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Certainly, the most powerful demonstration of his approach to protection of his authority and the state against political dissent would come in the form of his uncompromising treatment of rebellion. The enormity and ethnic variations defining the Russian empire would subject it inherently to acts of rebellion, regional conflicts and various small but organized efforts at undermining the authority of the tsars. Peter took an extremely decisive approach to these threats to his authority, responding to rebellion with not the slightest withholding in retribution. This is best exemplified by the first uprising of his rule, where the streltsy emerged in support of the authority of his half-sister Sofia. Most acts of rebellion would come about in the opposition of Peter's apparently greater admiration for aspects of European rather than Russian culture. Accordingly, our research reports that "heavily influenced by his advisors from estern Europe, Peter reorganized the Russian army along…… [Read More]
rule of Peter the Great was characterized with Western orientation in all areas of Russian life, establishment of Russia as a military might and development of sciences and education imported again from the West. This paper discusses the causes behind the success of transformation of Russia during the reign of Peter, the Great.
PETER THE GREAT AND HIS EFFECTS ON RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION AND WESTERNIZATION
The groundwork for the Golden Age that Russia experienced between mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth century was laid down by Peter the Great who founded and established the paradigms required for Russia's supremacy. Peter the Great, the most influential czar and military leader in Russian history, literally transformed his country from an almost medieval backwater region into one of the world's great powers at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Russia had missed out on both the Renaissance and the Reformation, which left it nearly a century behind…… [Read More]
Author Hughes notes, "More recently M.S. Anderson described the fleet as 'a gigantic, complex and expensive toy built and operated for [Peter's] personal gratification'" ("A Hero of Our Time" 42). In addition, Peter's reign changed ussia from a relatively minor power to a larger, world power, but it also changed the lives of the ussian people in numerous ways. The previous Muscovite era imposed few burdens on ussians other than taxes and their inability to simply change their community or tax burdens (aeff 22). The people acted and reacted according to custom, which was an all-encompassing part of ussian life, but Peter's rule changed all that.
Peter created what may be now called an early police state that dictated just about every aspect of people's lives, from education to industry and commerce. Peter did this to ensure the well being of his people, but many felt his edicts went against…… [Read More]
Pushkin's Ambivalent Fealty To Peter The Great
Peter the Great's vision for Russia involved sweeping changes, changes so radical that although they brought about tremendous progress, they also crushed many old traditions ruthlessly. Alexandr Pushkin simultaneously admired the vision and determination shown by the ruler, and was troubled by the measures necessary to carry out the envisioned reforms.
The Bronze Horseman exemplifies this dual viewpoint. In the beginning, Peter the Great (referred to as "he" -"on"- as if his identity needed no explanation) contemplates the unpromising site of his projected city of St. Petersburg. In time, his vision is realized. "That city young, gem of the Northern world" became the world-class city envisioned by its founder. Pushkin's admiration for the achievement is palpable: "I love thee, city of Peter's making."
However, with the flood, the limits of human power and vision are exposed: "No Tsar, with God, is master over…… [Read More]
On a community level, getting to know one's neighbors, focusing on the local, even if one commutes to somewhere far away (and questioning the value of a job with a long community, if that job is not 'worth it,' in terms of time and personal sacrifice) is another building-block of creating a viable local community. Creating community parks, acting as a local advocate to preserve community open spaces, organizing neighborhood 'clean ups' and tree and flower beautification days, and encouraging teachers to incorporate the outdoors into school lesson plans help to foster a 'great remembering' of the natural world on a local basis.
Building a local garden, supporting local businesses that are 'green' and buying healthy food and other products that do not leave a large global footprint is important and so is helping others to do the same. Steps can be small but meaningful, even on a national level.…… [Read More]
Peter, Wendy & the Victorian ritish Family
In J.M. arrie's epic fantasy, Peter and Wendy, three children from Victorian England set off for a distant paradise of endless boy-centered adventures called 'Neverland'. This land that can be reached by Peter Pan's nonsensical directions, "second to the right, and then straight on till morning" (arrie 24), represents an upside-down world where the codes of Victorian England can be deeply analyzed and challenged. arrie utilizes the various characters and situations to illustrate how the ritish society of his time left no room for imagination, romanticism, or simple fun, which alienated men from their children and discouraged the latter from ever wanting to 'grow up' and become 'responsible'. Moreover, arrie illustrates the unjust roles that women are forced to play through the context of the story's matriarch, Wendy Darling. From knowledge of arrie's personal life and his usage of subtle, yet potent symbols…… [Read More]
Another argument which also regards this consideration is related to the fact that, even after his tragic disappearance, Peter Sellers' work still remains valuable and has not vanished from the public's consciousness. He is still present in classifications and constantly receives high scores. He was voted the 41st Greatest Movie Star of all time by Premiere Magazine and was also ranked in Empire's Magazine- "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. In 2005, he was voted 14 in the list of the top 20 greatest comedians of all time, a classification realized by comedy insiders.
