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Adolescence-How Adolescence Viewed Cultures
Adolescence-How Adolescence is viewed by other Cultures
Adolescence refers to a transitional stage that happens through the physical orientations among human beings. Adolescence is categorical of the physical and psychological development in human beings as they grow from childhood to adulthood. The process occurs during the period of puberty and ends when one gets to maturity. For many people, adolescence is a recurrent problem since it occurs with differences in capital and minor considerations. Among some people, adolescence occurs at early stages of growth and development. In other people, adolescence occurs late in the stages of growth and development. The basic factor behind the general occurrence of adolescence is categorical of every factor that takes place in the biological. Many factors of human growth and development are regarded when it comes to management of the necessary growth avenues (Stange et al., 2011).
The information from various…
Arnett, J.J. (2002). Readings on adolescence and emerging adulthood. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Corner, J., & Bailey, C.D. (2009). Cancer Nursing: Care in Context. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Dogra, N. (2009). A multidisciplinary handbook of child and adolescent mental health for front-line professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Early childhood fatherhood can impact the young adolescent male's life for the rest of his life, assigning him a responsibility that he perhaps never considered taking on when he was being sexually active (p. 95). Being sexually active is, for young adolescent boys, about more than sex. It is also about how the media says that "men," or boys who are going to grow to manhood, should behave, and much of the advertising media suggests to young male adolescents that if they do not partake in certain practices, like beer drinking, then they will not achieve happy manhood (ouner, Slater, and Domenech-odriguez, p. 435).
Becoming sexually active as an adolescent is usually about much more than meeting physical needs or curiosity, and it is much less about emotional attachments than it is about peer pressure, trained imagery through the media, and a desire to take on responsibilities as an adult…
Angelides, S. (2007). Subjectivity under Erasure: Adolescent Sexuality, Gender, and Teacher-Student Sex. The Journal of Men's Studies, 15(3), 347+. Retrieved August 9, 2008, from Questia database:
Brain development in adolescents
Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition from childhood to adulthood. This period of life is characterized by psychological changes when it comes to self-consciousness, identity and mood. Brain imaging studies conducted recently show that the human brain continues to develop throughout their adolescent years. Although there are some differences between the male and female teenagers when it comes to the course of the neural development, significant brain restructuring takes place in terms of the course of their neural development in both sexes.
The regions of the brain where development is protracted include prefrontal cortex and the temporal parietal cortex. The frontal cortex area is responsible for cognitive abilities like making plans, remembering details, inhibiting inappropriate behaviors and so on. It also plays an important role in understanding others and self-awareness. Since this pre-frontal cortex of the adolescent brains mature, older adolescents aged…
Lorain, P.(2009). Brain Development in Young Adolescents. Retrieved February 8, 2014 from http://www.nea.org/tools/16653.htm
Burnett, S., Sebastian, C., & and Blakemore, S.(2009). Understanding the changing adolescent brain. Retrieved February 8, 2014 from http://www.beyondcurrenthorizons.org.uk/understanding-the-changing-adolescent-brain/
However, when this does not work, the therapist has many other options available to them, when and if they are needed.
The research suggested that in complex cases, combination therapies using cognitive-behavioral therapy and SSIs resulted in the best potential for relief from symptoms. The most important discovery during the course of this research is that the factors affecting the individual are the best method for determining the most appropriate treatment strategy.
Anxiety disorders association of America. (n.d.). Statistics and facts about anxiety disorders. etrievedNovember 10, 2008 from: http://www.adaa.org/AboutADAA/Pressoom/Stats&Facts.asp.
Baker, E., & Lowe, A. (2008). NIMH Funded Study Demonstrates That Treatment Works for Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders. NIMH Press elease. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. 30 October 2008. etrieved November 8m 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/2008_press_releases/nimh_funded_study_demonstrates_that_treatment_works_for_childhood_and_adolescent_anxiety_disorders www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2008/nimh-30.htm"
Connell, T. (2005). Cannabis Use in Adolescence: Self-Medication for Anxiety. Journal of the California Cannabis esearch Medical Group. Winter//Spring 2005. etrieved November…
Anxiety disorders association of America. (n.d.). Statistics and facts about anxiety disorders. RetrievedNovember 10, 2008 from: http://www.adaa.org/AboutADAA/PressRoom/Stats&Facts.asp .
Baker, E., & Lowe, A. (2008). NIMH Funded Study Demonstrates That Treatment Works for Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders. NIMH Press Release. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. 30 October 2008. Retrieved November 8m 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/2008_press_releases/nimh_funded_study_demonstrates_that_treatment_works_for_childhood_and_adolescent_anxiety_disorders www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2008/nimh-30.htm"
Connell, T. (2005). Cannabis Use in Adolescence: Self-Medication for Anxiety. Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group. Winter//Spring 2005. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at http://www.ccrmg.org/journal/05spr/anxiety.html .
Dixon, B. (2007). Environmental factors key in anxiety disorders. June 1, 2007. Clinical Psychiatry News.
Describe two ways that brain development typically contributes to changes in thinking and behavior as individuals progress through adolescence (448-451). Provide two specific examples of how most adolescents think and reason (pp. 485-493).
Because of the "Dramatic transformations" that occur during adolescence in the prefrontal cortex and the limbic brain regions, feelings of "fear and anger" emerge in the adolescent (p. 448). These fears and angry responses are due to the growth of testosterone (in the amygdale); and the author explains that this change explains the "increased aggressiveness and irritability" that boys experience during this portion of their development (448).
