools dominate the field. hese four schools are: Marxist, Kenyesian, Monetarist, and neoclassic.
he Marxist school is built upon the theories and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. hese gentlemen believed that all economic societies go through a period of development wherein different economy systems are used beginning with a form of primitive communism through feudalism, capitalism, and then eventually ending in pure communism. he economy of the Soviet Union was based on the theories of Marx and Engels and, as a result of the failure of that government it has fallen out of favor among modern day economists.
he decline of Marxism seemed to served as an impetus for the remaining major economic schools to re-examine their positions. In the last two decades of the twentieth century the schools began to build a consensus. his consensus…
The Marxist school is built upon the theories and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. These gentlemen believed that all economic societies go through a period of development wherein different economy systems are used beginning with a form of primitive communism through feudalism, capitalism, and then eventually ending in pure communism. The economy of the Soviet Union was based on the theories of Marx and Engels and, as a result of the failure of that government it has fallen out of favor among modern day economists.
The decline of Marxism seemed to served as an impetus for the remaining major economic schools to re-examine their positions. In the last two decades of the twentieth century the schools began to build a consensus. This consensus has become to be known as the new Keynesian economics. This new school of thought incorporates elements of Keynesian, monetarist and the neoclassical ideas and has been adopted by a large majority of modern day economists. In its simplest form, new Keynesian economics stresses the stickiness of prices and the need for an active stabilization policy that manipulates the aggregate demand in order to keep the general economy operating close to its potential output. It also incorporates the monetary policy of the monetarist school and stresses the importance of aggregate supply as professed by the neoclassical school. This blending of economic thought occurs after fifty years of bitter dispute caused by the introduction of Keynesian economics in the 1930's. Although there remain proponents of all the major schools of thought, the new Keynesian economics currently dominate the field of macroeconomics.
Combining competing schools of economic thought
I would advise that Mr. Haskins has to understand that the banks are businesses, and make strategic investments when they think those businesses will pay off. This means that AMD needs to ensure that the banks are happy, in order to secure financing. That means giving the banks what they need to feel secure in this investment. Receivables are not adequate collateral, for a lot of reasons, and ancient receivables are especially worthless. Likewise, giant stockpiles of inventory are not good collateral for a bank. Mr. Haskins has to understand that banks are not interested in these things as collateral, but if he gives the banks what they want he can have loans on the strength of his business.
Mr. Haskins must realize that banks are partners, but they need something out of the deal as well, and do not operate on blind faith. As such, Mr. Haskins needs to…
The topic of finance and managerial accounting inclusively, are broad and incorporate a critical skill set in the modern day business student. Finance involves corporate and investment finance and managerial accounting is complimentary as it involves cost accounting and essentially stresses cost management. Together, these topics provide a comprehensive financial analysis skill set yielding capability in solving the day's most critical business financial quandaries. The literature review will seek to narrow down the literature and funnel the topic into the main financial analysis area.
According to Musvoto, (2011), "Studies in accounting measurement indicate the absence of empirical relational structures that should form the basis for accounting measurement. This suggests the lack of objectivity of accounting information. Landmarks in the development of finance theory indicate the use of accounting measurement information as a basis for their development. This indicates that subjective accounting information is incorporated in finance theory. Landmarks…
Allen, D. (1992). Financial management: The leading edge of management accountancy. Strategic Finance, 73(12), 53. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229748882?accountid=13044
Black, T., & Gallagher, L. (1999). Are physical capacity constraints relevant?: Applying finance-economics theory to a management accounting misconception. Australian Journal of Management, 24(2), 143. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/200627217?accountid=13044
Brewer, P.C. (2008). Redefining management accounting. Strategic Finance, 89(9), 26. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229763529?accountid=13044
Coakley, J.R., & Brown, C.E. (2000). Artificial neural networks in accounting and finance: Modeling issues. Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, 9(2), 119. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214368060?accountid=13044
Then, each program is measured in terms of how well it can perform in a given environment. Based on this test called the fitness measure, the fit programs are selected for the next generation of reproduction. This process is continued until the best solution is determined. (Koza, 1992).
The advantages of genetic programming is that it is an evolving process based on the tested process of natural selection and evolution. This also uses parallel processing and so it can produce more accurate results within a short period of time. Due to these advantages, it is used in many real-world applications.
It plays a profound role in data mining and virtual reality, in every field ranging from finance to gaming. Specialized computer programs can retrieve data from large databases with a lot of precision and speed. These programs can also be used to identify relationships among this data and express them…
Yao, Xin. (1999). Evolutionary Computation: Theory and Applications. Publisher: World Scientific.
Back, Thomas. Fogel, David.B, Michaelewicz, Zbigniew. (2000). Evolutionary Computation 1: Basic Algorithms and Operators. Publisher: CRC Press.
Mitchell, Melanie. (1998). An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Publisher: MIT Press.
Koza, John. R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by means of natural selection. Publisher: MIT Press.