Also, a movie focusing on his life was recently released, which is another evidence that the world wide interest for this great actor remained the same, an interest that could only be provided for a personality of "the best."
That Peter Sellers is the best entertainer of the past period is stated not…… [Read More]
Peter Drucker: Effective Executive Guide
According to Peter Drucker, being an effective leader means getting things done. Intelligence and imagination are often present in great abundance amongst higher-level executives, but the ability to be efficacious in the world is rare (Drucker 1-2). While manual workers can be judged fairly easily on output, it can be struggle to quantify managerial efficacy. First and foremost, managers must understand this and not confuse efficacy with 'creativity.' Their actions must have a concrete, direct purpose, and if they do not understand this they will not be successful leaders. For Drucker, success is not something undefined and elusive. It is meeting the goals set for the organization, and ensuring one's actions enable the organization to thrive.
The proliferation of professionals and knowledge-based workers is the source of much of the red tape that prevents things from 'getting done.' Too many workers have knowledge, but lack…… [Read More]
Peter Drucker: Making Strength Productive as an Effective Executive
In his chapter entitled "Making Strength Productive," the management guru tackles the myth of the so-called 'enaissance Man' who can do everything well. Such people do not exist, he states. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses. The secret to success is finding out how to use one's strengths to one's advantage, and downplaying weaknesses. Focus on your strengths, rather than working on overcoming your weaknesses. This is true on an individual as well as an organizational level. In other words, if you are McDonald's, focus on making burgers, not on healthy food. Very strong people often have very great weaknesses, and sometimes these must be overlooked, or compensated for, so that their strengths shine.
"What can a man [or woman] do" should be the primary focus of the organization (Drucker 2006: 75). One of the great advantages of larger organizations is that…… [Read More]
According to Dirr, establishing standard policies is an issue that is still very much in the evolution stage, although much has been accomplished in this respect.
In this regard, Dirr notes that the Council of Regional Accreditation has developed new guidelines for distance education. These are by no means either established or fully accepted into the policies of all tertiary institutions. Indeed, they are still very much in the research stage. Furthermore, far from stabilizing the issue, Cook anticipates a new pedagogy as a result of the nature of distance education. Such a paradigm would entail a pedagogy that "shifts toward the learner and away from the teacher." Such a shift would also hold important implications for the future of research into the issue.
While clear policies are not currently in place, it therefore appears that both researchers and tertiary institutions themselves are aware of the importance of distance and…… [Read More]
A central aspect of his argument is that knowledge and knowledge acquisition is tending to replace the importance of revenue and property in modern society - which is another indication of the radical changes that are taking place in the emerging knowledge society.
Drucker suggests that the implications of the emphasis and status given to information may also have a negative and counter-productive effect, where performance and practical issues may be neglected in place of theory and the acquisition of formal knowledge for its own sake. Furthermore, he strongly suggests that the emergence of the knowledge society may also mean the possibility of a new class conflict between the minority of knowledge workers and the larger majority of those involved in more traditional and manually orientated work. An essential point that he makes is that the competitive position of counties will depend more on the productivity and quality of knowledge…… [Read More]
They did not expect her to evolve into a ruler of any significance. They were wrong.
Catherine moved quickly to consolidate her power after taking the throne. She studied policy and reached out to consultants and political actors who would both aid her and prove trustworthy. She ruled with a lighter touch, perhaps, than her husband, but she was certainly no push-over. Alexander writes that "Her style of governance was cautiously consultative, pragmatic, and 'hands-on,' with a Germanic sense of duty and strong aversion to wasting time."
She had absolute power, but she acted with a certain reserve, at least initially, which belied the fact that she would eventually become known in history as a toughened despot. Perhaps this notion of Catherine the Great as a despot was introduced due to her later years when she seemed to indicate an unwillingness to allow her son to ascend the throne, or…… [Read More]
Nearly all of the attempts of Catholic Church to unite Orthodox Christians failed and what they achieved are religious hatred and distrust to Catholic Church.
