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Identifying whether previous punishments have reinforced the behavior would also be important to design an appropriate punishment strategy.
Fostering Positive elationships with Students
Developing a close relationship with children is associated with improving the positive outcomes of that relationship (Birch & Ladd, 1997). This indicates that as a school psychologist every effort should be made to develop a close relationship with each and every student. While it is acknowledged that this may be impossible, particularly in large schools, the protective impact may be achieved through ensuring that each child has such a relationship with at least one member of staff. The school psychologist should therefore develop a close relationship with as many students as possible, but focus on those which are identified as not having positive relationships with other members of staff. There are certain characteristics which are likely to be associated with a positive relationship with students. For…… [Read More]
The title of the dissertation, "Personality types of selective teachers of students with special needs and longevity in their field," is a bit awkward. However, it does indicate the topic studied without mentioning the results.
The opening of the literature review identifies problem areas in the research. The introduction to the literature review includes a brief outline of what areas will be discussed. The literature review addresses the research questions and supports analysis. The author makes sure the significance of the topic is explicitly stated, such as when he or she mentioned the implications of teacher shortages. The literature review emphasizes the previous studies, including their data on subjects and analysis, as necessary. The author uses essay format for the literature review, not simply an annotated list. Moreover, the literature review demonstrates research trends and addresses the issues and topics of relevance. Gaps and problems in prior research…… [Read More]
Accountability is an extremely important issue with regard to ethics, as guidelines demonstrate a volume of information that is assumed to be known and practiced by school psychologists, the individual is therefore accountable for the appropriate application of them, as well as any other laws or rules that govern their direct contact arenas, as well as other areas of the broad practice. (Medway & Cafferty, 1992, p. 333)
In the NASP Guidelines the accountability issue is discussed with regard to supervisor duties, but is implied as a demonstrative aspect of review and policy change with regard to the training of qualified staff to meet the greater good of children, through all their service areas.
Supervisors lead school psychological services units in developing, implementing, and evaluating a coordinated plan for accountability and evaluation of all services provided by individual staff members and by the unit as a whole in order…… [Read More]
high school psychology teachers. (2013). American Psychologist
Psychology is one of the most popular elective courses in high school. his article provides advice about how teachers of high school psychology courses should be prepared for their vocations while obtaining their baccalaureates. It offers two paths to certification. One is a course-based model, in which the future psychology teacher studies foundation, breadth, and elective courses, followed by a Capstone project. he second is a standards-based model, in which teachers are required to demonstrate knowledge of various disciplinary milestones. Both methods conclude with a required formal demonstration of competency. his article was published in one of the leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of psychology. It is interesting from a student's perspective to review how psychology teachers are taught and the degree to which student's required standards in psychology courses mirror those of their teachers.
Jones, Robert S.P. (2012). Coaching psychology and…… [Read More]
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…… [Read More]
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…… [Read More]
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]
Behavioral activities are more of reactions to stimuli and have less to do with cognitive (or brain) processes and more to do with how one acts in a certain environment. Some behavioral activities would include: 1) sitting quietly while in the classroom or in church; 2) opening the door for somebody to walk in ahead of you; 3) using good manners while at a restaurant; 4) helping an old lady cross the street; and, 5) picking up a child that is crying.
4) the following question requires you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism by discussing elements such as their definition, founders, and similarities and differences. Edward B. Tichener formally established and gave a name to structuralism, which was first based on Wilhel Wundt's ideas. Structuralism is the first school of psychology and focuses on breaking down the mental processes…… [Read More]
In principle, Freud views the development of human personality as largely attributable to neurological functions representing particular components of personality rather than neurological structures, and in that sense, his prescient views predating the technology that would later confirm the neurological basis of human perception and behavior by a full half-century (Dennet 1991). On the other hand, the detailed descriptions provided by Freud for the precise conflicts and interactions among and between the Id, Super Ego, and the Ego amount more to arbitrary characterizations rather than to the precise neurological processes envisioned by Freud (Dennet 1991).