For example, a collectivistic society is typically preoccupied with high-context communication while an individualistic society is often characterized by low-context communication. (Gudykunst and Stella, 1991, p. 96). China, as a whole, is a collectivists society and thus uses high-context communications. This means that the fashion in which they transmit information is dependent on whether it is "in the physical context or internalized in the person." (Hall, 1976, p. 91). In other words, Chinese typically communicate in an implicit way. As such, in Chinese society one will observe people placing the greatest emphasis on interpersonal relationship in which they communicate with in an "indirect, ambiguous and roundabout way." (Gudykunst, 1991, p. 51).
This type of information is important for a Western business person to understand if they are to successfully do business in the Chinese marketplace. Therefore, it is essential that Western businesses and business school focus their training on cultural…
Gudykunst, William B. (1991). Effective Intergroup Communication. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Hall, Edward T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books.
The FCF-based valuation model is based on the following formula:
EBIT (1-Tax Rate) + Depreciation & Amortization - Change in Net orking Capital - Capital Expenditure
is the free cash flow each year, C0 is the original cash outlay, and r is the discount rate. The free cash flows in this type of calculation are only those cash flows that are incremental to the investment decision. Thus, they do not include such non-cash items as depreciation or amortization expense, and they do not include either sunk costs or non-incremental flows like overhead allocations. The r is the discount rate, and the firm can select its discount rate from a number of different options. The most common, and arguably logical, is the firm's weighted average cost of capital. This reflects the firm's cost of equity, its cost of debt and its capital structure, with allowances for preferred shares…
Berkman H., Bradbury, M. & Ferguson, J. (2002). The accuracy of price-earnings and discounted cash flow methods of IPO equity valuation. Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting. Vol. 11 (2) 71-83.
Del Vecchio, J. (2000). Dividend discount model. Motley Fool. Retrieved April 27, 2012 from http://www.fool.com/research/2000/features000406.htm
Demirakos, E., Strong, N. & Walker, M. (2004). What valuation models do analysts use? Accounting Horizons. Vol. 18 (4) 221-240.
Francis, J., Olsson, P. & Oswald, D. (2000). Comparing the accuracy and the explainability of dividend, free cash flow and abnormal earnings equity value estimates. Journal of Accounting Research. Vol. 38 (1) 45-70.
Consortiums and collaborations
Harvard is part of the original Ivy League sporting conference, encompassing Yale, Princeton, Brown, the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell, and Dartmouth. Harvard students are also able, with permission, to take classes at MIT and at Harvard graduate institutions. Harvard offers extensive study abroad options.
Harvard has 41 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men, more than any other Division I college in the country. Harvard is also a proud member of the Ivy League, which is a sporting conference of some of the nation's finest academic institutions (Athletics, 2009, Harvard College).
Harvard has an extensive network of student-directed community service organizations: "Students direct over 120 different programs in and around the Greater Boston area" (Community outreach, 2009, Harvard College). Student-lead groups include afterschool tutoring programs for the disadvantaged members of the community, health awareness and drug abuse prevention programs, mentoring…
At a glance. (2009). Harvard College. College Board. Retrieved June 21, 2009 at http://collegesearch.collegeboard.com/search/CollegeDetail.jsp?collegeId=1251&profileId=0
Athletics. (2009). Harvard College. Retrieved June 21, 2009 at http://www.admissions.college.harvard.edu/about/beyond/athletics.html
Community outreach. (2009). Harvard College
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
Surveys by the National Association of Independent Schools last year indicated that the issue relating to money management in the schools was among the most pressing issues and challenges facing school leadership. The questions were related to re-thinking financing the schools for proving quality and cost effective education to students efficiently. Last fall, National Business Officers Association held a meeting of school heads, trustees, business managers, and advancement professionals to begin to explore the possibilities of re-engineering the ways schools approach financing. Preliminary thinking from that symposium led to the offering that until schools can manage their own funds the quality of education is unlikely to improve.
Schools in the 21st century require, among other things, thoughtful leadership in the domain of financing. Such leadership will engage schools in serious financial modeling, projecting forward five years to produce differing financial scenarios in an attempt to develop the preferred educational…
Guthrie, James W. "Implications for Policy: What Might Happen in American Education If It Were Known How Money Actually Is Spent?" In Where Does the Money Go?" Resource Allocation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, edited by Lawrence O. Picus and James L. Wattenbarger. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1996. Pages 253-68.
Odden, Allan, and William Clune. "Improving Educational Productivity and School Finance." Educational Researcher 24, 9 (December 1995): 6-10.
Odden, Allan. "Raising Performance Levels Without Increasing Funding." School Business Affairs 63, 6 (June 1997): 4-12.
Picus, Lawrence O. "Does Money Matter in Education? A Policymaker's Guide." In Selected Papers in School Finance 1995, edited by William J. Fowler. 19-35.
