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Without seeming to delve into "politics," it is clear to anyone paying attention - who cares about schools and children - that the current administration in Washington has recently asked Congress for an additional $80 billion to continue the occupation of Iraq and the fight in Afghanistan, and in the same week has indicated that the new budget eliminates programs designed to keep children in school, and to help schools assist families in educating their sons and daughters.
Why homework in public libraries? What does the literature reveal about homework centers in libraries?
One highly important technical aspect of homework centers in libraries is the presence of research tools - and of course the appropriate filters so children are protected from pornographic Web sites - for those students who likely do not have the Internet at home. An article in Library Journal (Minkel, 2002) suggests that "librarians need alternatives when…
Barranger, Crystal. (2001). An After-Hours School Library Program. The Book Report,
Business Wire (1999). SemiCycle Foundation and Hi-Tech Manufacturing Make
Donation to Thornton After School Tutoring Program. P. 0315.
Breeden, Cynthia (2004). Mini-Learning Center Homework Help for 1st-5th Graders at Hayward Libraries. Literacy Plus News: Hayward Main Library. Retrieved February
Youth Justice System in Canada
The doli incapax defence, which refers to the incapacity to do wrong, was developed under the English common law where a child under the age of seven was deemed incapable to do wrong. The same immunity was extended to a child aged between seven and thirteen with the presumption that this age group had not yet developed sufficient intelligence and experience to understand the consequence of the crime committed. (Johnson, 2006). Despite the protection accorded to children, the doli incapax defence was not applicable in all cases. Children often faced the same penalties as adult, which include hanging and incarceration. More than three or four-century ago, children were put in jail and underwent the same treatment similar to adult criminals. However, the growing reform movement that spread across the world in the 19th century emancipated Canada to pass series of laws for the protection of…
Bala, N. Carrington, P.J. & Roberts, J.P. (2009). Evaluating the Youth Criminal Justice Act after Five Years: A Qualified Success. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.51(2):131-167.
Department of Justice, (1965). The Juvenile Delinquency in Canada and Committee on Juvenile Delinquency, Queen's Printer, Ottawa.
Department of Justice, (2004). The Evolution of Juvenile Justice in Canada, International Cooperation Group. Canada Endres, K. (2004). The Youth Criminal Justice Act: The New Face of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice System. Family Court Review. 42( 3):526-539.
Johnson, M. (2006). Doli Incapax- The Criminal Responsibility of Children. Children's Law News.
The majority of gangs are governed by norms that support the use of violence to settle disputes and to achieve group goals "associated with member recruitment, defense of one's identity as a gang member, turf protection and expansion, and defense of the gang's honor" (Youth1 pp). Sanctioned violence is also dictated by a code of honor that stresses one's manhood and defines breaches of etiquette, and also demonstrates toughness and fighting ability and establishes status in the gang (Youth1 pp).
Preventing adolescents from joining gangs seems to be the most cost-effective long-term strategy (Solutions pp). The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms has implemented a school-based gang prevention curriculum called Gang Resistance Education and Training, that has shown positive preliminary results (Solutions pp). Students who complete the program reported "lower levels of gang affiliation and self-reported delinquency, including drug use, minor offending, property crimes, and crimes against persons" (Solutions pp).…
Crowther, Brad. Youth Gangs in Rhode Island. August 2002. Accessed from the Rhode Island Racial and Ethnic Minority Disparities web site May 05, 2005. http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Race_Ethnicity/Disparities_RI/safety_reports/youth_gangs.htm
Youth3 gangs no longer just a big city problem. FBI: Gangs spring up when families relocate. April 23, 1997. Accessed from CNN.com web site May 05, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9704/23/gang
Youth2 Gangs and Violence. Accessed from National Youth Violence Prevention web site May 05, 2005. http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/faq/youthgang.asp
Johnson, Stephen; Muhlhausen, David B. North American Transnational Youth
Youth violence is a major problem in the world today that must be continually researched and examined in order to reduce its harmful grasp. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), violent acts were the second leading cause of death for young people in the United States in 2010 (Understanding Youth). Youth violence not only includes children that are victims of violent acts, but also those that commit acts of violence. The CDC also reports that in 2008, 16% of violent crimes were committed by juveniles (Youth Violence). The reach of youth violence in quite broad and include violence in schools, gang violence, bullying, and dating violence. Much research has been done to identify possible causes of youth violence. Contributing factors include previous abuse or exposure to violence in the home, unstable family atmospheres, drugs, disorganized communities, psychological disorders, and exposure to media violence. Of these causes, the one…
Bushman, Brad, and Craig Anderson. "Media Violence and the American Public Scientific Facts vs. Media Misinformation." American Psychologist June/July (2001): 477-489. Iowa State Psychology Department. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. Detailed research and explanations as to why media violence in misunderstood.