A second way in which the changes in the brain contribute to adolescents behaviors is in cognitive functioning. Because the systems that regulate emotional behavior and sexuality are evolving and growing, cognitive functioning is a work in progress, so to speak. Sleep may be irregular in adolescents, and a…
Chapter 14. Physical Development and Health in Adolescence
Chapter 16. Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence
They seem to do not quite have a well-determined strategy for dealing with adults, which was predictable due to the rashness and irascibility that characterizes this specific age. hat they admitted to use when negotiating with their parents is the argument of evoking the elders' years of youth by reminding them how they felt as teenagers, together with the promise of coming back home at the precise established hour.
Researches done in the area indicate as the main reasons for adolescents' behavior the small stressing events that they must cope with every day: conflicts with close friends, communication problems with peers, the feeling of being left outside. As they tend to be more emotional than their parents and adults, in general, and they experience opposite moods very frequently, one agrees that they feel extremely affected by small and, one could say, meaningless events, because they perceive these events from the…
Waddock, S.A., Freedman, M. (1999). Reducing the generation gap and strengthening schools. Generations, 22
Larson, R., Richards, H.M. (1994). Divergent Realities: The Emotional Lives of Mothers, Fathers, and Adolescents. New York: Basic Books.
Seiffge-Krenke, I. (1995). Stress, Coping and Relationships in Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Adolescence & Adulthood
Adolescents and Adulthood
There are numerous changes in development and challenges that come with the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The adolescents acquire and consolidate the attitudes, competencies, social responsibilities and values that are necessary to make a successful transition into their adulthood life. Late adolescence and the period that comes after is termed as emerging adulthood and it has been noted to be important for setting stage for the continued development through an individual's lifespan as they start making choices and engage in activities which will influence the rest of their lives.as the adolescents move into the period of emerging adulthood he choices they make as well as their challenges shift to include decisions on their vocational training or education, their transition within the labor market, moving out of their parents home and even sometimes they begin thinking about marriage and parenthood. There are several developmental…
Zarrett, N. & Eccles, J.(2009). The passage to adulthood: Challenges of late Adolescence. Retrieved April 14, 2014 from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/49326/179_ftp.pdf?sequence=1
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2012). Pathways to Adulthood and Marriage: Teenagers' Attitudes, Expectations, and Relationship patterns. Retrieved April 14,2014 from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/pathways2adulthood/execsum.shtml
Fatoumata appeared to be in the middle adulthood stage, even though she's just a teenager. She exhibited the strongest show of maturity out of the three students. This is not suggesting that her responsibilities were greater than the others. She just seemed to have this mature resolve about her situation that she would break out of it and she wouldn't have it any other way. Fatoumata was extremely determined and focused. Although she didn't have the support from her parents, she had much support from her classmates as well as Stephenson. She was mature enough to appreciate all the things that this country had to offer and didn't take them for granted, but seemed to know that she needed to take advantage of every opportunity that came her way in order to break free from her circumstances.
Erica appeared to be in the adolescent stage. She may have had to…
As Landis states:
Agricultural societies historically have had no adolescent youth problem. Childhood merges directly into adulthood. In our frontier society of a few generations ago, the adolescent group was not recognized as a problem group. Young people took over the responsibilities of adulthood early and were accepted in adult roles by the society When urbanization, developed to the point where the adolescent had no place in the work world problems consequent to delayed maturity brought to focus the adolescent problem. The youth problem emerged much later; in fact, it was not recognized as such in the United States in any real sense until the depression decade of the thirties. (Landis, 1945, p. 26)
It therefore follows that a large number of modern adolescent problems in modern society can be linked to the way in which contemporary culture affects young people in their transition to adulthood. There is a wide…
Beach, Steven R.H..(2000) MATERNAL and PATERNAL PARENTING DURING ADOLESCENCE: FORECASTING EARLY ADULT PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT.
Adolescence, September 22.
Blos, Peter, (1941) the Adolescent Personality,
New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., p. 262
relationship of Mark, an adolescent boy age 17, and his father. Up until his mid-teens Mark was an underachiever and was overweight. He was relatively unmotivated in school, did not asset himself, and shied from confrontations. These aspects of his life affected his relationship with his peers and family. In his mid-teens several events occurred that resulted in Mark becoming more assertive and developing a more identified sense of self. These events resulted in positive changes but also led to many confrontations and moderate levels of strife with his father. The events and the conflicts with his father are discussed in terms of Mark's biological, psychosocial, cognitive, and moral development along with the concept of psychological distancing.
Mark is a 17-year-old male who lives with his mother, father, and younger brother oger. Mark is a senior in high school. His father is an electrician at an automobile assembly plant with…
Berk, L.E. (2010). Exploring lifespan development (2nd Edition). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Erikson, E.H., (1964). Insight and Responsibility. New York: W.W. Norton.
Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York:
Adolescence, and How They Have the Potential to Impact Your Work as an Adolescent and Family Counsellor
Issue Usually Adolescents Face
Adolescence is a somewhat universal period of transition where females experience physical, emotional, psychological, and social changes. Cultures vary as to how they define and deal with the "growing up" period. Only the biological changes of puberty are consistent across cultures. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, may begin as early as 8 or 9 and continue to develop until about age 14. Menarche begins around this same time with the average age in the U.S. being 12.5 years. Behaviorally, these rapid changes often lead to comparison with peers, self-consciousness, and significant concern over one's physical appearance (Greene, 2005).
Orvaschel, Beeferman, and Kabacoff (1997) found that self-esteem tends to decrease with advancing age, at least through late adolescence. Most likely this is related to changing appearances, increased self-consciousness, and…
Green, A. (2005). Medical encyclopedia: Adolescent development. Retrieved April 10, 2011 from www.nim.nih.gov/medline/ency/article/002003.htm.
