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William Howard Taft
-I Brief Biography of Life Before the Supreme Court-
In this section you should outline the "life and times" of your chosen subject, placing emphasis on key events in that person's life that may have led them to pursue a career in law. Items you may want to touch upon are the family's legal history (if any), how (if at all) that person's ethnicity, religion, family life or other personal characteristics shaped his/her life. You should also mention key events in that individual's life that may have directed them towards a career as a jurist (e.g. Thurgood Marshall's experiences as a civil rights lawyer.)
William Howard Taft was completely unique as a Chief Justice in that he was the only former president to serve in that position. He was originally from Cincinnati, Ohio and had graduated from law school in 1880. He later served as a prosecuting…
Buchman, J. (2003). "Judicial Lobbying and the Politics of Judicial Structure: An Examination of the Judiciary Act of 1925." The Justice System Journal, Vol.24.no. 1, pp. 1-22.
Fish, G.P. (2005). Judiciary Act of 1925 in Kermit Hall, James W. Ely, and Joel B. Grossman (eds). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press.
Kinzer, S. (2007). Overthrow: America's History of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. Times Books, 2007.
Compare the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and ilson. hat made them Progressive presidents? Identify what you believe to be the most important pieces of legislation passed during each administration. hy are these so significant? Finally, be sure to indicate what each president did to expand the meaning of freedom for American
Theodore Roosevelt is often called our nation's first Progressive president. Roosevelt used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up heavily consolidated industries that were having a stifling effect upon American commerce and limiting the choices of the American consumer. Roosevelt was also an advocate against child labor and unfair labor practices in general. One of his first noteworthy achievements as president involved negotiating an end to a crippling coal strike. Roosevelt was the first president to pass food and drug safety laws; mandated government supervision of insurance companies; investigated child labor violations and also passed the Hepburn Act,…
Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. "William Howard Taft." White House Historical Association.
2006. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
"Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom." U.S. History. 2014. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
Yarborough, Jean. "Theodore Roosevelt: Progressive Crusader." The Heritage Foundation. Web.
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
The Democratic Party did not win another presidential election until 1913 when Woodwork Wilson was elected due to a split vote between Republican conservative candidate, William Howard Taft and Republican progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt.
The New Freedom "was the slogan of Woodrow Wilson who came into presidential office on the platform of promising reform on a liberal basis. Specifically, through an extension of Federal regulations of banking and industry. Further reform through setting up the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission as well as strengthening antitrust statutes on the part of Wilson. Much needed reforms to legislation of welfare was attended by Wilson. Wilson's first Administration demonstrated breaking of connections to the old tradition of Democratic laissez faire.
The Republican Party:
The Republican Party united once again nominated Rutherford . Hayes in 1876. Although the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden, was said to have won by popular votes, the…
Historical Eras [Online] available at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html#reform
The United States Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. 6 Curtis Publishing Company Philadelphia - New York
Democratic and Republic Parties
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…
Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New
York: Oxford University Press.
Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,
Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…
Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.
Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.
Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm
Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm
rhetoric in modern day proceedings, the topic will reflect the modern day influence that rhetoric has on governmental processes from decision making to laws that are passed in Congress.
The paper shall deal with the importance of rhetoric in modern day proceedings, with its influence on governmental processes from decision making by Presidents to that of the Congress, The paper shall argue that rhetoric is far moved away from reality.
The terminology 'rhetoric' traces its origin in different periods of time in its different interpretations. Its different interpretations at different times led people to seek its origin in many ways and in varied histories. At times it is used disparagingly as oral out bursting of radicals; at other times it is generalized as a public speech. Traditionally, it is also seen to be used to indicate a branch of study relating to speech. People are also seen to use the…
Short and Highly Idiosyncratic History of Rhetoric. Retrieved at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~robertsmiller/histrhet.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bennett, Drake; Pauken, Heidi. All the President's Lies. The American Prospect Volume. 14 no. 5, May 1, 2003 Retrieved from www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/bennett-d.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bostdorff, Denise; Goldzwig, Steven. Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam. Presidential Studies Quarterly; New York; Summer 1994; Volume: 24, Issue: 3, p.515
Friedlin, Jennifer.Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap. March, 08, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1740Accessed on 15 July, 2004
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
Image chronicles the history of the United States and the Philippines over several hundred years of modern history. Karnow's main argument about the relationship between the new nation is that the United States had an empire over this far-off but ostensibly independent country that "dare not speak its name." Over the course of the book, Karnow paints a convincing portrait of a nation colonized. Karnow suggests that what was particularly damaging about the de facto (if not de jure) American empire in the Philippines was that America's self-image is that it is a democratic, non-empirical country. By engaging in the sort of relationship America had with the Philippines, America betrayed its most fundamental principles as a nation as well as engaged in exploitation. Because America did not perceive itself as a nation capable of exploiting other nations like its parent country England, it could not even acknowledge the abuses it…
Greenberger, Allen J. "Imperialism." World Book Online Americas Edition. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/ar?/na/ar/co/ar273460.htm. November 18, 2002.
Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, 1989.
Stanley Karnow, In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, New York: Random House, 1989, "Introduction."
Ibid, Chapter 1.
ith respect to these principles, Unitarians have historically supported social justice movements within the United States, such as the Civil Rights movement, and anti-war causes. They also support interfaith dialogue, and believe there is value in all religious faiths, not just Christianity. The merged organization does not hold solely to Universalist or Unitarian beliefs, but honors both in the shaping of the tradition. Many women have served prominently in the movement since its inception, as have African-Americans. Unitarian Universalists also support full social equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people (GLBT).
Unitarian Universalists have occasionally been accused of being irreligious, because of their tolerance of so many conceptions of faith, and the fact that they do not insist that adherents subscribe to a particular conception of God, or even to believe in a traditional, anthropomorphic form of the divine at all. Unitarian Universalists view the religion as part of…
Hughes, Peter. "Michael Sevetus." Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS).
March 24, 2011. http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/michaelservetus.html
Rasor, Paul. "Unitarian Universalist views of God." Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).
March 24, 2011. http://www.uua.org/publications/pamphlets/spiritualtopics/151278.shtml
These crops are usually luxury high profit items such as flowers, beef, shrimp, cotton, coffee, and soybeans cultivated for export to well-fed countries. In addition, monocultures are notoriously vulnerable to insect blights and bad weather, and greatly contribute to soil infertility."
Saving Farms - Feeding the Hungry
The answers to this dilemma in feeding the hungry masses are various and diverse depending upon whom is inquired of. However, the only credible solution is to develop sustainability in the local communities, towns and villages of the world. Empowering local individuals in the cultivation and harvesting of their own food. This will take initiatives that until now are only in the imagination of a few and the reality of even fewer.
In the years long gone the family farmer was the backbone of the structure of the world's food supply chain. Planting each year in the spring and toiling through the changing…
Linsmeier-Wurfel, Sara (2005) Michigan agriculture bucking national trends -- Number of small Michigan farms on slow rise; total number of farms and farmland acres remain unchanged Online at http://www.michigan.gov/mda/1,1607,7-125--26841 -- ,00.html
Eight Myths of Economic Globalization (2005) World Trade Observer, Seattle, WA Online available at http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=Eight%0Myths%20of%20Economic%20Globalization
The Political Economy of Land Degradation: Pressure Groups, Foreign Aid and the Myth of Man-Made Deserts, Institute of Economic Affairs, 1995-05-01International Policy Network
Vieth, Warren (2004) Nations Talk Free Trade, but Protectionism Rises, Global Policy Forum Online at http://www.policynetwork.net/
In fact, many subsequent expeditions attempted and failed to follow Peary's route and reach the Pole in 37 days, and the feat was not accomplished until 2005.20
Peary's other problem was one of geography. The geographical data that he returned with, particularly as it concerned Greenland, was simply erroneous and there was debate over whether these were simple errors of science or outright fabrications.21 Henderson claimed that Peary's diary lacked the amount of wear and grease stains one might expect of an object that had been to the Poles, and that the penmanship was far too perfect to be written by a man whose extremities must have been numbingly cold.22
Naturally, none of these things add up to hard and fast evidence - for example, although the penmanship in Peary's diary is clearly quite tidy, there are in fact stains on the pages.23 hat constitutes enough staining? That is clearly…
Abbot, Deborah. "Hero of the Arctic: A new biography of polar explorer Matthew Henson," Chicago Sun-Times, Feb 5, 2006. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20060205/ai_n16052644 .
Bradshaw, Peter. "Men Who Are Poles Apart," Evening Standard (London). May 22, 1998. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4153/is_19980522/ai_n11865447 .
Curtis, Gene. "Peary finds North Pole; Cook feted in Copenhagen," Tulsa World (Tulsa, Okla.). Sept. 7, 2005.
Doyle, Alister. "Norway runs its flag up the Pole and hauls Old Glory down," Sunday Herald (London). May 13, 2001. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20010513/ai_n13960173 .
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.