Kivel, Dana, and Corey Johnson. "Comsuming Media, Making Men: Using Collective Memory Work to Understand Leisure and the Construction of Masculinity." Journal of Leisure Research 41.1 (2000): 109-134. ProQuest. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. Collective memory research on the affects of media on male's perceptions of masculinity.
Cantor, Joanne. "Media Violence and Children's Emotions: Beyond the "Smoking Gun." American Psychological Association Convention. American Psychological Association. Convention Center, District of Columbia. 5 Aug. 2000. Lecture.
Program. "Youth Violence - Facts at a Glance." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. . Fact sheet with statistics on specific types of youth violence in the United States. Helpful in obtaining a general view of the reach and impact of juvenile violence.
1, HOW HAVE CIMINOLOGISTS EXPLAIN YOUTHFULL CIMINALITY?
According to studies, youthful criminality is the result of many separate factors. Among these include the disproportionate amount of sensationalism surrounding crime (Okoronkwo, 2008, p. 2). Sensationalism includes an unspoken support for crime as demonstrated through various media outlets. This may include violence presented in the media, in the way of television, magazines, and video games (Jewkes, 2004). Parents can encourage this by allowing in discretionary use of video games and indiscriminate viewing of television without controls. This is unhealthy and may support increasing violence and criminal behavior. This sensationalism comes both in the form of sensationalizing crime as something desirable, and sensationalizing the individuals responsible for crime.
Other factors that lead to youthful criminality include the hype surrounding the appeal of crime, or the benefits of crime and the appeal of youth crime among youths. Crime is often portrayed as…
Goldson, B. & Muncie, J. 2006. Youth crime and justice. London: Sage publications.
Hough, Mike & Roberts, Julian V. 2003. Youth crime and youth justice: Public opinion in England and Wales. ICPR, The Nuffield Foundation. Retrieved: http://www.esc-eurocrim.org/files/summary.pdf
Jewkes, Y. 2004. Media and crime. London: Sage.
MacDonald, R. 1997. Youth, the underclass and social exclusion. London: Routledge.
A perfect example is Danica Patrick who has broken and established numerous records in the sport of auto racing -- a heavily male-dominated sport (Bernstein 2013). Her preconceived sex role did not stop her from succeeding greatly in this sport. The male perspective of racing has been redefined, as more and more women are now entering and succeeding in this sport. The roles that boys and girls think that they should follow are indeed rules that may be broken. However, what is needed is a role model. Once one person has broken the path then others can follow. That is exactly what is occurring in sports. Gender affects how a sport is viewed, but it does not affect the character and values that are learned through playing.
Bernstein, Viv. "Patrick Earns a Historic Pole, at a Premier Event." The New York Times. The New York Times, 18 Feb. 2013.…
Bernstein, Viv. "Patrick Earns a Historic Pole, at a Premier Event." The New York Times. The New York Times, 18 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L., Jean Cote, and Janice Deakin. "Youth Sport Programs: An Avenue to Foster Positive Youth Development." Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 10.1 (2005): 19-40. Print.
Gould, Daniel, and Sarah Carson. "Life Skills Development through Sport: Current Status and Future Directions." International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 1.1 (2008): 58-78. Print.