Beyebach, M. & Escudero, V. (1997). Therapeutic interaction and dropout: Measuring relational communication in solution-focused therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 19, 173-212.
Bolton Oetzel, K.B., & Scherer, D.G. (2003). Therapeutic engagement with adolescents in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training, 40, 215-225.
Cabero Alvarez, A. (2004). Patrones de interaccion y relacion terapeutica: control de la relacion y clima afectivo en la interaccion terapeuta-paciente. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Salamanca, Spain.
Adolescence Living High Risk Acquiring a Sexually Transmitted Disease South Florida
Sexually transmitted diseases represent an important topic when considering the south of Florida and adolescents there. The fact that there are hundreds of cases of STDs being diagnosed on a daily basis in Florida emphasizes the gravity of the issue and the fact that teenagers are exposed to a hostile environment when regarding matters from this perspective. Numbers are not necessarily important when considering the group of individuals affected by STDs, especially considering that some are reluctant to see a doctor concerning their condition and others simply don't know that they have an STD. "Locally in Miami-Dade, 2010 brought another year of increases in all of the reportable STDs." (Saxon Jordhal)
Syphilis and HIV are among the STDs that the authorities in South Florida currently treat with great caution. Large amounts of funds are directed at researching these two…
Saxon Jordhal, Lori, "Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Keeping you in the Know," Retrieved September 19, 2013, from http://southfloridahospitalnews.com/page/Sexually_Transmitted_Diseases_Keeping_you_in_the_Know/6280/1/
"SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE -- AWARENESS CAN STOP THE TREND," Retrieved September 19, 2013, from http://www.pbchd.com/press/2008/apr/aprnews12008.html
"School-based STD Screening Efforts in Miami-Dade County, Florida (NCSD Webinar)," Retrieved September 19, 2013, from http://www.ncsddc.org/resources/school-based-std-screening-efforts-miami-dade-county-florida-ncsd-webinar
"STDs in Adolescents and Young Adults," Retrieved September 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/adol.htm
Adolescence to Adulthood:
Comparative Study of Stephen Dedalus from James Joyce's "Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man" to Felicitas Taylor from Mary Gordon's "The Company of Women"
Stephen Dedalus, the hero in "Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man" by James Joyce, is very similar to Felicitas Maria Taylor, the heroine in "The Company of Women" by Mary Gordon. The novels they are protagonists in both track their journey from adulthood into adolescence. This paper endeavors to explore the characters of Stephen Dedalus and Felicitas Taylor in terms of how they cope with their teenage years and how their experiences and encounters influence how they turn out as adults.
Prior to undertaking an in-depth look into the nature of these two main characters of their respective books, it is important to provide a summary of the story each character is involved in and, thus, shaped by. "A…
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Analysis of Major Characters. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/portraitartist/canalysis.html
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Important Quotations Explained. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/portraitartist/quotes.html
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Plot Overview. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/portraitartist/summary.html
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Themes, Motifs and Symbols. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/portraitartist/themes.html
Adolescence -- a Time of Transition
Adolescences and crime: A time of transition in the juvenile justice system
The juvenile justice system in America reflects a fundamentally different conception regarding the adolescent mentality vs. The adult mentality. "ehabilitation and treatment, in addition to community protection, are considered to be primary and viable goals" of the juvenile justice system, in contrast to the adult system where "rehabilitation is not considered a primary goal…which operates under the assumption that criminal sanctions should be proportional to the offense" versus the nature and character of the offender (Juvenile vs. adult justice, 2013, Frontline). The juvenile justice system in many ways views itself as treating the child offender just as much as it is dealing with crime. That is why " the juvenile justice system follows a psychological casework approach, taking into account a detailed assessment of the youth's history in order to…
Bilchik, Shay. (1999). Juvenile justice: A century of change. U.S. Department of Justice.
Juvenile vs. adult justice. (2013). Frontline. Retrieved:
Adolescence can be a time of upheaval, stress and extreme challenges. And how should an adolescent respond and react to challenges he or she will face during adolescence? These issues and others related to how adolescents respond to challenges will be covered in this paper.
Challenges can cause Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents
In the peer-reviewed journal Depression and Anxiety, the authors discuss "anxiety sensitivity" and the "negative social, psychological, or physical consequences" that anxiety sensitivity can have on adolescents and others from stressful situations (Zavos, et al., 2012). It is known that persons that struggle with anxiety sensitivity can later in life experience "subsequent depression," Zavos writes (400). The pertinent events that create stress and the resulting anxiety sensitivity are things like "family discord" and the breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend, the authors explain.
In this study, researchers measured stressful life events in 1,500 individuals…
Larson, R.W. (2011). Adolescents' Conscious Processes of Developing Regulation: Learning to Appraise Challenges. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, Vol. 133, 87-
Zavos, H.M.S., Wong, C.C.Y., Barclay, N.L., Keers, R., Mill, J., Rijsdijk, F.V., Gregory, A.M.,
And Eley, T.C. (2012). Anxiety Sensitivity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Role
The cross-cultural differences in child and adolescent brain development is a cross-disciplinary study that can be contained under the rubric of medical anthropology, adolescent neuropsychology, or the budding field of cultural neuroscience. The field is brimming with possibilities because of the wide differences observable and measured in the perception of adolescence, the experience of adolescence, and the corresponding biological differences in children and teen brains across different cultures. Choudhury refers to factors such as the cultural contingencies of categories, which will be the foundation of the adolescent experience. Research also reveals differences in experience based on culture and cultural context as well as gender and social norms. Although research in the area of cross-cultural differences in child and adolescent brain development is diverse, one common thread remains: The study of adolescence itself has a cultural context. Adolescence is culturally contingent on the roles, values, and norms of a…
Korbin, Jill E. And Anderson-Fye, Eileen P. "Adolescence Matters: Practice- and Policy-Relevant Research and Engagement in Psychological Anthropology." Ethos 39(4): 415-425
Males, Michael. "Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal." Journal of Adolescent Research January 2009 vol. 24 no. 1 3-20
Steinberg, Laurence. "Should the science of adolescent brain development inform public policy?" American Psychologist, Vol 64(8), Nov 2009, 739-750. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.64.8.739
Bipolar in Adolescence
Child Development - Bipolar in Adolescence
The early years of the life of a child is full of development and learning, which plays an integral role in building and shaping the entire personality, characteristics and the health cycle. In other words, the life from birth to adolescence period is the developmental phase of life in which parents, educators and even peers are significant that can help and nurture the child in its growth to reach their full potential (Meggitt, 2006).