That is not to deny the existence of the various urges emphasized by Freud and the factors responsible for their degree of expression in human conduct. Contemporary psychologists acknowledge the profound role played by various neurological components of human behavior as well as their general connection to specific parts of the brain, all of which…… [Read More]
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]
Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).
Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).
Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…… [Read More]
This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.
Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?… [Read More]
Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…… [Read More]
Important Theorists and their Contributions:
roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).
Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…… [Read More]
Parental consent will also be sought for an individual to be a participant in the project. It is expected that 110 persons would participate in the project; this will be the final number after the initial screening has taken place and the unsuitable candidates removed from the initial listing.
The data will be collected using questionnaires which will be administered at the beginning of the program to establish a baseline position. Then a similar questionnaire will be administered at the end of the project so that values can be compared and variation in responses observed.
Action steps and time frame
I. Clarification of concepts (Two weeks)
II. Development of data collection instruments (Two weeks)
III. Training of personnel (One week)
IV. Identification of schools and contact with schools (One Week)
V. eception and Orientation of participants (One day)
VI. Development of baseline assessment (One day)
VII. Conduct of…… [Read More]
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…… [Read More]
School Counseling - Singapore
School Counseling in Singapore
In the article entitled, "Training school counselors in Singapore: first impressions of a multicultural challenge," authors ivera et. al. explored the history and current situation of school counseling in Singapore. In the article, the authors expressed the need to evaluate the kind and quality of training on school counseling in the country, which requires a culture-specific approach rather than implementing curricula and theoretical frameworks developed in the context and experience of 'western countries' such as the United States and European countries.
In determining this need and evaluating the current scenario in the Singaporean setting, ivera et al. conducted an in-depth qualitative article review of two (significant) studies conducted on school counseling, specifically in the Asia/Singaporean contexts. These studies were identified as follows: (1) E. Tan's (2002) exploration of school guidance counseling in Singapore, focusing on its history and eventual development into a…… [Read More]
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…… [Read More]
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]
The modern psychologist is only as good as his or her understanding of the way that the principles described in multiple areas of the field interrelate to produce behavior and perception.
It is my hope to work in family and child counseling areas in some capacity where I have the opportunity to help families experiencing difficulties maintaining beneficial and healthy relationships and a home environment conducive to well adjusted child and adolescent development. In retrospect, I would like to have become more familiar with childhood education issues simply because I realize that the working environment I envision will almost certainly give rise to an opportunity (and possibly an obligation) to become knowledgeable enough about childhood education theory to meet the needs of my clients as comprehensively as possible. In retrospect, my portfolio might be stronger from a professional perspective if it contained evidence of my having studied childhood education. Strictly…… [Read More]
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…… [Read More]
In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).
According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…… [Read More]
These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).
6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?
According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…… [Read More]
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF
Psychological Profile of a Terrorist
More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).
Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…… [Read More]
The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.
Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…… [Read More]
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…… [Read More]
Application of E. Kubler-oss Theory to eal Life Loss
Stages of Bereavement in relation to eal Life Loss
Elizabeth Kubler-oss posits a theory that the process of loss and grief can be measured in seven distinct steps - shock, denial, anger, negotiation, depression, acceptance, and hope. While these stages may be in any order and can amount to any length of time to progress and advance to the next level, its significance is shown in the application of this theory to a real-life situation concerning the death of a loved one. This paper endeavours to explore each of the seven stages as outlined in the E. Kubler-oss theory. Its application is also conducted on a real-life tragedy I experienced as a teenager when my childhood friend passed away. The stages of grief and loss in the E. Kubler-oss theory does much to convey that the whole process…… [Read More]
Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).
These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…… [Read More]
Next, researchers corroborated the results of the study with other relevant facts on the subject. To achieve this objective, they would look at a number of different pieces to confirm the underlying effect. A good example of this is when researchers would study the classic piece of literature on human psychology, Man Search for Meaning. In the book, the author (Viktor Frankel) says, "There is nothing in the world, I venture to say, that would so effectively help one to survive even the worst conditions as the knowledge that there is a meaning in one's life" (Davis, 2003) This is significant, because Frankel is saying that humankind can survive some of the most horrific conditions, if they are given a reason to endure. As a result, one could effectively argue that the research and the subsequent examination of the different pieces of literature confirm the effect that religion…… [Read More]
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…… [Read More]
The authors assessments about the power of television in influencing the ideas children have about multiculturalism are extremely relevant and accurate. All forms of media are extremely popular and as a result the messages that are presented about people from various cultures also become popular, even if the messages are untrue or based on stereotypes. The benefit of understanding the power of television on the minds of young people, is that parents have the ability to monitor how much television that their children watch. In addition, when questionable images do appear parents can discuss these images with children. y monitoring the images that children see on television, parents have the ability to shape the opinions of children concerning multiculturalism.