Budgetary concerns have become a major issue for legislative bodies around the world. COVID- has exacerbated many of these concerns as states must now contend with lower revenue projections coupled with higher cash expenditures. School budgets are not immune to this occurrence and in fact, suffer more so because of it, as will be detailed below. The current New York school district budget is $168,142,155 which is an increase of roughly 2.37% from last year. The budget increase is in line with historical inflation projects of 2% (although inflation projections have changed in recent months due to supply chain disruptions internationally). The budget is supported primarily with tax levies and state aid. The budget itself is comprised of three components with include Administrative, Instructional Programs, and Capital (Abernethy, 1999). Administrative capital is heavily related to teachers, and their corresponding salaries and benefits. It also includes other workers such a grounds…
References 1. Abernethy, M. A. and P. Brownell. 1999. The role of budgets in organizations facing strategic change: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society 24(3): 189-2042. Andersen, A. V. 1983. Budgeting For Schools. National Association of Accountants.3. Aranya, N. 1990. Budget instrumentality, participation and organizational effectiveness. Journal of Management Accounting Research (2): 67-774. Fakharzadeh, T. (2016), Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 128, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5jm3xgsz03kh-en5. Jackson, C. K., Johnson, R. C., & Persico, C. (2015). The effects of school spending on educational and economic outcomes: Evidence from school finance reforms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(1), 157-218.
This in turn gives the financial professional better idea of the stock's risk behavior.
The equation used in this security market line relationship is as follows:
Mathis, CAPM, par. 3)
The measure of systematic risk is considered Beta or bi while E[Ri] is equal to the expected return on asset I and Rf is the risk-free rate. E[Rm] is the expected return on the market portfolio and E[Rm] - Rf is the market risk premium for the stock. Once the Beta is known then the risk and rate of return can be found.
APT is different because not only can forecast for the long-term, it can also work for the short-term scenario. This fact makes it the better of the two theories because it gives the financial professional more tools to assess risk and the rate of return. APT does this by using a model that captures all the data.…
Anonymous. "Risk and Return." The Economist (1991): 1-2.
APT: Risk Models and Portfolio Analytics. 22 Dec 2004 http://www.apt.com/..
Capital budgeting needs vision." Business Line. Islamabad: Jul 21, 2003. pg. 1.
Johnson and Johnson Financial Summary. Yahoo Finance. 22 Dec. 2004 http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=JNJ&d=t ..
Stories detailing the rise and fall of the Egyptians, the Roman Empire and other great nations proved mesmerizing and intriguing.
My interests in other areas have also been diversified; I have pursued many adventures, participated as president of many clubs, and won many competitions in music, sports, dance and more. My strength has always been academics however. During high school I was presented the unique opportunity to come to the United States and continue my education. It was here that I decided to study history initially. Though my parents pressured me to study finance or business, I found such work tedious at least initially. I did however entertain my parents and begin taking more classes in finance. This was probably the best decision I have ever made and helped create the professional I am today.
The more I learned the more I came to understand that finance was more than…
Providing online course options for requirements would likewise reduce overall operating costs for the university, in terms of classroom space. Online teachers tend to be paid less than teachers of 'real world' classes, and these classes can more easily be staffed by adjuncts. Shifting the focus of teaching to adjuncts and teaching assistants would also limit the high cost of faculty salaries, especially for common core classes and departments with lower enrollments, where students may welcome the flexibility of an online venue. . Offering faculty members in non-priority departments the ability to retire is another way to reduce costs.
Prioritizing which tenured faculty members are necessary to retain, which departments cannot be shifted online or transformed into joint majors or joint programs with other, nearby institutions, and enacting a more stringent review process for tenure, to create a leaner institution is all essential. So can giving students more credits for…
Caldwell, B. & Harris, J. (2008). Why Not the Best Schools?: What We Have Learned from Outstanding Schools Around the World. Sydney: Australian Council for Educational
Chabotar, K.J. (2006). Strategic finance: Planning and budgeting for boards, chief executives, and finance officers. Washington, DC: Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges.
Meyers, R. (1996). Strategic Budgeting. USA: University of Michigan Press.
Circles Model for an Inner City School
"I am shocked by the lack of urgency we are showing for the deplorable situation in our inner-city schools and their neighborhoods…students trapped, going to school in a community devoid of hope or opportunity, should challenge our moral sensibilities" (Brown, 2011, Jersey Journal).
Inner city schools (including those in Trenton, NJ) tend to be plagued by similar and familiar problems. According to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Urban Affairs (Glickman, et al., 2008), inner city communities continue to suffer from "disinvestment" (lack of funding sources), "outmigration" (whites moving to suburbs), and "abandoned property" and a sense of gloom that is reflected in schools. Also, the inner city is known for low income citizens, "predominantly minority," and their plight is often reflected in schools (Glickman, 557). And the poor conditions in inner cities -- including those neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey --…
Brown, N. (2011). Opinion: N.J. must improve cities to improve schools. Jersey Journal.
Retrieved August 20, 2013, from http://www.nj.com .
Glickman, N.J., and Scally, C.P. (2008). Can Community and Education Organizing Improve
Inner-City Schools? Journal of Urban Affairs, 30(5), 557-577.
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…
Altman, E.I., ed. The High-Yield Debt Market: Investment Performance and Economic Impact, 41-57. 1990.