Nowadays Catholicism has more than a billion followers all over the world. Their spiritual leader Pope John Paul II does a great work to make a dialogue between different confessions and does a lot to reconcile the representatives of different confessions. Bartholomew I, who is the Archbishop of Constantinople, is the leader of nearly 300 million Orthodox Christians (who mostly live in eastern and Southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa). More over Patriarch of Constantinople is simply "the first among equals" and does not have any supreme power over other patriarchs. John Paul II looks for the ways to keep the dialogue with Orthodox Church and looks for the ways for reconciliation, but Orthodox Church is not really enthusiastic in this process. ussian patriarch…… [Read More]
Fitzgerald wrote his novel during the Roaring 1920s, but his book seems uniquely relevant to our own times. The Roaring 1920s was coming to a rapid slow-down of material prosperity, and questions of who was a 'real' American arose as social mobility had introduced individuals of new races and ethnicities into higher American society. Fitzgerald suggests that it is important to question what lies beneath the veneer of American society and good breeding. He demanded his readers also carefully examine the assumption we can all pull ourselves up by our own bootstraps, and whether the material goals we strive for will really bring fulfillment at all.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Hayes Barton Press, 2007.
Mellard, James. "Counterpoint as Technique in "The Great Gatsby." The English Journal.
55. 7. (Oct., 1966): 853-859.
Millet, Frederick. "The Great Gatsby: Analysis." Michigan State University. 2004.
October 12, 2008.…… [Read More]
St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and was consecrated in 1626 (Saint). It is among the largest of the world's churches and is considered to be one of the holiest of Catholic sites on the planet. The church's namesake, St. Peter, is buried there, as well, and believed to be located directly below the altar (Saint). There has been a churched located on that site since oman Times, which is part of the reason St. Peter's in seen as so valuable when it comes to architecture and its place in the Catholic Church. Liturgical functions are held there, and it is also a common and very famous place for pilgrimage.
When the Pope gives services there, several times per year, between 15,000 and 80,000 people come out to hear him speak (St. Peter's). Even those who are not Catholic or religious in any way have often heard of…… [Read More]
The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).
The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…… [Read More]
Oracle Bones, Peter Hessler (2006) explores the history and culture of China, incorporating personal and social commentary. Hessler (2006) also weaves personal stories of individual Chinese people into Oracle Bones, to provide both a broad and an intimate narrative. The three core personal narratives are vastly different, to capture the diversity of Chinese culture and society. One of the people that Hesler (2006) follows is a Uighur (Muslim from Eastern China), who successfully endeavors to leave China for the United States. Named Polat, the Uighur's perspective on Chinese society and politics provides an interesting counterpart to the entire tale of Oracle Bones. The second personal narrative belongs to Chen Mengjia, who lends Hessler's book its title because Cheng Mengjia was an oracle bone scholar. The oracle bones become the title for Hessler's (2006) book because they symbolize the continuity between past, present, and future that characterizes modern China.
A third…… [Read More]
Peter the Great and the Petrine Reforms
The reforms of Peter the Great, or the Petrine Reforms, changed the character of Russia to a much more administrative and secular one from the religious character that it had assumed hithertofore. Anisimov notes that there was a "decisive triumph of secular principles over confessional and religious ones" as a result of the Reforms, which themselves were the result of an infusion of humanism and Enlightenment philosophy from Europe in the late 17th century (216). Peter's administrative reforms saw the breaking up of Russia into more manageable parts, rather than overburdened administrations overseeing densely populated cities; and his Table of Ranks was established so as to provide a standard list of rank in the government, court and military. The Table of Ranks was meant to serve as a system of title/honors according to numeral, which would indicate one's closeness to the Czar. It…… [Read More]
She represents the negative rejection of one's own identity, and rejects her own true and inclusive path in life, as she rejects Xuma who loves her beauty, mind, and poise, and would offer her those things, but in terms that Eliza is emotionally incapable of recognizing.
At the house where he lives Xuma also meets a woman named Maisy, who loves him but whom he rejects. Maisy's plight inspires a great deal of affection in the heart of the reader, as she genuinely loves Xuma, and states that to love a man who loves another is painful, as she looks at him and he is thinking of another woman and feels pain. But Xuma sees in Maisy an older and outdated way of being Black in contemporary society, and despite the fact that Maisy, according to her own admission is pleasant and merely likes to be happy, to dance and…… [Read More]
In addition, characterising distance education as the most industrialised form of teaching and learning is also regarded as out of proportion and criticised because it is claimed that this characterisation is obsolete because for some time now we have been in a post-industrialist age (Peters, 3-4)."