This evidently signifies that a child undergoes biological, psychological, cognitive, social and emotional changes in his life that begins from the time of his/her birth and continues until the child reaches his/her adolescence stage. The phase from birth till adolescence is vital due to the reason that it is the key phase of a child's life in which he/she steps forward from dependence to increasing independence (Meggitt,…
Evans, D.L. & Andrews, L.W. (2005). If Your Adolescent Has Depression Or Bipolar Disorder: An Essential Resource for Parents. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Geller, B. & DelBello, M.P. (2008). Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. New York, USA: Guilford Press
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. 2nd Edition. UK: Heinemann.
Miklowitz, D.J. & George, E.L. (2007). The Bipolar Teen: What You Can Do to Help Your Child and Your Family. New York, USA: Guilford Press.
A certain amount of disagreement and mutual conflict with peers is expected among adolescents. To disagree with others who have different opinions or preferences is a normal aspect of the emergence of self-awareness and the development of a sense of one's uniqueness and identity. In the same way that differences of opinion and disagreements with adults are a normal part of adolescence, those with peers are a normative part of adolescent development (Cillessen, Antonius, 2002, p. 48)."
Communication, then, is a key building block in the growth experience of children that helps them to grow and experience healthy adolescent relationships that lead to healthy and productive self-constructs of their own identity. Communication, good lines of communication, begins at the family level of experience, and then carries over into the social setting. That Klebold's and Harris' parents were unaware of their behaviors, experiences, and feelings about school, lends insight into the…
Brown, B., and Merrit, R. (2002). No Easy Answers: The Truth Behind Death at Columbine. New York, New York: Lantern books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105540590
Chevannes, B. (2001). Learning to Be a Man: Culture, Socialization, and Gender Identity in Five Caribbean Communities. Barbados: University of the West Indies Press. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105540592 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469947
Cillessen, A.H. (2002, May). Understanding the Predictors of Violent Adolescent Behavior: "If [Youths] Have Poor Anger Control, Distorted Views about Themselves or Society, Lack the Friendships or Peer Interactions in Which They Can Test Their Views against Reality, and Have Access to and Experience with the Use of Weapons, a Deadly Mix May Be Created.." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 48+. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469947
In the historical world, there seemed to be fewer choices in life for many, and roles as adults were more stringent -- and defined as adult meaning very structured cultural templates. There must then be a bit of a Catch-22 when it comes to the advances made in gender thinking, family, and actualization since the end of World War II. Improvements in education, lifting of the gender-based glass ceiling at work, in politics, and in academia; goals towards equalization of pay and responsibility; and even more opportunities for both sides to consider jobs and careers that have been essentially gender decided for decades. Too, the process of globalism -- in terms of communication and sharing of ideas -- has changed culture to one in which defined roles are seen as old-fashioned rather archaic paradigms of rural or under-developed society.
The Workplace- Contemporary working age Americans fall into four main generational…
Leading the Four Generations at Work. (2007, January 27). Cited in: American Management Association: http://www.amanet.org/training/articles/Leading-the-Four-Generations-at-Work.aspx
Brewer, L. (2001). "Gender Socialization and the Cultural Construction of Caregivers."
Journal of Aging Studies. 15(3): 217-35.
Clark-Flory, T. (March 5, 2011). Are Men Stuck in Perpetual Adolesence? Salon.com. Cited in:
Childhood and Adolescence Development
There are many changes individuals undergo during adolescence -- a period occasioned by rapid developmental growth. This period brings with itself a lot of excitement as teens gain maturity and attain a new level of freedom. However, it also has its own unique challenges. Although intensified peer relationships play a key role in helping teens navigate this period, the choice of friends and by extension peer pressure could either impede or aid a teen's moral and social growth. Some of the social pressures teens face during this stage include but they are not limited to experimentation with drugs and sexual exploration.
Pressures Faced in Adolescence
Sexuality and Dating
When it comes to sexuality and dating, it is important to note that teenage years are characterized by strong sexual impulses. In seeking to explore their sexuality and given their changing relations with the opposite sex, it is…
Kail, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2008). Human Development: A Life-Span View (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Martin, C.L. & Fabes, R. (2008). Discovering Child Development. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Newman, B.M. & Newman, P.R. (2008). Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Children and adolescence can often become plagued with a myriad of health problems. Some revolve around psychosocial issues. ADHD is such a disorder that affects as many as 1 in 20 children or adolescence in the United States with a growing prevalence worldwide. Although this disorder can cause problems for the child or adolescent experiencing symptoms, it can be successfully managed. Treatment protocols involve proper assessment of symptoms and diagnosis, a treatment plan, and effective follow up care. With this kind of approach, children and adolescence who may suffer from ADHD can learn to deal with this disorder.