Atkinson, T.R. Trends in Corporate Bond Quality. Hardingson, 1967.
Goodfriend, Marvin; Parthemos; James, Summers, Bruce J. Recent financial innovations: courses, consequences for the payments system, and implications for monetary control, Economic Review, March 14-27, 1980
Schneider, S.H. Laboratory Earth: The Planetary Gamble We Can't Afford to Lose. Basic Books New York, NY. 1997.
Challenge of ineffective parenting
Challenge of temptation to succumb to societal vices
The Biggest Challenge Facing Young Adults Today:
- General Purpose: This article is to examine the major challenges that young adults confront in today's society.
- Specific Purpose: The paper is to determine the causes of these challenges in relation to parenting, societal changes, and vices in the society.
Central Idea: The main idea is underlying this paper is to assess issues young adults face in modern society.
There are several challenges facing young adults in the modern society because of the evolving time frame and many changes taking place in the society. These challenges have affected nearly every facet of the society including the economic structure and parenting responsibilities. The societal changes are attributed to the shift in priorities since individuals are usually seeking for ways of improving their lifestyles. The first challenge facing young adults…
Demee-Benoit, D. (2007, July 24). What are the Biggest Challenges Young Adults Face Today?
Retrieved July 7, 2013, from http://www.edutopia.org/what-are-biggest-challenges-young-adults-face-today
"Young Adults Face a Rough Road Ahead." (2011, December 13). Center for American
Progress. Retrieved July 7, 2013, from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/news/2011/12/13/10839/young-adults-face-a-rough-road-ahead/
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…
Finance and Hospitals Mission and Vision Statements
Finance is a term which is generally associated with the management of money including assets and liabilities. The most common association in everyday life may be the way income is managed to pay liabilities (debts), and allocate funds to expenditure. This includes decision made regarding everyday events as well as major life decisions.
When looking at the everyday events, the income will usually be in the form of wages from a job and/or allowances, such as from a student loan, or support from parents or a partner, and will then be allocated to expenditure.
The allocation of the income should be prioritized to satisfy liabilities or debts, and pay for essential expenditure. If funds are left over, non-essential expenditure may take place. Liabilities or debts which are seen in everyday life include the paying of mortgage and loan repayments, such as credit card…
Del Sol Medical Center, (2014), Our Mission and Values, accessed at http://www.laspalmasdelsolhealthcare.com/about-us/mission-vision-values-and-goals.aspx
Emory, (2014), Emory Healthcare, accessed at http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/about-us/mission-vision.html
Whelan, D, (2010, Aug 31), America's Most Profitable Hospitals, Forbes, accessed at http://www.forbes.com/2010/08/30/profitable-hospitals-hca-healthcare-business-mayo-clinic.html
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Master's degree in Finance from MIT Sloan. I have embarked on a number of high-level internships that have given me significant financial industry experience. This has been built on a foundation that includes a high-quality undergraduate education, along with several years of working experience.
In terms of competencies, I have the necessary mathematical skills in order to excel in the Finance program. I achieved my B.Sc. In mathematics at Bogazici University in Istanbul, which is one of the top universities in Turkey. I know that advanced-level finance requires not only mathematics but also extensive work with computer software, and I have built my skills in that area as well. Additionally, I have worked to become a talented writer, able to express my ideas with clarity and concision.
One of my greatest strengths is in leadership. I have worked to build my leadership skills as well over the past few years.…
5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?
The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.
6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?
The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.
7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?
The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…
" Other changes comparing to 2004-2005 F.Y. are: an increase with 0, 7% in general operating revenues, and a 35% increase in student enrollment, but also an increasing expenditure with $115, 6 million, an increase of 2% for salaries. We can argue that the positive results and the positive effects are more numerous than the negative one.
4) for an answer to this question I must mention that the incomes are received and are saved in several funds. Therefore, the money is spending by using also a fund; the General Operating Fund witch shows the main expenditure areas and the occupied percentage. "The General Operating Fund Dollar is spend on: instructional materials 3,56%, utilities, postage, property insurance 3,99%, transportation 0,79%, licensed salaries and benefits 55,87%, other 6,61%, capital outlay 0,6%, debt service 0,2%, contingency 0,27%, police salaries and benefits 0,67%, administration salaries and benefits 6,86%, support salaries and benefits 20,58%."…
Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District, http://www.ccsd.net/directory/finance/budget/05-06_Budget/Budget_Overview.pdf
Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District, http://www.ccsd.net/directory/finance/budget/05-06_Budget/Operating_Budget.pdf
Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District, http://www.ccsd.net/directory/finance/budget/05-06_Budget/Budget_Overview.pdf.Last retrieved on October 12, 2006
Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Clark Country School District, http://www.ccsd.net/directory/finance/budget/05-06_Budget/Operating_Budget.pdf
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
Accounting and Finance
Henkel AG is a multinational company focusing its brand and technologies in three business areas that include Beauty Care, Laundry & Home Care and Adhesive Technologies. Established in 1976, the company holds its global market positions in both the consumer and industrial products with well-known brands that include Lactate, Persil, and Schwarzkopf. Henkel's headquarter is in Dusseldorf in German and the company has over 47,000 employees globally. Typically, the company is considered among the most "internationally aligned German-based companies in the global marketplace." (Henkel 2012).
