In fact, the Ancient Order of Druids was not organized until 1781 in Britain, and did not begin worshipping at Stonehenge until 1905 (Bender et al. 126). Thus, it seems highly unlikely ancient Druids built the henge. This should dispel this common myth, but many people still believe the Druids were responsible for Stonehenge.
It is interesting to note that Stonehenge is not the only "henge" in Britain. In fact, there are numerous henges, or circular banks with a ditch located inside the bank (Atkinson 152). These henges actually took their name from Stonehenge, which is the most elaborate of the existing henges. In addition, there have been numerous myths surrounding Stonehenge in modern history. In Medieval times, folklore said Arthur's magician Merlin used Stonehenge for religious ceremonies, and during the enaissance, folklore attributed the prehistoric temple to Greek or oman builders (Castleden 9-12). As society and culture has evolved…… [Read More]
e know that many such sites actually exist in England, and they date back to the same prehistoric eras.
It would be exciting if some artifact were uncovered that lent itself to an exact understanding of why Stonehenge was created, and why it was important to maintain it and preserve it for the descendants of the people who lived in the time the original structure was built, or even II and III.
e thus have the paradoxical situation that archaeology, the only method of investigating man's past in the absence of written records, becomes increasingly less effective as a means of inquiry the more nearly it approaches those aspects of human life which are the more specifically human. It is a perfect case of the higher, the fewer (Atkinson and Hamilton, p. 167)."
In summary, what we know is that Stonehenge was not built to enhance the landscape, it…… [Read More]
Stonehenge was certainly a marvel of construction technical, but Separate from the design process, Stonehenge is also experienced through the senses, which therefore gives rise to aural, visual, olfactory, and tactile architecture. As people move through the monument, Stonehenge is experienced as a time sequence. Even though our culture considers architecture to be a visual experience, the other senses play a role in how we experience both natural and built environments. Attitudes towards the senses depend on culture. The design process and the sensory experience of a space are distinctly separate views, each with its own language and assumptions (Meier; see also: Stonehenge Monument).
One need only compare the artistic involvement and popularity of the Hubble Space pictures to note why the symmetry of Stonehenge is so pleasing artistically. If we think of the images that are popular; spiral galaxies, colorful nebulae, planets and stars, we can also see why…… [Read More]
Tess of the D'Urbervilles
It is Stonehenge!' said Clare.
'The heathen temple, you mean?... you used to say at Talbothays that I was a heathen. So now I am at home.'
This description of Stonehenge from Tess of the D'Urbervilles is not merely the poetic imagination at work. Stonehenge is indeed, by any definition, a 'heathen temple'. This great Neolithic monument, situated in an isolated part of Wiltshire in southern England, was constructed between approximately 3100 C and 1490 C; it consists of two concentric rings of great undressed stones set upright in the ground, around a horseshoe formed by five huge trilithons (two upright stones with a horizontal stone supported across their top surfaces), with a further arc of smaller upright stones within it, and a flat stone, thought to have been an altar, in the center. Although much about Stonehenge and other such structures remains unclear, as modern…… [Read More]
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…… [Read More]
Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: one original genetic mutation that subsequently caused generations of people to carry and/or suffer from a serious illness like sickle cell anemia. Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor. The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light. Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…… [Read More]
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
3300…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
Clare merely has the appearance of a working man, just as Tess merely has the appearance of a maiden in white: "His aspect was probably as un-Sabbatarian a one as a dogmatic parson's son often presented; his attire being his dairy clothes, long wading boots, a cabbage-leaf inside his hat to keep his head cool, with a thistle-spud to finish him off"(Chapter 23). But the surface appearance of change, either of clothing for Clare, or temporarily of location for Tess cannot fundamentally change society.
Tess ends as she began -- in a primitive ritual, covered with the blood of Alec, the man who destroyed her life and chastity, before Stonehenge. And she is accompanied by a man who also destroyed her life by breaking her heart. One man ignored conventional morality, or obeyed the conventional morality that said a lord has a right to his servants. One man obeyed conventional…… [Read More]
ecause is easily shaped, these above-mentioned items were made to form by a skilled craftsman's hammer and by casting; gold was engraved and embossed; gold was used in granule form for decorative purposes; gold was pounded into thin sheets for "covering furniture, wooden coffins… for plating copper and silver and for cutting into thin strips to make wire" (Lukas, 264).
Lukas explains that he measured several specimens of sheet gold (actually gold foil) and those items varied from 0.17 mm to 0.54 mm in thickness; he also measured the leaf gold and it ran from 0.01 mm to 0.09 mm. These measures clearly show the talent of ancient Egyptian craftsmen, who were using tools that compared with today's technological sophistication were quite crude, and yet showed remarkable skill in producing what they did.
Ancient Egyptians -- men and women -- loved jewelry, according to professor Eric Cline from George Washington…… [Read More]
This analyst adds that Andy Davies of the Tussauds Group that operates Alton Towers reports that park visitors subscribing to the "Magic Moments" DVD "simply see it as a fun souvenir," and adds, "esearch shows that our visitors have a positive propensity to purchase these products, providing themselves with a personalized reminder of the day they and their friends and family had at Alton Towers. The system proposed will allow guests to relive their unique day time and time again through personalized digital video footage'" (quoted in Tucker at 10).