ADHD is a psychosocial issue present in children and adolescence. Although it is not heavily prevalent, quite a number of children and adolescence have this condition and display its core symptoms. ADHD is characterized by the following main symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. There are also three subtypes of ADHD. These are…
Dunne, J.E., Ayres, W., Arnold, V., Benson, R.S., Bernet, W., Bukstein, O., Sloan, L.E. (2007). Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 894-920. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/practice_parameters/jaacap_adhd_2007.pdf
McGuinness, T.M. (2008). Helping Parents Decide on ADHD Treatment for Their Children. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(8), 23. Doi: 10.3928/02793695-20080801-08
Scahill, L., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2000). Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9(3), 541. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2000-00431-006
Adolescence: A conflicted life period
Adolescence is often considered to be a particularly 'fraught' time during the average individual's life history. Although the construction of adolescence and the age during which someone is considered to be an adolescent may vary from culture to culture, most societies define a certain period of time as 'not childhood' and 'not adulthood.' There are common physiological changes seen in all adolescents such as menstruation in females; lowered voice in males; and increased height and body hair in both genders. Adolescents also begin to experience and experiment with showing sexual desire. However, these changes can cause great anxiety and confusion, as the adolescent struggles with his or her emerging adolescent identity.
Females in particular tend to be more anxious about their body image than boys because of the great emphasis placed upon female beauty within the culture as a measure of self-worth…
Zastrow, C. & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2010). Understanding human behavior and the social
Environment. 8th ed. Cengage Learning.
His article does an excellent job of discussing in comprehensible terms the recent research which has addressed the current state of knowledge about the relationship between substance abuse amongst teens and mood disorders and provides a breakdown of possible treatment options.
Flaherty, L., & Flaherty, M. (2005). Adolescent psychiatry: he annals of the American society for adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 29). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Analytic Press.
his resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. he topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. o the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating:…
This resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. The topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. To the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating: one which discusses comorbidity amongst teenagers with depression and substance abuse issues and another which discusses issues related to dual diagnoses in adolescents with depression and substance abuse issues.
Schwartzberg, A.Z. (Ed.). (1998). The Adolescent in Turmoil. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26000946
Schwartzberg addresses several of the salient issues that have arisen in modern times with regard to adolescents and mental health conflicts. A significant amount of the book focuses upon diagnosing and treating adolescents struggling with depression. Within this text, he also addresses the normal and pathological adolescent as well as the overall development of the adolescent which can be helpful in addressing the differences amongst adolescents with depression and those without. There are additional sections that discuss specific issues that afflict troubled adolescents such as eating disorders, mood disorders, aggressive and violent behavior, and suicide. This text is written in comprehensible terms and the reader does not need to have extensive medical background to understand its contents.
It produced a net increase in perceived benefits of protective behavior and in self-efficacy among both males and females, and a reduction in perceived barriers to protective behavior among females. Consistent with these changes, it was also associated with a reduction in risky sexual behavior among young men and an increase in contraceptive use among young men and women (Agha, 2002, p. 67+).
Agha also noted that there was more positive change among young women than among young men, a fact that "may reflect a better ability of these adolescent sexual health interventions to address the concerns of women than of men, or a greater receptivity to such interventions among young women than among young men" (2002, p. 67+). Because of the success of this program, however, Agha suggests that means of reaching young men to the same extent are worthy of additional study, and multi-media, educational programs of long…
Agha, Sohail. "A Quasi-Experimental Study to Assess the Impact of Four Adolescent Sexual Health Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 28, no. 2 (2002), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 67+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Dijamba, Yanyi K. "Social Capital and Premarital Sexual Activity in Africa: The Case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal Title: Archives of Sexual Behavior. 32, no. 4, (2003), 327+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Kiragu, Karungari and Laura Schwab Zabin. "The Health Consequences of Adolescent Sexual and Fertility Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa." Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2 (1998), 210+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Koblinsky, Marjorie A., Oona M.R. Campbell, S.D. Harlow. "Mother and more: A broader perspective on women's health." In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective. Ed. Marlene A. Koblinsky, Judith Timyan, and Jill Gay. Boulder, CO. Westview Press. (1993) Pp.33-62.
Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
School Organization and Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
att's article explores the connection between school organization and adolescents' mental health. There is a commonly held belief that adolescents receive a superior educational and interpersonal experience in private schools and small schools. att cites studies by Coleman and others that have given support to the perceived superiority of private schools. Coleman's findings in support of private schools did not however address mental health, but were instead limited to academic achievement.
att's questions "Are private schools better not only for academic achievement but for mental health? Are small schools associated with broad indicators of emotional well-being?" (2003, p.345) form the basis for her study. att's study addresses these issues by examining three indicators of adolescents' emotional adjustment: depression, suicide attempts and violent dispositions.
att's study analyzed data collected by the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health, which surveyed health-related…
Watt, T.T. (2003). Are small schools better for adolescents' emotional adjustment? Sociology of Education, 76(4), 344-367.
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…
(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm .
(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/
(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
In fact, even executives in fashion and beauty magazines see an alarming trend of "too thin" to the point of looking emaciated and unhealthy -- certainly not a look that "sells" (Wilson 542).
What is happening is a continual push to be something different, not because there is actually anything wrong with us -- at all. It is because advertising tells us that something is wrong. Advertising is part of the marketing mix that is designed to persuade a consumer to purchase something. Of course, there are many ways of doing this, and the "science" of this media has certainly evolved in the last century. Advertising is subliminal, sophisticated, pervasive, covert, overt, and a seminal part of the contemporary world. However, advertising has become so sophisticated that it sends messages both overt and covert that even if we are not paying attention to the exact product, the images we see…
Croll, J. "From Body Image and Adolescents." Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 536-41.