Objective of this paper is to use various financial models to carry out financial analysis and valuation of financial Henkel AG.
One of the methods to carry out the valuation of a company is to use enterprises discounted cash flow (DCF). The DCF could be carried out using WACC (weighted average cost of capital) that represents the opportunity costs that…
Pension Fund Analysis
The school was founded in 1839 and is Missouri's largest research university offering more than 280 degree programs (Mizzou, N.d.). The school is also the largest employer in the area with more than thirteen thousand full-time employees. The Retirement Trust and the Other Post-Employment Benefits (OPEB) Trust hold the assets of the Retirement Plan and the OPEB Plan. The university is require to fully comply with the GASB reporting requirements and the Trusts are managed by external firms that are restricted to investing in certain asset sectors.
The externally-managed Trust funds are allowed to invest in asset sectors such as U.S. And international equity, emerging markets debt and equity, absolute return strategies, private equity, real estate, global fixed income, high yield fixed income, bank loans, and Treasury inflation protected securities (University of Missouri, 2011). This fund represents the pension and OPEB benefits for a wide…
Kiley, K. (2012, August 7). Unbalancing Sheets. Retrieved from Inside Higher ED: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/08/07/gasb-changes-could-upset-university-finances
Mizzou. (N.d.). About Mizzou. Retrieved from University of Missouri: http://www.missouri.edu/about/index.php
University of Missouri. (2011). Financial Report. Retrieved from University of Missouri System: http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/BusinessPolicyAreas/FinancialStatements/2010/University_of_Missouri_System_2010.pdf
Behavioral Finance and Analysis of American Financial Crisis
Financial theories are the cornerstone of the modern corporate world. They lay the foundation for most tools used in areas like asset pricing and investment banking. Most theoretical concepts like general equilibrium analysis and information economics are planted in the field of microeconomics. There are several different financial theories based on both consumer behavior, as well as how they impact decisions made by financial managers.
One financial theory that many business managers use is The Modern Portfolio Theory,
or MPT. It suggests how investors use diversification to enhance their portfolios, as well as how to price an asset based on the risk, in relation to the market as a whole. Modern portfolio theory displays the return of an asset as a variable, and the portfolio as a combination of all of the assets. The return of a portfolio is also a random…
Klier, Thomas H. "From Tail Fins to Hybrids: How Detroit Lost its Dominance of the U.S. Auto Market." Economic Perspectives 33.2 (2009), 2-17. Web.
Heakal, Reem, 2008. Macroeconomic Analysis: Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
Krumm, Paul, 2007. How Money is Created Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
Metal Detectors in Schools
When confronted with a frightening phenomena, people often tend only to look at the symptom, rather than the underlying cause, and in turn they end up making the problem worse, as in the case of installing metal detectors in schools in an attempt to stop violence. Although at first glance installing a metal detector might seem like an obvious choice towards making schools safer, this kind of thinking only makes the problem worse by wasting time and energy on a "solution" that ignores the larger problem, is not actually effective, and harms the very people it is meant to protect. Examining these three faults in greater detail will reveal how the use of metal detectors is born out an ignorant, careless approach to safety that harms the public while making money for a few self-interested parties.
The first problem with using metal detectors in schools is…
DeAngelis, K, Brent, B & Ianni, D. (2011). The hidden cost of school security. Journal of Education Finance, 36(3), 312-337.
Hartnett, S. (2008). The annihilating public policies of the prison-industrial complex; or, crime, violence, and punishment in an age of neoliberalism. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11(3),
Mawson, A, Lapsley, P, Hoffman, A & Guignard, J. (2002). Preventing lethal violence in schools:
Personal Finance: Making Good Decisions
Financial decisions can have lifelong implications. Before taking this class, although I had a basic understanding of how financial problems could be calculated as equations, I did not necessarily know how to make optimal decisions in the real world. Making good financial decisions requires making an intelligent risk versus reward analysis. All decisions require an economic sacrifice or have an opportunity cost. The money diverted to a college education, for example, could be used for investment, and the time invested in college could be diverted to full-time work. Not all economic actors will have the same fears and hopes and each person may have different comfort levels with economic uncertainty, but all decisions should be made in an intelligent way.
Example One: Renting or Buying a Home
The dream of home ownership has long been lauded as the highest goal of every American. But many…
School of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery
Admission Essay: Gelareh Noenifard
Thank you for the opportunity to submit a learning portfolio for you to consider my application to enroll for the Podiatry B.Sc. degree. I trust that the information provided will convince you of my passion for the medical profession. I believe that knowledge is power and it is my desire to explore every learning opportunity to broaden my education toward attaining this qualification. It is my goal to offer my services free of charge - while I am studying - to podiatry practices to gain work experience. I have attended a podiatry taster day and found it to be a rewarding and challenging career. My interest was sparked when I received medical attention for an injured ankle. I regularly visit the podiatric office to gather information about the profession, learn by observing the treatment procedures, and ask questions about podiatric…
Carroll School of Management, Boston College
What are my career goals upon graduating from the Carroll School of Management? And, what steps do I plan to take before, during, and after my degree program to achieve career success in this field?