The article seems to also articulate the idea that the images seen on television can be used to reinforce positive attitudes in children concerning the culture that they belong…… [Read More]
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…… [Read More]
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, the above-cited paragraph on computer science does not achieve these standards. First and foremost, although directed to a general audience, it blatantly assumes that the reader agrees with the author when it states that computers have changed the world in a self-evident fashion. Even if the reader is an enthusiastic consumer of technology, the question arises of what evidence there is of a real change in terms of society, versus superficial and cosmetic shifts. Even the selection of 'fifty years' taken to manifest this change seems arbitrary rather than justified by any evidence. "What, if any, scientific research supports such claims? It appears that there are no scientific studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that establish the validity of these statements. It is not just conclusions, such as those above, but also evaluative instruments that may lack a basis in research providing scientific evidence of their validity or…… [Read More]
" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.
Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…… [Read More]
I was stricken at the site of gender representation at the management level in this country, for example.
Jane Eyre and characters like her made me develop a sense of reality when it came to gender roles that was partly distorted. I was of course inclined to think that I had every right to get the same opportunities as my male counterparts and generally I did in my country. but, the trust I had developed in my male coworkers and those I came in contact with was a little far stretched because of characters like Jane. The physical part of a relationship between a man and a woman was not treated in detail because the era did not allow such extravagancy, but the sexual aspects that were left unsaid or that were just alluded to were impossible to understand for a child and hard to explain later for a young…… [Read More]
253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.
Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).
The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…… [Read More]
Psychology of Gender
In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.
Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]
Since they were conducted, the American Psychological Association (APA) has established rules and strict guidelines for ethical experimentation that would not allow the kind of deception used at that time. In both experiments, the subjects experienced numerous after-effects including depression, anxiety, and tremendous guilt and they received psychological counselling afterwards.
In the case of the Zimbardo experiment, it is understandable why the prisoners would have suffered from the experience, but it is less obvious why the prison guards and the subjects in the Milgram experiment would. The Milgram subjects in particular did not actually cause any harm to anybody because the setup and the shocks were completely faked. Still, the realization of what they were capable of doing shocked them and caused them tremendous shame, guilt, and anxiety. The members of the Zimbardo experiment have held periodic reunions with Dr. Zimbardo over the years and he filmed a documentary detailing…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…… [Read More]
Graham was consistent with a general trend exhibited by the court to create a more clear differentiation between appropriate juvenile vs. adult sentencing. For example, in oper v. Simmons (2005) the court declared the death penalty unconstitutional for persons under 18 (Guggenheim 2012: 3). However, the Graham decision was considered more surprising because the Court tends to give more consideration to death penalty cases. There is often great variation between juvenile laws between the states, but rather than defer to a growing trend to emphasize states' rights, the Graham decision emphasized evolving national and international standards of decency. According to Justice Kennedy, regardless of the state in which the juvenile is tried, there must be a general acknowledgement that juveniles have a "lack of maturity and an underdeveloped sense of responsibility...are more vulnerable or susceptible to negative influences and outside pressures, including peer pressure; and their characters are not as…… [Read More]
The cause of Palestinian violence against Israel is the illegal occupation by that nation of Palestinian territory, leaving Palestinians with no choice but to defend themselves against their hostile occupiers. During World War II, the Allies praised the efforts of the European partisans and the armed resistance against the Nazis, but today, the world condemns the same efforts of Palestinian civilians fighting against their illegal occupiers and oppressors.