Wilson, E. "When Is Thin Too Thin?" Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 542-4.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development
Student counselors are can organize a student led drug abuse prevention committee and create awareness among the adolescent children. Study results have confirmed the positive value of such student led programs in preventing the malice of drug abuse. It has also been found that multiyear preventive programs have long lasting positive effects that short-term programs. . Programs such as 'Friendly Persuasion', 'Life skills Training', 'Midwestern Prevention Project' which were implemented in schools had a considerable measure of success in reducing drug abuse and in delaying the onset of drinking.[155-158]. Student counselors have to interact with teachers, social workers, health care professionals and other community-based groups to workout and implement student activity programs that can be run by adolescents.
4) by providing a positive developmental environment at school the student counselor optimizes the chances of a student succeeding in his overall development. As Pittman states, "Adolescents who are merely problem-free are…
CBASSE, "Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)"
National Academy Press, Available Online at, http://books.nap.edu/books/0309072751/html/R1.html#pagetop
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
On the other hand, 'resistance for liberation' may have the obverse effect causing children (in this case adolescents) to take these self-same disabling elements and use them for their growth and success.
Poverty may be a social construct but it need not tarnish an individual for life. Ultimately, the individual decides what to do with his or her life, and the same circumstances that can turn one into a drug-doped self-destructed convict can turn another into a bastion of society.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, ., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.R., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, R., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
There is also a strong peer-association element to inhalant abuse which is why identification of at-risk behaviors, preventative counseling, and education are among the most effective means of prevention (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004).
By the time pre-teens and adolescents begin experimenting with alcohol, tobacco products, chemical inhalants, and recreational drugs, it is much more difficult to intervene effectively than it is before those behaviors first emerge (Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004). Since inhalant abuse is one of the first forms of substance abuse available to children, the most effective approach to prevention and intervention is educational programs targeting elementary school children. By socializing younger children to recognize the dangers associated with inhalants, it is possible to reduce the likelihood that they will participate in that behavior by the time they reach the age of 12, which is when most participants begin experimenting with it for the…
NIDA. (2010). Inhalant Abuse. Accessed 1 November, 2010, from:
Wu, L.T., Pilowsky, D.J., and Schlenger, W.E.J. "Inhalant abuse and dependence among adolescents in the United States." American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 43, No. 10; 2004: 1206-14.
To specifically teach the biology of puberty, students can fill in diagrams of the body and brain, identifying the areas associated with the hormones the human body releases in during puberty and the areas of the body affected most by these hormones (Puberty, 2007, Discovery.com). Understanding the physical reasons for hair growth and the male change of vocal tone can make these changes seem less frightening when students experience them personally.
Also, trusting adults can be difficult for students at this age. Parents may be worried about what their child is learning in class on this subject. To bridge the difference between adult and child attitudes, and create dialogue, teachers can create supportive assignments such as asking students to brainstorm questions they have about the opposite sex and the experience of puberty, and then assigning students the task of interviewing a parent or trusted adult of the opposite sex to…
Puberty." (2007). Lesson Plans Library: Grades 6-8. Discovery.com. Retrieved 26 Aug 2007 at http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/ragingteens
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.
Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.
Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.
Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
Self-esteem must be combined with other components of emotional distress, such as the factors which affect perceptions of the self and of other peers. Factors should include competence, confidence, and acceptance, among others.
Behaviors that are considered to be negative by society may not be the factors that most strongly affect self-perceptions and self-esteem, however. As noted by Mosley (1995), factors which are interpreted and internalized as negative will have a significant impact on self-esteem, even if they are not socially irresponsible. Mosley's example is that adolescent receipt of welfare is associated with lower levels of perceived self-worth. Mosley notes the importance of self-esteem on the mental health and ability of children and adolescents, as noted in previous research (Wilson & Portes, 1975 as cited in Mosley, 1995). Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978) found little relationship between social class and self-esteem, while other researchers have found conclusive links between income/class and…
The traditional two-dimensional views of self-esteem must be abandoned for it to be an effectual method of measure. High self-esteem does not necessarily create a healthy adolescent. Campbell and Foddis (2003) notes the high levels of self-esteem in murderers, rapists, and other social deviants. In these cases, the perpetrator may be affected by perception of others as inferior, therefore justifying his or her actions, or may be affected by the perception of self, regardless of self-esteem. How high one's perception of self is may be an accurate way to determine the likelihood of social deviance. Of course, there are many other factors to be considered as well.
Most research does not take all, or even many, of the factors necessary for developing an understanding of the adolescent situation. Taking a global approach to self-esteem that would include perceptions of the self and perceptions of others, as well as self-esteem levels, may reveal some understanding of adolescent reactions and behavior. The proposed research being approached presently would take global factors into consideration rather than merely focusing on one or two individual factors which would not reveal a complete picture.
The perception of
This study can apply to just about any overweight adolescent, and it is important because that is a growing segment of America's overweight population. The researchers concluded this is a "sensitive population," and that is true. Many studies have shown that this can be the time lifelong eating habits develop, including eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. Thus, discovering what works and motivates adolescents when they are dieting can lead to reduced numbers of young people suffering from these diseases as well as obesity.
A chose this article because I have had friends with eating disorders, and friends who are overweight from a young age. I think it is important to find ways to educated adolescents so the obesity problem lessens, and they develop healthy eating habits early in their lives.
L. Shepherd, D. Neumark-Aztainer, K. Beyer, et al. "Should Adolescent Obesity Prevention Programs Focus on Calories?" Nutrition…
L. Shepherd, D. Neumark-Aztainer, K. Beyer, et al. "Should Adolescent Obesity Prevention Programs Focus on Calories?" Nutrition Research Newsletter, Oct. 2006. 30 Jan. 2007. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_10_25/ai_n16807654
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Substance Abuse and Suicide isk Among Adolescents
Adolescents are at high risk for suicidal ideations, behaviors, attempts, and suicide.