Peters does, however, make a good point about the lack of pedagogy on the subject of distance education and learning. There is very little I way of research and analysis on that leads to an understanding as to the progress of distance education and learning as a viable method of education. It would see that, initially, because it was perceived by educators and mainstream universities as a product of "industrialization," little effort was made in the way of pedagogy to study and analyze distance education and learning.
That failure to build a body of pedagogy around distance education and learning has probably done more…… [Read More]
Ruth's Attractions to Peter, Dennis, and Hunter in the Color of ater: A Psychological Perspective
In Chapter 11 of David G. Myers's Social Psychology, "Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving Others" the author discusses various factors and qualities that account for what attracts human beings to each other, such as a need to belong; geographical proximity, a feeling of being similar to the person or having things in common, physical attractiveness, etc. James McBride, in his book The Color of ater, a memoir of growing up poor in a black New York neighborhood, having been born to a black father (who died right after he was born) and an Orthodox Jewish-born mother, uses both his own and his mother Ruth's voice to convey Ruth's reasons for being attracted to the three black man who were, in succession, the most important men in her life. In this essay, I will explore…… [Read More]
" (Harmon 2006)
Both Peter and Tom seem to be committed to the nine key areas of leadership discussed in 'Challenge and Charge'.
Those nine traits include such characteristics as; being ethical, displaying courage and honesty, having a vision, teaching others those characteristics and values to which the leader holds true, have high expectations of those which are put into leadership capacities, and understanding those people with which the leader comes in contact with.
Further traits include; being competent and knowledgeable, and perhaps, most importantly, learning to delegate, support and encourage those that the leader puts in charge.
These traits can enhance the abilities of a leader, especially when not only are such traits being espoused, but they are being adhered to as well. The leader can set the example of what is expected by constantly and consistently reminding all those he or she comes in contact with the standards…… [Read More]
The story was filled with factual accuracy, while fictional, and vividly rich with images and characters that she and her father could picture with accurate detail. Romano tells us how Mariana finished the story with a young member of the family holding a roughly cut, wooden pony, and how when she gently finished the tale as he was in tears
Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English. 1993. Print. This book an unusual book: at one level it is autobiographical, detailing the life of an American of Puerto Rican extraction from his childhood in New York City to an academic post at a university. At another level, Villanueva ponders his experiences in light of the history of rhetoric, the English Only movement, current socio- and psycholinguistic theory, and the writings of Gramsci and Freire, among others.
Zinsser, K. William. On…… [Read More]
Our palates have become so trained to enjoy this type of artificiality since childhood we can no longer appreciate the real foods themselves. While food preservation might be helpful in some instances (such as MRE) and in some limited instances such as fortifying cereals with vitamins to guard against malnutrition, numbing our palates to the extent that fast food and processed food becomes addictive has had an undeniably negative impact upon our health in the form of the fast food industry.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Unchartered Territory" pg 136
This essay is more partisan than the others. I want you to each to lead one of the opposing viewpoints readers could express in response to Kolbert on the discussion board. I want you to ask questions about the charter school system and Kolbert's assertions about this particular group of schools. I also want you to question Kolbert's position that the charter school…… [Read More]
Notes de Madariaga, "It is hard to argue that Catherine's regime was intellectually oppressive, as many of her detractors have done, in the face of such a clear example of her confidence in the response of society to her rule." (97). A lax censorship and publishing permission epitomized Catherine's personal outlook of encouragement of enterprise in as many fields as possible rather than state control.
Catherine, herself, was a prolific writer. Thousands of sheets of paper covered in her journals have survived. The most noteworthy of all was her 1767 Great Instruction, published to present before the elected representatives of nobles, townspeople, Cossacks, tribesmen and state peasants, not serfs, the general principles through which the assembly should codify laws. The 650 articles of the Instruction defined the functions of social estates and described the means of establishing rule of law and citizen welfare. Catherine was influenced by German and French…… [Read More]
Business and Leadership
Peter Northouse, in his newly released book Theory and Practice along with Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal in their also newly released book eframing Organizations can help each one of us to understand the ways in which we take a role of greater leadership within our own lives and so achieve more of what we want of our own goals. By asking us to examine the nature of the relationships that exist among individuals in our own workplaces (as Northouse does) and asking us to examine how we present us to others (as Bolman and Deal do in their section on the symbolic framing of our actions), I have been able to come to terms with what I have seen as my own shortcomings. ather than seeing these attributes as failures on my own part, I am now better able to understand them as part of myself…… [Read More]
His painting (social realism) called "Approaching Storm" is a remarkable portrayal of a man walking up a hill with a bucket of water and two donkeys waiting to be told what to do. In the distance is a menacing storm. The website (Twecht.tripod) says that this farm could possibly have been a beautiful place to live at one point in time…but now it is gray and windy…all life in the painting ceases to exist" (www.twecht.tripod.com).