Messner, Michael a. it's All for the Kids: Gender, Families, and Youth Sports. Berkeley: University of California, 2009. Print.
Youth Crime in Canada
Functionalism is one of the most longstanding and best used sociological theories in this field. Essentially, functionalism posits the notion that society operates somewhat like the human body, with a variety of necessary functions and measures to enable it to reach a state of stability. Functionalism views certain actions and trends within society as indicative of overall aspects of the norms and values which drive it. It looks at corrective measures to some of these problems as necessary sanctions or "social control mechanisms which range from those "imposed informally -- sneering and gossip, for example -- o the activities of certain formal organizations, like schools, prisons and mental institutions" (McLelland, 2000). As such, there are several relevant points of application between functionalism and the issue of contemporary youth crime in Canada. Viewed from a functionalist perspective, it is quite clear that legislature enacted by the Canadian…
Bala, N., Carrington, P.J., Roberts, J.V. (2009). Evaluating the youth criminal justice act after five years: a qualified success. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 51 (2), 131-167.
Brennan, S. (2011). Police reported crime statistics in Canada, 2011. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2012001/article/11692-eng.htm
Carrington, P.J. (2013). Trends in the seriousness of youth crime in Canada, 1984-2011. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 5 (2), 293-314.
DeGusti, B. (2008). The impact of the Youth Criminal Justice Act on case flow in Alberta and stem response in Calgary. Canadian Research Institute for Law and Family. Retrieved from http://people.ucalgary.ca/~crilf/publications/Final_Case_Flow_and_Focus_Group_Report-September2008v3.pdf
While for many people the tendency to ascribe the status of victim to a fellow individual is often motivated by prejudicial factors such as race or gender, current research indicates that age is also a primary determinant affecting how the public and media assess victimization. Multiple studies have concluded that young people are increasingly being linked to criminality in the collective consciousness of society, and as John Muncie observes in his Youth and Crime, "dangerous youth is the cornerstone of a number of key concerns about a disordered present" (2009). As the science of victimology has evolved and contributed to academic research on the subject of crime, youth victimization has often been neglected and ignored in favor of studies seeking "the strongest possible evidence to an already worried public that there (is) something new and terrible about juvenile crime" (Newburn, 1996, p. 70). Despite a preponderance of evidence…
Bailleau, F. (1998) 'A crisis of youth or of judicial response?', in Ruggiero, V., South, N. And Taylor, I. (eds) The New European Criminology, London, Routledge.
Brown, S. (1998). Understanding Youth and Crime. Buckingham. Open University Press.
Goldson, B. (2002) 'New Labour, social justice and children: political calculation and the deserving-undeserving schism', British Journal of Social Work, vol. 32, pp. 683-95.
Muncie, J, (2003) 'Youth, risk and victimisation', in Davies, P., Francis, P., and Jupp, V. (eds) Victimisation: Theory, research and Policy, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
Youth Sports Archery
Youth Sport Program Additions: Archery and Fencing
Based on the research findings investigated below, it is expected that I will ultimately recommend for the addition of archery and fencing to the existing youth sports program in question. The research presented hereafter will illustrate that due diligence has been paid to the question of virtues of the respective sports in the context of said program.
Could the sport of archery be successfully adapted to existing youth sports programs?
hat are the benefits unique to that make this a worthwhile addition to existing youth sports programs?
Archery offers a number of benefits to young learners in the form of safety instruction, rule following and accessibility that make it an advisable addition to an existing youth sport program.
Null Hypothesis: Archery would not be advisable as an addition to an existing youth sport program because it does not offer…
Harkins, C. (2010). Go Fencing and Get Smarter. Fencing.net.
Hastings, S. (2010). Why Fencing is a Good Youth Sport. HubPages.
Pearce, M. (2010). Archery Classes A Hit Among Students -- and Full of Lessons, Too. The Wichita Eagle.
Youth Sport Trust (YST). (2010). School Sport Xchange. Ssx.youthsporttrust.org.