Adolescent needs for independence, identity formation, and peer acceptance increase risk-taking behavior.
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among people aged 15-24.
Suicide is the main reason for referrals for child and adolescent emergency psychiatric services.
There has been a steady increase in adolescent drug abuse in the United States since 1960.
Substance abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for suicidal behavior.
The study examined whether there was an association between drug abuse and suicidal behavior and whether drug abuse was specifically a risk factor for suicide.
The data collection process was a literature review conducted by two people independtly examining peer reviewed articles for relevancy and other factors, such as language, leaving 17 articles for examination. The results were then extracted and presented in a table along…
Pompili, M., Serafini, G., Innamorati, M., Biondi, M., Siracusano, A., Di Giannantonio, M.,
Giupponi, G., Amore, M., Lester, D., Girardi, P., Moller-Leimkuhler, A.M. (2012). Substance abuse and suicide risk among adolescents. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 262, 469-485. doi: 10.1007/s00406-012-0292-0.
There is a high correlation between youth with substance abuse problems and youth with mental illness. Often, the substance abuse is a means of self-medicating. There are a lot of potential underlying factors for this high comorbidity, but it is important to recognize that the comorbidity exists, and it has implications for treatment. Proper psychiatric care is often required in concert with addiction treatment interventions, in order to ensure that youth facing these issues are able to overcome their addictions.
There are a number of psychiatric disorders that can occur with substance abuse during adolescence. For example, among those with an alcohol use disorder, 37% had comorbidity with a mental disorder. The odds are particularly high for multiple addictive disorders, such as drug use disorders. Some of the most common comorbidities with substance abuse disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (egier et al.,…
Bukstein, O., Brent, D. & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 146 (9) 1131-1141.
Greenbaum, P., Prange, M., Friedman, R. & Silver, S. (1991). Substance abuse prevalence and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders among adolescents with severe emotional disturbances. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 30 (4) 575-583.
NIH (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. NIH.gov. Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
NIH (2016). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental illnesses. National Institute of Drug Abuse Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-illnesses/why-do-drug-use-disorders-often-co-occur-other-mental-illnesses
bevy of information about diabetes and the many different considerations for treatment that pertain to it. In this regard I found it quite comprehensive. It provides a good deal of detail about treating this condition from administering insulin to the different ways the human body can change: and the ways those changes inherently affect treatment. The article is loosely structured around a case study of an adolescent diabetes patient who is incurring difficulty with managing type 1 diabetes. Her story is used as a framework for the author's explanation of treatment concerns pertaining to adolescents which involves physical attributes, hormonal ones, and even social ones. The author explores the different types of diabetes and a number of different options for managing this condition. The focus of the way the majority of the information is presented, however, is within a context that applies to adolescents.
I learned a substantial amount of…
Trast, J. (2014). CE: diabetes and puberty: A glycemic challenge. American Journal of Nursing. 114(7), 26-35.
The coming-of-age struggles of to Kill a Mockingbird and Romeo and Juliet
Although written in radically different styles (one is written from the perspective of an Elizabethan playwright, one is written in the voice of the child), at radically different eras, and in completely different media (one is a play, the other is a drama), both illiam Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird can be classified as coming-of-age dramas. In Romeo and Juliet, the teenage protagonists gain a sadder and more sophisticated understanding of the conflict-ridden world in which they live as a result of their love for one another. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the young narrator Scout comes to better understand the evils of the simmering racial tensions which exists within polite Southern society. Through the emotional struggles they personally undergo and witness both characters attain new levels of maturity they…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1988.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo & Juliet. No Fear Shakespeare. Web. 31 May 2015.
Adolescent Obesity and Drug Abuse -- Literature eview
The work of Brownson, et al. (2010) states that childhood obesity "…is a serious public health problem." In fact, "obesity rates have increased threefold among U.S. children and adolescents. Approximately 16% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 29 years are obese." (Brownson, et al., 2010) isk factors include hypertension and high cholesterol as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disease and incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. (Brownson, et al., 2010, paraphrased) Health professionals identify overweight and obesity through use of the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by measuring the proportion of weight to height. (Eisenberg, adunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) The criteria used for categorizing BMI for children are both age and sex-specific and often referred to as BMI-for-age. BMI-for-age weight status categories and the corresponding percentiles are listed in Appendix 'A' following this study.…
Rates of youth obesity is reported to vary among different groups with African-American, non-Hispanic girls and Mexican-American boys being the groups most likely to be obese. (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) African-American females are reported to "remain at the highest risk, and have substantial rates of obesity-related diseases and causes of death." (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007) It is reported that there is "no assessment of body composition inherent in BMI" as "BMI identifies people who are at risk for having high levels of excessive body fat but it does not actually determine body fat. Anthropometric measurements, such as subscapular and triceps skinfolds and bioelectrical impendence are commonly used to assess body fatness in clinical settings." (Fleming and Towey, 2003) The causes of adolescent obesity are stated to include: (1) parental influence; (2) school influence; and (3) community influences. (Fleming and Towey, 2003)
Discipline II & Integration
Drug addiction among adolescents is a problem that requires the benefit of more research as new findings have shed light on the origins of addiction. The work of Nestler (2004) reports that one of the mechanisms that result from drug abuse and that serves to induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain resulting in the addictive state is the mechanism of regulation of gene expression. In other words, addiction is in reality a disease directly related to the individual's genetics. The two transcription factors are stated by Nestler to be those as follows: (1) CREB (CAMP response element binding protein); and (3) ?FosB, which contributes to drug-induced changes in gene expression. (Nestler, 2004) Both of these are reported as of the nature that are activated "…in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state." (Nestler, 2004) CREB is stated to be the mediator of a type of tolerance and dependence of the nature that dulls the individual's sensitivity to "subsequent drug exposure) as well as contributing to an emotional state characterized by negativity during early withdrawal stages. FosB on the other hand is the mediator of "a state of relatively prolonged sensitization to drug exposure and may contribute to the increased drive and motivation for drug, which is a core symptom of addictive disorders. There is stated to be a need to better understand how CREB and ?FosB, acting together in other various drug-induced nucleus accumbens changes and other regions
Adolescent Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…
Diller, J.V. (2007). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 3rd ed. pp. 28.