My career goal after graduation is to secure a position with a respected, visionary and upwardly mobile financial institution, or with any category of leading edge investment / development firm that is recognized as high caliber. In any case, I wish to be an important part of a financial group that specializes in international markets and global transactions.
The reason that I emphasize my enduring passion to be part of an international organization is because I was born and raised in Taiwan, and I saw Western world societies (Europe, the United States) and Third World countries (Africa, Asia, South America) from the perspective of a my well educated and…
I see my path to becoming a CFO as going through corporate finance and investments. In many industries, managing the portfolio is a critical component of firm success. Risk management is something that the CFO contributes to the organization as well. It is only through a Masters in Finance that I will be able to gain the knowledge I need to open the doors to positions in either portfolio or risk management. From that point, I will be able to build my career through successive positions until I am structuring deals in corporate finance, and insulating firms against economic downturn.
You do not want just any old student in this program. I know that you want the best. Hard work on its own is not enough. Math skills are not enough. The student you are looking for is the total package, and that is what I bring. I have the…
Pursuing an MS in Finance is the first step toward beginning the rest of my life. I am excited to be this close to graduating from college and taking the next step, entering graduate school. I am pleased about moving closer to launching my career and about exploring the possibilities that lie ahead. This Statement of Purpose discusses my progress to this point and my plans for the future, and considers how an MS in Finance will help me achieve my goals.
Because I understand that a Masters degree does not automatically qualify me for career advancement, I want to pursue realistic goals, and that includes personal satisfaction. Whenever I have considered my long-term educational plans, I always thought in terms of a Masters degree, and possibly even a doctorate. So obtaining a masters degree will satisfy one long-term goal and put me in position to pursue another…
The private financing initiatives
When the Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, it was seen as a mechanism to achieve extra public-sector investment by bringing in private finance for capital projects as well as a means to improve the public procurement process that was routinely criticized for poor project management and construction cost overruns. PFIs cut across a range of public services, including hospitals, prisons, public transport, roads, and schools. Each PFI depended on the public-sector purchaser to specify the outputs or outcomes it hoped to achieve, and put private-sector capital at risk for the delivery of those outputs or outcomes. By relaxing the emphasis on input specification, PFIs sought to mobilize innovation and optimize whole-life costs and quality to meet the public requirements. The financing mechanism served to reinforce the long-term nature of the relationship by linking payments to the achievement of outputs over the life…
Chung, Demi. 2009. "Developing an Analytical Framework for Analysing and Assessing Public-Private Partnerships: A Hospital Case Study." Economic and Labour Relations Review 19:69+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5033188311 ).
Flemming, John, and Peter Oppenheimer. 1996. "Are Government Spending and Taxes Too High (or Too Low)?." National Institute Economic Review. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637892 ).
Forrer, John, James Edwin Kee, and Zhibin Zhang. 2002. "Private Finance Initiative: A Better Public-Private Partnership?." The Public Manager 31:43+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000818745 ).
Gibb, Kenneth, and Duncan Maclennan. 2006. "Changing Social Housing: Economic System Issues." Public Finance and Management 6:88+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045014514 ).
high school students are receiving poor education as regards financial literacy (e.g. NAEP, 1979). Mandell (1997), for instance, reports that high school students have an average score of 57% in terms of money management, savings and investment, spending and other areas of income. HS graduates, in other words, have weak financial literacy. Adults also, generally, are almost totally illiterate regarding retirement and investment decision-making. A study of 552 adult females found that 56% were ignorant about the fundamentals of investing (Chen & Volpe, 1998).
A further study found that most Americans fail to save for retirement or fail to save for emergencies possessing a false confidence about financial security of their future (ibid.). About 71% of all workers and 81% of retirees in the study scored 60% or less in knowledge of financial matters. In their same review, Chen and Volpe (1998) showed that the Institute of Certified Financial Planners…
Babbie, E. (1989). The Practice of Social Research. 5th edition. Belmont CA: Wadsworth
Chen, H. & Volpe RP (1998) An analysis of personal financial literacy among college students, Financial Services review, 7, 107-128
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Danes, SM & Hira, TK (1987). Money management knowledge of college students, Journal of Student Fin. Aid, 17, 4-16
high school years, I was encouraged by my father to take responsibility for my own tuition. Along with for-profit employment with several companies during this year, I also served my community by working as a volunteer since the age of thirteen. I did this because of the feeling I have that society tends to forget human compassion in the race for money and possessions. This is a trend that I find worrying, and I am attempting to in my own way make a difference both to this trend and to society. The difference I feel I have made does not extend only to the persons I have served through my volunteer work, however. I brought my business and accounting skills to the welfare organization with which I was affiliated in Taipei: the Creation Social Welfare Foundation.
y work at the Foundation entailed practical service as a caregiver to impoverished persons…
My school and professional career speaks for itself in terms of my ambition and work ethic. I am very ambitious and will stop at nothing to achieve my goals. This is a paradigm my father taught me through his insistence that I pay my own tuition at high school. Paying for my own education has brought home to me the importance of making a success of my school work. I have learned this at a younger age than most people.