Dorothea Lange is among the best known of all the photographers and artists that contributed to the social realism movement during the Great Depression. Lange's most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother," shows a worried woman with two "tousle-haired children clinging to her, their faces turned away from the camera" (u, 2010, p. 1). A third child is asleep in the woman's arms. That photo -- taken in a migrant camp in California -- is…… [Read More]
As a consequence, the personnel strategy must be elaborated and implemented based on the following relevant aspects for the organization: the project's mission, objectives, success factors, organization's strategy, and the analysis of the internal and external environment.
Basically, the process of elaborating human resources strategies is the result of a continuous analysis or diagnosis process of all the activities performed within the organization and of the directions that the organization follows.
In the case of Greater Manchester's transport investments process, this is a very important condition. The project must be closely and continuously monitored. All the activities comprised by the project must be controlled, so that they are performed in accordance with the established standards.
The main purpose of the analysis is to identify the human resources of the organization that are able to be introduced in the project and to establish a correlation with strategic decisions that affect the…… [Read More]
Exegetical Analysis of 1st Peter 2:1-10
The New Testament's two documents, ascribed to Peter, represent a work in contrasts. Peter's first letter depicts a writing style, which reflects most of his letters. A reason behind this statement appears in 1 Pet. 5:12, where it is stated that the brief letter is written through Silvanus, who is regarded as a devoted brother, for encouraging readers and testifying that this truly is God's grace. This implies that the letter was not written by Peter himself, but by Silvanus (Latin name for Silas), who wrote it as directed by Peter. An ancient universal system for writing formal letters was through an amanuensis (Latin for writing secretary). Predictably, an individual who spent the major part of his adulthood traveling with Paul, the apostle, and had most probably also written some letters of Paul, would write Peter's ideas with a distinct Pauline quality to them.…… [Read More]
Theology: James, Hebrews and Peter
James, Hebrews and Peter: Theology
The issue of persecution is quite prevalent in the books of Hebrews, James and 1 & 2 Peter. The writers center their teachings on the idea that Christians should be ready to endure persecution, just as Christ their savior did. This text examines how the issue of persecution is handled by the three writers, and what Peter says about false teachers and building healthy churches.
Persecution in Hebrews, James and 1 Peter
Persecution comes out as a core concern for Christ and his believers in both the Old and the New Testament. The books of James, Hebrews, and 1 Peter center on the theme of suffering and persecution, with the central message being that just like Christ suffered, Christians must face suffering in their daily living (Heb 11: 4; 1 Peter 2: 21) (Jobes, 2011). They must be willing to…… [Read More]
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…… [Read More]
On the June 23rd, thanksgiving mass alone, over 600 people attended. Since hearing of Father Peter's departure, the Holy Cross Church has been inundated with calls from concerned and disappointed parishioners on the subject of who will replace him.
The community is disturbed because of the need for continuity between current and past policies. Father Peter has done so much work to help Holy Cross, but his mission is far from accomplished. Holy Cross is at a loss to understand why the transfer occurred at this time, given how many years of service Father Peter has committed to this specific location. While we understand the need for cost-saving and consolidation, the 'at risk' nature of the population served by the Church and its increasing numbers suggests that this is not the right time for such a move.
It must be stressed that the desire for Father Peter to remain in…… [Read More]
Though Cartwright's concern and opposition to slavery was evident in his "Autobiography," an important observation that must be noted in studying his text was that his opposition was not mainly based on the detriments that slavery had on the slaves themselves, but only for the white American society. Slavery was a 'moral evil' because it made white Americans more vulnerable to moral degeneration, thereby putting into peril their belief in predestination, where the white American society, particularly the Christians, would be included in God's salvation and grace. Focus, in fact, was addressed towards the white American society, and not so much about the plight of the black slaves. Thus, Cartwright's position reflected the belief that slavery was like a disease that must be curbed, and the moral degeneration associated with the black community be cleansed through conversion to Christianity.