Mark, T.L, Song, X., Vandivort, R., Duffy, S., Buttler, J., Coffey, R., Schabert, V. (2009). Characterizing substance abuse programs that treat adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_5/article12.pdf
SAMHSA. (2003). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k3nsduh/2k3Results.htm
Tripodi, S.J.; Bender, K; Litschge, C; Vaughn, V.G. (2010). Interventions for Reducing Adolescent Alcohol Abuse: A Meta-analytic Review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(1):85-91
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
Leadership Training for Adolescents
The focus of this work is the examination of whether early youth leadership training for adolescents could be a vehicle to address these problems among youth in rural communities. This study is quantitative in nature and investigates the existence of current leadership training programs at primary and high schools. The effect of newly developed leadership training programs and their effect on selected study participants will be examined. The sampling in this study will involve various age groups between 12 and 18 years of age.
Research questions in this study include those stated as follows:
(1) What is the relationship between early leadership training and problem solving skills among rural youth?
(2) What is the relationship between early leadership training and self-esteem among youth?
(3) What is the relationship between early leadership training and enhancing leadership skills among rural youth?
Significance of the Study
The significance of…
In a widespread "declaration of principles for youth participation in community research and evaluation" stated is that participation by youth in community research and evaluation transforms its participants, it transforms their ways of knowing, their activities, and their program of work." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation is additionally reported to promote the empowerment of youth and to acknowledge their experience and expertise and to develop their organizational and community capacities." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation additionally works in building partnerships and valuing the resources and assets of "all age groups" as well as providing strength to relationships that are supportive between adults and youths. (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd ) Youth participation is reported as well to equalize "power relationships between youth and adults" as well as to establish common ground for them to overcome past inequities and collaborate as equals in institutions and decisions." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd)
Checkoway, B. And Richrds-Schuster, K. (nd) Participatory Evaluation with Young People. Retrieved from: http://ssw.umich.edu/public/currentprojects/youthAndCommunity/pubs/youthbook.pdf
Stiflier, L. (2010) Leadership Development in Rural Communities. Community and Economic Development in North Carolina and Beyond. Retrieved from: http://ced.sog.unc.edu/?p=872
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
Sexual Activity in Adolescence
The scholarly literature on adolescence and health reflects the fact that some young people make risky decisions regarding sexual activities -- and the use of drugs also plays a role in their behavior. In this paper, those issues and others related to adolescent behaviors -- including the earlier initiation of sexual activities -- will be presented through in-depth analysis.
Adolescent Sexual Activities and Psychosocial Adjustments
There has been an assumption in the literature for some time that when adolescents delay their first sexual experience, they adjust better psychosocially as young adults a bit later in their lives. Another assumption has been that instances where young adults have their first sexual intercourse experience between 16 and 18 years of age "…are linked to lower adjustment in many life domains" (Haase, 2012, 199).
However, a peer-reviewed research article in the journal European Psychologist challenges those notions with empirical…
Cooper, M.L., Wood, P.K., and Orcutt, H.K. (2003). Personality and the Predisposition to Engage in Risky or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 390-410.
Fantasia, H.C., Sutherland, M.A., and Kelly-Weeder, S. (2012). Gender Differences in risky behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. Journal of the American Academy
of Nurse Practitioners, 24(7), 436-442.
Haase, C.M., Landberg, M., Schmidt, C., Ludke, K., and Silbereisen, R.K. (2012). The later, the Better? Early, Average, and Late Timing of Sexual Experiences in Adolescence and Psychosocial Adjustment in Young Adulthood. European Psychologist, 17(3), 199-212.
The influence of social disconnectedness upon adolescent suicide is also manifested in one study which found that adolescents who moved frequently were significantly more at risk of attempted suicide (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009). It should be noted that this risk factor was "attenuated, but still significant, after controlling for the child's own psychiatric morbidity and loss of a mother or father, as well as parental psychiatric history," indicating that some adolescents may be inherently more vulnerable to this type of environmental stressor (in other words, some adolescents may be more socially adept at coping with the inevitable social problems that occur with frequent moving) (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009: 628). isk of suicide has genetic and epigenetic components, but social difficulties as a risk factor cannot and should not be ignored. The association of frequent with moving suggests that positive peer relationships can act as a counterbalance to risk…
Biddle, V.S., Sekula, L.K., Zoucha, R., & Puskar, K.R. (2010). Identification of suicide risk among rural youth: Implications for the use of HEADSS. Journal of Pediatric Health
Care, 24(3), 152-167. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.03.003
Qin, P., Bo Mortensen, P., & Pedersen, C.B. (2009). Frequent change of residence and risk of attempted and completed suicide among children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 628-632. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.20
Schilling, E.A., Aseltine, R.H., Glanovsky, J.L., James, a., & Jacobs, D. (2009). Adolescent alcohol use, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 335-341. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.006
Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.