This is also evident in my current activities: During 2005 for example I have been involved in several research projects including an analysis for Johnson & Johnson Pharmacia, Inc. The purpose of this project was to create a new corporation strategy and construction plan in potential markets. Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, I am preparing for a CFA level one exam to be completed in June 2006.
These attitudes will then accompany me to Georgetown as I enroll for the MBA program. I look forward to seeing both the institution and my fellow students as partners in benefiting the economy and the world through the acquisition of the skills I need to fulfill my goals.
Humana's Corporate Finance Analysis
In 1992, David Jones, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Humana Inc. considered a major change within its integrated strategy of managing both hospitals and health plans because Jones thought about whether it still made sense for the company to jointly operate both hospitals and health plans, considering emerging trends within the healthcare industry within the United States. However, the Chairman/CEO felt there was more data and a comprehensive investigation was vital of Humana's tactics and procedures by elder executives who had regarded an array of alternatives for reorganizing the business' commercial formation embracing the entire severance of the company's infirmary and health plan processes. The fiscal forecasters who track Humana believed that parting was even more possible even though they were predictably controlled and there was no abrupt risk of evasion on its liabilities. In conclusion of the supervising team felt that…
Business Day. (1996, August 15). Humana inc. (hum, n). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/08/15/business/humana-inc-hum-n.html?src=pm
Gamble, M. (2011, July 11). The quiet takeover: insurers buying physicians and hospitals. Retrieved from http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-financial-and-business-news/the-quiet-takeover-insurers-buying-physicians-and-hospitals.html
Harvard Business School. (1994). Humana inc. managing in a changing industry. Manuscript submitted for publication, Department of Business, Harvard Business School, Boston, Massachusetts.
McClure, B. (2011). DCF analysis: coming up with a fair value. Investopedia. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://www.investopedia.com/university/dcf/dcf4.asp
This could indicate that the latter two countries seek to join the EU in hopes of more prosperous futures.
e) State of education in the country
From the standpoint of education, this is best ranked in Belgium, with a score of 8.8 on a scale from 1 to ten, and it is closely followed by France, with a score of 8.5, on the same scale. The Germans ranked their educational system with an 8, and the Dutch ranked their educational system with a 7. Turkey reveals a similar perception of its educational system as the Dutch, but the Croatians and the Turks have less positive perceptions over their educational systems.
From this standpoint then, it could be argued that all three non-EU member states would benefit from the accession to the EU as this would serve as grounds for improvement of their educational sectors.
f) State of health services in…
Ozturc, Y., 2007, Negotiating modernity: early childhood education policy in Turkey in the context of seeking European Union membership -- a case study of the General Directorate of Preschool Education,
Tunah, I., Bashevent, C., Female labor supply in Turkey, in The Turkish economy: the real economy, corporate governance and reform, Routledge
Round 4 of the European Social Survey, http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org / last accessed on January 12, 2012
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter - contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
Pacific Coast Banking School
The Premier National Graduate School of Banking™
Credit Risk Management Extension Assignment Grade Sheet
Group a: Due February 23, 2012
FOR GRADER USE ONLY:
Graded by Christine Corso for John Barrickman
CREDIT RISK Management
2011 Session Instructor:
Group A: Due February 23, 2012
Add a brief biographical paragraph about your background
Certificate of Originality
"I certify that this paper represents and contains my own work. I have placed all quotations from other sources in a form to indicate that they did not originate with me and I have cited the work from which the material was taken. I have included footnotes for all information and ideas that I have taken from other sources. I have not shared and will not share my completed work with any other PCBS student nor have I read the completed work of any other…
Altman, E. (2008). MANAGING CREDIT RISK: THE CHALLENGE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM. Retrieved from Stern School of Business: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~ealtman/2-%20CopManagingCreditRisk.pdf
Bedell. (2009, September). TCM Guide: Holistic Risk Management. Retrieved from Global Finance: http://www.gfmag.com/archives/104-september-2009/2372-tcm-guide-holistic-risk-management.html#axzz1sMx8vpCj
Coen, W. (1999, July). Principles for the Management of Credit Risk - consultative document. Retrieved from Bank for International Settlements: http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs54.htm
LaCapra, L. (2012, April 17). UPDATE 5-Goldman dials back risk, profit falls. Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/17/goldman-idUSL2E8FH5XC20120417
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
Students have to worry about student loans, too. Another writer says, "One out of five people who borrow money for their education will drop out in debt, but with no degree" (Draut). If they are smart enough to work while they're still in school, they may be able to save some money to put toward student loans in the future, and they may build up enough stamina to make sure they're not one of those students who racks up student loans and then leaves school without a degree.