Under this program youth are able to enter employment or go back to school. Project RIO-Y is funded by the U.S. Department of Labor. (Baker 7)
In California, a law was passed prohibiting juveniles from being held in county jails, sheriff's facilities, and other adult facilities. This was spurred by the suicide of 15-year-old Kathy Robbins. Jailed for being in the town square after curfew hour, Kathy Robbins hanged herself from the top rail of the bunk bed in her cell in the Glenn County Jail in rural California. She had been in jail for a week, as a juvenile court judge had refused to release her. She was one of six juvenile suicides that took place in adult jails in California between 1979 and 1984.
There have been negative consequences of the state and federal laws passed to implement the Federal Youth Correction Act. The laws create overcrowding in…
Baker, Luther. "Perceptions of the Effects of Workforce Development Training on Vocational Interests of Adjudicated African-American Youth with Disabilities (Dissertation)" University of Texas, 2004. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2004/bakerl39847/bakerl39847.pdf
Meisel, Sheri, Henderson, Kelly, Cohen, Mary, & Leone, Peter. "Collaborate to educate: Special education in juvenile correctional facilities." In Building Collaboration Between Education and Treatment for At-risk and Delinquent Youth (pp. 59-72). Richmond: National Juvenile Detention Association, Eastern Kentucky University, 1998.
Ogletree, Charles J. Jr. "Judicial activism or judicial necessity: The D.C. District Court's criminal justice legacy." Georgetown Law Journal, Mar 2002. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200203/ai_n9024921/pg_11 .
Schiraldi, Vincent, and Soler, Mark. "The Will of the People? The Public's Opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997." Justice Policy Institute and Youth Law Center. March 1998. http://www.justicepolicy.org/downloads/The%20Will%20of%20the%20People.doc .
Youth Justice Problem Identification and Policy-Making
The issue of members of the youth community in the criminal justice system is one which has given populations great concern. Juvenile crime and delinquency creates an economic and sociological disparity which has far-reaching negative consequences in the society. Statistics show that individuals who become involved in criminal activity in the beginning years of their life will be more likely to develop as career criminals than those who are able to abstain from criminality in their youth. The earlier a person begins committing crimes, the greater the likelihood that they will commit serious and violent crimes later on in their lives.
Sociologists, psychologists, and individuals who are experts regarding criminality and illegal matters have identified certain criteria as heavy indicators that the individual in question will be likely to become involved in crime or not (Ramirez 2008). Individuals who are born and…
Ramirez, F. (2008, April/May). Juvenile delinquency: current issues, best practices, and promising approaches. GP Solo. (25:3). American Bar Association.
Saminsky, A. (2010). Preventing juvenile delinquency: early intervention and comprehensiveness as critical factors. Student Pulse. (2:2). Retrieved from http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/165/preventing-juvenile-delinquency-early-intervention-and-comprehensiveness-as-critical-factors
There was also radical folk music lead created by ob Dylan, the Mamas and the Papas, Joan aez, and Donovan (1960s).
oth women's and men's fashion reflected the revolutionary atmosphere of the 1969s as described in American cultural history. Women began wearing more revealing and suggestive clothing such as miniskirts, hot pants, and go-go boots. Men wore their hair longer and grew beards and moustaches. right colors, double-breasted sports jackets, polyester pants suits with Nehru jackets, and turtlenecks were trendy fashions for men. Unisex dressing such as bell bottoms, love beads and embellished t-shirts was also popular.
Perhaps change in the 1960s was driven due to the fact that there had been a post-war baby boom which had created a huge number of youth. Power came in numbers and they felt free to make their mark on the culture, changing aspects of society, politics, music and fashion, to name only…
American cultural history. http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade60.html
Youth Market in U.S. Wine
Strengths of the Wine Industry:
Awareness about the health benefits of wine drinking is growing
Wine Industry has been able to produce high quality wine at affordable prices of late
Development in biotechnology means that plentiful grape production is likely in future
The wine industry has mainly catered to the older generation of wine drinkers thus far
The passive attitude in the industry that the young generation naturally grows into wine drinking as it ages.