These types of innovative marketing initiatives are important for a theme park competing in the United Kingdom today because of the approaching saturation levels that appear to be developing in some regions of the country. For instance, besides the historic attractions that are ubiquitous throughout the United Kingdom, Alton Towers is also in competition with a number of other theme…… [Read More]
Herbert eed saw these bronze sculptures as "apparitions," or "primordial images projected from the deepest level of the unconscious, and they illustrate the truth that the artist is essentially the instrument of unconscious forces" (Mitchinson 1998, p. 246). Others see the uprights as Moore's reflection of World War I, or bombs cut in half lengthways to show their internal workings, giving a long, smooth and rounded shape at the back and a complex series of mechanical forms at the front. In this case, he is anthropomorphizing the bombs by adding facial parts. egardless, these sculptures are highly abstract and ambivalent, impacting people in different ways (Mitchinson 1998)
It is most likely more the case that Moore's uprights are not dark and pessimistic recreations of bombs. When he first saw the prehistoric stone monoliths at Stonehenge in the 1930s, he was elated and began to try different types of sculptures: "I…… [Read More]
No other hero is so frequently mentioned. He is the only person so important that triads are enlarged into tetrads to fit him in. (Ashe 45)
The account that did the most to establish Arthur as a prominent historical figure was the History of the Kings of Britain written in 1135 by Geoffrey of Monmouth, a elsh monk, and the book provides a history of the earliest kings of Britain, some 99 in all, including King Coel, known to us today from the nursery rhyme as Old King Cole. About one-fifth of the book is devoted to Arthur, and Geoffrey provides the first organized version of the story. Many of the elements that would be part of the later tradition were missing, however. Arthur's court is not at Camelot but at a place called Caerlon-on-Usk, or City of Legions. Geoffrey contributed at least three new elements to the existing histories…… [Read More]
Still many within the international museum community believe that such a gesture would lead to a disintegration of the purpose of a museum collection in the first place. It would unleash a flood of demands for other treasures to be returned. If anything such a gesture will change how museums share their information and remain accountable. This could change how historians to take in account such factors and eliminate such debates for the future classify artifacts. There have been talks of loaning the Marbles to the Acropolis Museum but to no avail. As of today, one must travel to London to see one of the most incredible displays of Greek culture and history. It is estimated five million people visit the British Museum each year. Still think of what an increase in tourism and spectacle having five million people travel to Athens would mean for Greece? It seems unfair.
Conclusion…… [Read More]
It is commonly believed that the country of England was a solely Catholic nation until Henry VIII's abrupt break from Catholicism so that they might marry Anne Boleyn. The king was already married and under Catholic law, the only way to end a marriage was through the death of a spouse or through annulment. Henry attempted to annul his first marriage, but the presence of a daughter Mary, showed that his claims that the marriage went unconsummated proved to be completely false. The Catholic Church refused to grant Henry a divorce and vowed to excommunicate him from the church if he went through with it (Dixon 1878,-page 3). In retaliation, King Henry of England decided that, rather than have to obey a religious person in a position of power, he would break off from the Catholic Church entirely and place himself at the head of his new religion.…… [Read More]
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…… [Read More]
Google might be one of the most iconic and most cataclysmic company of the last fifteen years or so. Starting as a simple search engine, Google has been able to evolve more rapidly and with more success than any other company imaginable. When it comes to the future, one can only look at the history and background of Google to provide clues as to how the company is likely to evolve. This paper examines Google's fundamental strategy for growth which has been to earn, entice, expand and experiment (Faktor, 2013) and discusses how nearly every step and branch of their services, marketing efforts, and company organization falls under this greater umbrella.
Earning intensely has been one of the major elements that has long allowed Google to grow as rapidly as it has and to experiment in so many different markets. Google makes 95% of its profits simple from advertising (Faktor,…… [Read More]
Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton
Born on the 6th of April, 1903, in Nebraska State's Fremont city, Harold E. Edgerton was the eldest child of Mary and Frank Edgerton. Harold was raised in Nebraska's Aurora city; in his youth, he was fascinated with machines and motors, and loved dismantling broken items, deducing their workings, and repairing them. He graduated from the Nebraska-Lincoln University in 1925. In the year 1928, he got married to Esther Garret, with whom he had three children: a daughter, Mary Lou, and two sons, illiam and Robert. Edgerton was an electrical engineering professor at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and is recognized by many as the scientist who transformed the little-known lab instrument, the stroboscope, into a device commonly used in all cameras. In 1927, Edgerton obtained his Master's degree from MIT, and in 1931, in his doctoral thesis, he studied synchronous motors by employing stroboscopes. He…… [Read More]
elics of the Mexican evolution
There are numerous facets of Mexican culture and civilization represented in the Mexican Teotihuacan monument. An analysis of these different elements indicates that some of the goals of the revolution are embedded within this particular work. It renders various members of Mexican society who have a critical impact on both Mexico's history as well as its future. In this regard, the monument is of immense important to Mexico, because it helps to illustrate some of that country's glorious past -- and alludes to the impact that past could have on both its present and its future.
It is critical to denote that some of the more stark representations of this monument are from Mexico's pre-Hispanic past. Numerous people, some of whom are Mexican, attribute Mexico's present existence to the work that the conquistadores pioneered in this area during their global colonial rampage. There are myriad…… [Read More]
"The body of a bloodied Christ is divinely displaced from its sepulcher" and transferred to the est, where it must regain its rightful place, symbolically making Christianity's ownership of Jerusalem rightful and just."
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
Miesel, Sandra. "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2009
from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
hitman, J. "Transfers of Empire, Movements of Mind: Holy Sepulchre and Holy Grail." MLN,
123. 4 (September 1, 2008): 895-923,978. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed
December 16, 2009).
Charlotte Allen, "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009, p.2. http://www.beliefnet.com/Entertainment/Movies/The-Da-Vinci-Code/The-Real-Grail-Tale.aspx
Sandra Miesel, "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004, Accessed December 16, 2009 from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
Allen, p.2…… [Read More]