The Palestinian people deserve their rightful territories and violence against Israel will continue until Israel returns all the land taken from Arab countries since 1967 and also allows all Palestinian refugees the right of return to Israel. Just like the Nazis,
Israel conducts military operations against their neighbors and does so without any regard for civilian casualties" (Evans, 2008).
Subject #1 is an American-born Jew whose parents survived the Nazi Holocaust during World War II. Her parents took her to Israel…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable would be whether the children responded to the genitals of the doll or not; the dependent variable would be based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are the drivers for circadian rhythms, according to the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is groupings of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are called the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TO: Flying from California to New York the passenger loses three hours, so when she wakes up the next day at 7:00 A.M., her body feels like it's 4:00 A.M. (that is being "out of sync" -- a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: If a person looks at the passage from Ecclesiastes philosophically, then modern science doesn't even need to weigh in. The truth is that…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable is whether the children responded in some obvious way to the genitals of the doll; the dependent variable is based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are what make the circadian rhythms work, according to an article by the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is a series of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are referred to as the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TWO: Flying from New York to Paris the passenger loses eight or so hours, so when he awakens the next day at 7:00 A.M., his body feels like it's 11:00 P.M. (that is what is meant by being "out of sync" -- which is a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: In this passage from Ecclesiastes Solomon writes that the…… [Read More]
Relativism: The relativistic analysis would emphasize the extent to which different people have different priorities and perspectives. According to that point-of-view, the decision to become fully sexual might be right for some individuals and less advisable for others in the identical scenario. Whereas some girls might highly value their virginity and even hope to wait until their marriage to become sexual, other girls with different values, goals or priorities might be more comfortable with the decision to become sexual sooner. Uncertainty: The uncertainty analysis would emphasize that one can never accurately predict the consequences of decisions and their outcomes.
According to this perspective, the decision to become sexual right now could prove to be a good decision or a very bad decision but that would be determined by what happens afterwards; conversely, it is not possible to analyze that decision in advance. This point-of-view might suggest simply going with whatever…… [Read More]
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]
Article 2 - eens Who Watched Wrestling More Violent:
he research method used in the referenced study was primarily survey/interview and correlation. he researchers collected their data by surveying and interviewing teenagers. he researchers then correlated the data to the research question and formed conclusions based on the apparent correlation between exposure to a specific form of televised violence and the incidence of actual violence among those teenagers
he following passage provides this information:
team led by Robert H. DuRant, a professor of pediatrics, social science and health policy at Wake Forest's Baptist Medical Center, surveyed about 2,000 students in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County public high schools in the fall of 1999 and again in April 2000."
he article strongly suggests that exposure to violence on television (in the form of professional wrestling) is a contributing factor to violence among teens, which may be true. However, the research cited is…… [Read More]
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]
He also is the richest man in the world, and came from a high-achieving family. (His mother was a college regent and the head of United Way.)
Gates was known for years as an autonomous loner. He did not marry until he was nearly 40, and he keeps a very low public profile, unlike the more charismatic and outgoing Branson.
Gates is legendary for his need for dominance. Neither he nor Branson "need" to work anymore, they could live comfortably off their income for the rest of their lives. However, Gates continues to run Microsoft, and be involved in all the decision making. He is "transitioning" out of the leadership role to lead his charitable foundation, but it will take two years and he will still be involved in high-level decisions. It seems it is very difficult for him to give up the reins and he must dominate the company…… [Read More]
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]
Clinical psychology is a professional and scientific field in which specialists of this area of practice seek to augment understanding of human behavior in order to promote effective functioning of persons within society. Clinical psychologists encompass both the application and search for psychological principles and techniques that better the individual. In order to search for and apply the data they collect, clinicians must engage in teaching, research, assessment or diagnosis, psychotherapy, and programs meant to augment psychological well-being and performance. Due to its rich history, clinical psychology has become the biggest and one of the most dynamic fields of psychology with the latest specialist focusing on positive clinical psychology.
Many events helped shape development and practice of clinical psychology. "…the publication of William James's Principles of Psychology, Sigmund Freud's pioneer investigations into the causes and treatments of neuroses, the founding of the American Psychological Association, the opening of the first…… [Read More]
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]