Generation X (21-34-year-olds) spends 10% more than baby-boomers on every type of alcohol, except wine. They also drink 51% more alcohol than baby-boomers do. (oberts of Wine X magazine, quoted by Scalera, 2002)
ecent studies show that young drinkers, ages 21 to 34, are more willing to pay for premium wine than the generation of 35-to-54-year-olds
The youth market is potentially the biggest wine drinking market
Scalera, Barbara. (July 2002). "New Ideas for a New Generation." Harpers magazine. Retrieved on July 28, 2003 at http://www.winexwired.com/archives/harpers2.htm
Skeen, Thomas P. "Wine X: Edgy magazine reaches out to next generation of wine drinkers" Walla Union-Bulletin. On July 28, 2003 from (October 23, 2002) http://www.winexwired.com/archives/seattle2.htm
Although U.S. consumption of table wines has been increasing since 1990, the number of drinkers hasn't kept pace with the rise in the adult population (Report sponsored by Wine Market Council in 2000)
This is now widely recognized by the wine market as the Wine Market Council, an industry-funded research and marketing group, has launched an ad campaign in the U.S. aimed at the youth wine market
Youth Services, Juvenile Justice System
America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline: A Children's Defense Fund eport
America is still a country in which underprivileged children are discriminated against and "pipelined" into a life of problems and failure rather than success and good health. Something must be done; it's the responsibility of all adults to rally together and take action to correct this far-reaching, systematic, cyclic problem. The main steps that must be taken are: work together to change the norms and values of society; replace punishment and incarceration with early intervention and firm commitments to children; begin this commitment with guaranteed prenatal, health, and mental health coverage for everyone; ensure every child eligible for Head Start programs is able to participate; permanently connect every child to a caring parent or mentor; instill a solid academic work ethic and make sure all children can read by the 4th grade; put an end…
CDF, s. (2007). America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline. The Children's Defense Fund.
Chung, H.L., Little, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System: A Developmental Perspective. In D.W. Osgood, E.M. Foster, C. Flanagan, & G. Ruth, On Your Own Without a Net (p. Chapter 3). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Eppright, T., Kashani, J., Robison, B., & Reid, J. (1993). Comorbidity of Conduct Disorder and Personality Disorders in an Incarcerated Juvenile Population. The American Journal of Psychiatry: 150, 8, 1233.
McManus, M., Alessi, N., Grapentine, W., & Brickman, A. (1985). Neurological Dysfunction in Serious Delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 481-486.
Thus, advertising to youth would stimulate spending on immediate needs but it also stimulated spending trends across the consumer's lifetime. Stimulating the youth market early in the 20th century helped create the consumer culture that persists today.
Another reason to market more aggressively to the youth market was to capitalize on changing social values. Youth became a more distinct and more politically empowered social group during the 20th century. The word "teenager" had only been coined in the 1940s, underscoring the fact that youth culture was a 20th century phenomenon. Their input in family affairs grew more pronounced, especially as women had fewer and fewer children as "fewer children increases the influence of each child," ("Targeting the Youth Market").