From these different viewpoints expressed by Jacobs and Cartwright, readers on…… [Read More]
Monica was honored for her forbearance in marriage to an undisciplined, often cruel pagan man. Augustine's father suffers by comparison to Augustine's mother, but rather than suggest that she should have left his father because of his mistreatment, Monica's quiet example of patient endurance is praised by her son.
Augustine's turning towards his mother was seen, through hindsight, as the major development of his life, but he went through several stages of spiritual development, first paganism, and then a cultish version of Christianity called Manichaeism, which was later characterized as a heretical view of the world as evil, as opposed to the goodness of heaven. It also involved a number of highly elaborate eating practices. Augustine was particularly vehement in his later denunciations of the Manicheans and other Christian heretics when he became a bishop in North Africa, very likely because of his own past affiliation with them. Augustine was…… [Read More]
Magolda, Pete. (Nov/Dec 2003) "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual." Jounal of College Student Development. Pp.1-6. Retived fom Find Aticles database of jounal aticles on 26 Oct 2005 at http://www.findaticles.com/p/aticles/mi_qa3752/is_200311/ai_n9313968/pg
Conveying Citizenship though Commencement Ritual via a Desciptive Anthopology
Anthopologists can use desciptive, longitudinal, compaative, and multiscale eseach when studying human societies aound the wold -- and also deploy these same methods quite close to home, even in the scholastic envionment that suounds them -- and suounds thei students. The 2003 aticle by Pete Magolda, entitled "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual," attempts to conduct a desciptive anthopology of a specific gaduation commencement that will become pat the autho's lage study of exit ituals in highe education. The gaduation event descibed in the aticle is a singula one, howeve. It occued in "May 2001 at a medium-size public, 4-yea esidential campus in the Midwest,…… [Read More]
Worst of all, according to aker and Glasser, Russians seemed willing to trade their political freedom for greater order, security, and financial prosperity. However, the authors regard this as a kind of devil's bargain, calling Putin's managed democracy merely another form of dictatorship that will inevitably result in bloody repression. Moreover, they point to the fact that things are not all sunny in post-Soviet Russia -- the numbers of the population affected with AIDS, the inhumane conditions in the army, and other institutionalized failures to deal with the problems of modernity are still rife. Their book begins and ends with the story of a woman who left her provincial home to come to Moscow. She is doing better financially, but her family back home, like so many Russians, not part of the relatively narrow sector enjoying Putin prosperity and is still living under relatively similar conditions as in the late…… [Read More]
Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.
Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:
The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).
This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…… [Read More]
Catherine the Great
If in an absolute monarchy, the nation's course "depends on the disposition and character of the Sovereign," as Sir James Harris observed during Catherine's rule, it is telling of the accuracy of Harris's remarks by comparing the course of Russia's evolution under Catherine to the character of the woman they called Catherine the Great (Madariaga 203). Under Catherine, Russia became an even more liberalized nation than it had been under Catherine's "great" predecessor, Peter. This liberalization came about primarily through Catherine's contact with and implementation of "Enlightenment" ideals, a result of her voluminous correspondence with men like Voltaire, the popular Enlightenment Era philosopher, whose sharp wit made him an antagonist to even the most heralded traditions. Men like Voltaire went a long way in shaping Catherine's outlook, which is seen in the very outset of her 1767 Instruction to the Legislation: her first point being that Russia…… [Read More]
Like other aspects of
Trinidad Carnival, the political and social circumstances of the times
played a role in influencing the Carnival.
In more recent times in the 20th century, the Carnival has continued
to play its role as a social and political commentator. In orld ar I and
ard ar II Carnival was suspended, yet it did not stop the calypsonians
from singing against whites or the upper classes (Gilkes 2003). Even
today, "ol mas" played during Jour Ouvert morning, allows the writer to "to
parody negroes who have this sickening obsession with aping everything
hite" (Gilkes 2003). This means that despite the entertainment value and
international acclaim of Carnival, there still remains social and political
commentary that has been a tradition of Carnival since its inception. In
the 1960s and 1970s, for example, there was great pride in Africa expressed
through images of Black Power and African Glory, by…… [Read More]
aphael: Artist of the enaissance
aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…… [Read More]
I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)
The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.