Finally, there's another reason to look at working during school. Studies show that it makes you a better student. Another writer says, "Studies show that students who work 10 to 12 hours a week get better grades -- the discipline is good for them. But if you work more than 15 hours a week while in school, you may have a few…
Draut, Tamara. "Building the Grand Alliance: Collaboration between Low- and Middle-Income People Is One of the Keys to Rebuilding the Broken American Dream." Sojourners Magazine Feb. 2007: 12+.
"Lowering Boom on High Cost of Higher Education; Going to College without Going Broke a Challenge." The Washington Times 8 Apr. 2007: A01.
Schlack, Lawrence B. "Going to College Is Not Always the Best Choice." School Administrator Mar. 2007: 52.
Shatkin, Jess P. "Transition to College: Separation and Change for Parents and Students." New York University. 2010. 25 Feb. 2010.
They simply looked at teaching as a job, and chafed at the requirements for them to continue their education and continually stay on top of their own mastery of their core subjects. I knew one prospective teacher who was considering education as a major simply because of the holiday breaks and "three months off every summer." Unfortunately, there are teachers like this in about every educational system in the country, and they reflect badly on the rest, who are professional, caring, and highly qualified.
Teacher and school district accountability is important, even critical in many areas. However, teachers are not simply evaluated on paper, and in this legislation, there is no room for teacher contribution in the classroom. As I mentioned before, many teachers are dynamic and powerful in the classroom, and these teachers touch children's lives, no matter what the dynamics of their "mastery" of a subject is. They…
Schleicher, a. (2006). States struggle to reach teacher qualification goals. Retrieved from the Online Newshour Web site: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/nclb/accountability.html22 Jan. 2007.
Aboriginal Education in Canada
GOVERNMENT ROLE IN ABORIGINAL EDUCATION IN CANADA
What do you believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why?
Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a bid to reinforce the prospects of reaching out to many people with the gospel of Christianity. As with the Canadian indigenous people, much was needed to reinforce the spread of this Christianity that came with schooling (Regan,…
transfer from XXX University School to YYY University because I believe that YYY University offers a cosmopolitan environment to various bodies of students. I am a 21-year female from AAAA, visited in the United States in year 2001 for getting higher education. While I planned to get my education from New York University, but because of the 9-11th devastation in New York due to the terrorist attack, on the insistence of my parents, I entered Boston University, School of Management.
Though I hoped that eventually I would transfer to New York University, because I knew that New York University would be the best choice for my educational and as well career goals. It is well know that New York University offers a highly rigorous curriculum in business. More importantly, New York provides a vivacious and cosmopolitan environment and evokes a high level of belongingness for all -- natives, foreigners, locals,…
I believe that most successful people in the field of biotechnology are comfortable with the language of science as well as possess an economic understanding of the implications of science. Taking the actively discussion-based class Business 1 gave me my first taste of marketing and the sense of what it like to become part of a working environment and culture. Working with motivated and creative undergrad business students encouraged me to excel, to stretch myself as a learner, and also to bring my own unique experiences from science to the classroom.
My ultimate career goal is to secure a role in a biotechnical company in a managerial or marketing capacity, whereby I hope to deploy my skills managing and communicating with people to clarify complex scientific issues so that laypeople can understand such issues, and appreciate their significance to individuals and to the…
Juniors of my old high school,
It has been a great pleasure to receive your letter and notice such a keen interest in economics and politics at your early age. The fact that you are already following the evolution of the presidential race and that you are asking questions about it show a great desire to learn and find out new things. I will be more than happy to share some economics pointers with you that, hopefully, will be able to fully answer some of your dilemmas.
You have clearly notice what the economic trends are for the two candidates. Indeed, Republicans, and George W. ush is no exception in this sense, have always boasted the importance of the individual and of non-governmental intervention in the market. On the other hand, the Democrats believed that not only could the government regulate some of the less efficient economic processes on the…
Definition from the Internet, at
Therefore, a country which is able to produce one good with a lower opportunity cost than another country, should specialize in producing that good which will turn into a competitive advantage.
However, when assessing this theory at the level of international trade, it is harder to depict the competitive advantages. The model may seem to be unrealistic. The resources employed in real world are not restrained to labor and the markets in which the goods are supplied are not perfectly competitive. Moreover, there may be countries able to specialize in the production of one or several goods and other countries unable to find any competitive advantage. Other disadvantages are the ones assembled when trying to form a general framework of the labor costs. Due to the fact that these costs are similar within the boundaries of a certain country and vary from one country to another, it is problematical to…
LaHaye, Laura. "Mercantilism." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.econlib.org/library/enc/Mercantilism.html
Mercantilism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. 11 Mar. 2001 http://www.bartleby.com/65/me/mercanti.html
Biography of Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/bios/Smith.html
Korten C., David. "The Betrayal of Adam Smith." When Corporation Rule the World, 2nd Edition. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.pcdf.org/corprule/betrayal.htm
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.