Catherine the Great
One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…… [Read More]
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great was "one of those catalyzing forces in history who, through hard experience, unbounded intelligence, and overwhelming practicality, changed the face of a country against overwhelming odds. She was a German princess who was married to Peter, a nephew of Elizabeth, who served as Empress of Russia from 1741 to 1762. Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, was a shrewd and Machiavellian ruler; she did not like Catherine, who was, from the time of her marriage to Peter in 1745 to the death of Elizabeth in 1762, constantly under the threat of danger (www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM)."
Upon Elizabeth's death, Peter became Emperor Peter III and during his reign of just a few months, established peace between Russia and Prussia, averting Russia's conquest of Prussia. He was assassinated soon afterward, resulting in Catherine becoming ruler of Russia.
Prior to the deaths of Elizabeth and…… [Read More]
trouble that faced the Caucasus at the time of the Great Reforms tended to be that it was, and continues to be, one of the most culturally and linguistically varied geographic locations on earth. In a strict geographic sense the Caucasus is part of Asia; however, its cultural and historic ties are much closer to Europe. Until the Great Reforms, "The Caucasus had never been unified except as a geographic concept applied to the territory between the Black and Caspian Seas, bordered on the north where the inland sea of the steppe breaks against a mountain barrier on the south, rather more vaguely, by the plateau of what is now northern Iraq and Iran."
For the region, as with the rest of Russia, perhaps the most important event that occurred during the Great Reforms was the abolition of serfdom.
hen Alexander II signed the fact of emancipation in 1861 he…… [Read More]
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…… [Read More]
Business in ussia
The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).
ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…… [Read More]
It was simply not modern or wealthy enough to withstand such strong economic pressure. In 1917 the first of two major coups occurred; the Tsar was imprisoned and later executed, a Civil War erupted eventually resulting in the emergence of the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin; the world's first socialist state.
The major thrust of the new government was to completely revise the economy of the massive state -- breakup landed estates, seizure of agricultural surpluses, but an economic period of 8 years (1921-29) that was more market socialism. However, once Lenin died and the power struggle for ultimate control went to Joseph Stalin, a vast and rapid reindustrialization took place. Stalin believed that the only way to retain a Soviet State was to modernize and the only way to modernize was to collectivize all agriculture so there would be enough food and surplus to fuel the drastic measures necessary…… [Read More]
The second passage is very relevant as to the nature of Boris. The opposition between the two brothers is generated by their different approaches to possession, faith, and brotherhood. Sviatopolk plans to kill his own brother whereas Boris refuses even to defend himself from his brother. Also, the two siblings view possession differently. Boris is loved and well respected by his people, and knows how to be a good ruler whereas his older brother is only interested in accumulating wealth and power but does not care about his people as seen in the first selected paragraph when he gives them gifts only in hopes of buying their submission and approval. Last but not least, the difference in approach as far as religion is concerned between the two brothers is overwhelming. Boris chooses death over neglecting Christian morals whereas his brother has no problem killing him. Hence the parallel between Cain/Abel…… [Read More]
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…… [Read More]
Compare and contrast their approaches to the question of faith.
One of the features of the age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky was the emergence of philosophical and religious thoughts that promoted spirituality without religion. The tendency to reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality or a direct relationship with God gained prominence at this age in ussia because of widespread disillusionment with the state-supported religion, corruption and hypocrisy of the official clergy. None perhaps popularized such spirituality in ussia more than Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Both of these figures had a complicated relationship with the official Orthodox Christianity. Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the ussian Patriarch in 1901. But while Dostoevsky's criticism of organized religion remained subtle and he emphasized the importance of faith, Tolstoy was scathing in his attacks on ussian Orthodox religion and at times he directly questioned the existence of God. Tolstoy was a…… [Read More]
Japanese, Chinese and Russian empires from 1500-1800. We will look briefly at the kind of structures/bureaucratic arrangements that used to keep order and control and to manage their populations . We also will compare and contrast these empires and see that the major thing that paved the way for the eclipse of China and Japan by 1800 was an inward focus while Russia's westward glance gave it the ability to forge a viable Eurasian empire.
Ming and Qing China
In Ming China, the structure of government was built around a series of professional bureaucrats schooled in their designated skills areas and Neo-Confucianism with its ideas of individual morality and responsibility (this also influenced the Japanese and Chosun Korea). The bureaucrats were the glue that held the Ming Chinese empire together. This made the period until 1644 when the dynasty was overthrown a golden age where arts, culture and the economy…… [Read More]
In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).
German occupation in iga during World…… [Read More]
ecause is easily shaped, these above-mentioned items were made to form by a skilled craftsman's hammer and by casting; gold was engraved and embossed; gold was used in granule form for decorative purposes; gold was pounded into thin sheets for "covering furniture, wooden coffins… for plating copper and silver and for cutting into thin strips to make wire" (Lukas, 264).
Lukas explains that he measured several specimens of sheet gold (actually gold foil) and those items varied from 0.17 mm to 0.54 mm in thickness; he also measured the leaf gold and it ran from 0.01 mm to 0.09 mm. These measures clearly show the talent of ancient Egyptian craftsmen, who were using tools that compared with today's technological sophistication were quite crude, and yet showed remarkable skill in producing what they did.
Ancient Egyptians -- men and women -- loved jewelry, according to professor Eric Cline from George Washington…… [Read More]
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…… [Read More]
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]
While much of the Empire's expansion can be attributed to military success invasion was often unnecessary. Political tactics for expansion were sometimes more effective; Sultan Orhan received the Gallipoli peninsula through his marriage to the daughter of a pretender to the Byzantine thrown, while half the land belonging to the Turcoman ruler of Germiyan in Anatolia was acquired through Prince Bayezit's marriage. Through swift political tactics the Ottoman Empire would often come to possess an over-lordship of their former allies, in effect absorbing them into the Empire (Quataert, 2000). Newly acquired subjects rarely detested the new occupation. The economic power of the Empire improved their conditions immensely in relation to previous Christian feudalism and control was peacefully maintained through symbiotic fiscal relationships (Kamrava, 2005).
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
As the center of gravity of the Western world moved from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic seaboard, a series of…… [Read More]
age and several thousand miles separated Russian Alexander Pushkin and American Flannery O'Connor. This essay seeks to illustrate why they deserve to be considered as icons of world literature. Pushkin's body of works spans poetry -- romantic and political, essays, and novels. Influential music composers like Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Rimsky Korsakov and Tchaikovsky adapted the lyrical and dramatic elements of Pushkin's works. Flannery O'Connor's work, on the other hand, was largely restricted to short stories. The profundity of her work lies in its uniqueness -- not volume. Her stories hide gruesomeness, truth and religious thought that is not immediately obvious at a superficial level.
The short-story "The Queen of Spades," while not necessarily representative of all of Pushkin's work gives us an idea of the narrative skills that keep the reader on edge. (Pushkin, 1834) The twists in the story combine elements of fantasy. ut at heart this is a story…… [Read More]
The city of Versailles has a lengthy and proud history, dating back to its inception in the 17th century. Today the city is internationally renowned for a number of different facets. The most salient one of these is probably the Palace of Versailles, which was formally constructed in the middle of the 17th century and has gone on to inspire a number of other palaces as well as types of government practiced there. Additionally, Versailles was a highly influential city in the political sphere, and has functioned as the de facto capital of the country of France on a number of different occasions. There are several other European cultural designs that were inspired by Versailles and its famous palace, which has come to be renowned throughout estern Civilization.
Versailles is located approximately 10 and a half miles south of France, and is a decidedly idyllic location. It is approximately…… [Read More]
Peter eyland's 2023 TED talk provides an intriguing perspective on the idea of a god and generates much controversy as a result of trying to change society's understanding of this concept. The power to create is indeed, an impressive feat, and it is only natural for humans to feel privileged because of coming to control this power. eyland's speech is referring to androids whom people are going to have difficulties differentiating from real humans in a few years time. hen regarding matters solely from the perspective provided by Ridley Scott's 2012 motion picture Prometheus, it would only be safe to say that the power to create provides one with the ability to relate to him or herself as being a god.
hile Darwinism seems to be a powerful idea, many people prefer to think of their background as having had a creator. One can almost say that people are 'programmed'…… [Read More]
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]
Everyman must lose this false confidence, and lose his life, to truly understand the higher purpose of the human soul and existence, as Everyman prepares himself for the final passage -- and so must we all, good and bad.
But in "Peter Pan" there is a lack of moral apportioning to children along the lines of the laws of adult life. endy, who seems to be the most thoughtful and responsible of all the Peter Pan characters, pays with her youth and takes on adult responsibility unlike the title protagonist, who also transgresses but never feels remorse and never pays for any hurt he does to the girl. Thus, loss, both plays suggest, is an inevitable part of human life, but Barrie is far less positive about what this loss leaves. Loss for Barrie means the loss of carefree and amoral youth and the loves of youth, while loss in…… [Read More]