More empowered youth would later lead marketers to capitalize on the "nag factor." Children exposed to media advertisements start to nag their parents, which vastly increases sales (New American Dream). The…
Brailsford, Ian. "History Repeating Itself: Were Post-War American Youngsters Ripe for Harvest?" Retrieved April 3, 2007 at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:hnYEbFPpPEsJ:www.kingston.ac.uk/cusp/Lectures/Brailsfordpaper.doc+history+repeating+itself+brailsford&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=ca&client=firefox-a
New American Dream. "Thanks to Ads, Kids Won't Take No, No, No, No, No for an Answer." Retrieved April 3, 2007 at http://www.newdream.org/kids/poll.php
Targeting the Youth Market." Retrieved April 3, 2007 at http://www.sba.gov/gopher/Business-Development/Success-Series/Vol7/youth.txt
Youth Homelessness: Major Contributors, Consequences, And Prevention Measures
HHomelessness among young adults and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate and is becoming a rather significant social concern (oro, Dworsky and Fowler, 2007). In fact, as Karabanow (2008) states, about 25% of the entire population comprises of homeless youth. In this context, homeless youth are described as persons under the age of 24 who do not have a permanent place of residence or are not in a position to secure a safe living environment with a guardian or relative. he period of homelessness is not specific. he National Alliance to End Homelessness (2015) states that those who sleep in the streets for a period of six months or more average at 50,000; and a total of 550,000 young adults under the age of 24 are homeless for over a week long period - 380000 of these are under the…
The National Coalition for the Homeless. (2012). Homeless Youth. NCH Publications. Retrieved 14 February 2015 from http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/youth.html
The United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. (2013). Youth. USICH Blog. Retrieved 14 February 2015 from http://usich.gov/population/youth
Toro, P.A., Dworsky, A. & Fowler, P.J. (2007). Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. The 2007 National Symposium for Homeless Research. Retrieved 13 February 2015 from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/homelessness/symposium07/toro/
Market Analysis Summary
The organized sports market is expanding rapidly in the service area of Youth Sports Development Center. This results in there being a severe need for the services provided the Center and because there is no other facility in the area the prospects for the Center's success are considerable. The primary emphasis of the Center will be to provide private instruction and coaching for young athletes seeking to develop their individual skills in the sport of their choice. The largest market for the Center is in the junior high and early high school aged student but it is the intent to expand the services of the Center across the full spectrum of ages.
Sales will be directed at the parents of all school aged children. Coaches, teachers, parents, and children will be informed…
"Ministries with young adults need to provide opportunities for them to interact with their peers and form healthy Christ-centered friendships. Faith is made real when the effects of faith are seen in others, especially those of the same age. Countless students have given testimony to how their faith has grown during the college years because of the friends they surrounded themselves with and the intimacy in spiritual growth they have experienced together."
Age-appropriate ministry and age-oriented activities are not simply appropriate, but necessary to foster this sense of membership in a longstanding community and fellowship with other Christians. By belonging to a community of young people, a young person gains a sense of how to become a reasoned, adult member of the church who has made an active, vocal, and questioned commitment that will last a lifetime. Youth education teaches the process of 'becoming' as well as presents the ideal.…
Keeler, Randy. "Developmental Theory and Ministry to College Youth."
Direction Journal. 31 (2). Fall 2002. pp. 186-193, 13 Jun 2007, http://www.directionjournal.org/article/?1264
Snell, Gina. "Keeping it real: Churches compete against worldly temptations to reach teens," Kentucky Herald-Ledger. 9 Jun 2007. 13 Jun 2007. http://www.kentucky.com/158/story/93008.html
Randy Keeler, "Developmental Theory and Ministry to College Youth," Direction Journal, 31, no. 2, (Fall 2002), pp. 186-193, 13 Jun 2007,
Youth at Risk: Processes of individualisation and responsibilisation in the risk society" provides information meant to open people's eyes with regard to how youth-at-risk discourses are meant to function as a tool to control young people and to shape their thinking in order to make them hesitant about becoming delinquent, deviant, or disadvantaged. The article practically emphasizes how youth-at-risk ideas are purposed to identify a series of problems that young people are likely to come across and to address these respective problems in order for society to have as little troubled youths as possible.
Discourses of youth typically focus on promoting the concept that adolescence is a period in which individuals must go from being children to being adults. These people should apparently abandon their childish thinking and concentrate on behaving like adults during this time-frame.
hile youth at risk discourses are essentially meant to have society turn into a…
Hooks, b. (2009) "KIDS: Transgressive Subject Matter " Reactionary Film" Reel to Real: Race, Class and Sex at the Movies, New York and London: Routledge, pp. 75-85.
Kelly, P. (2001) "Youth at Risk: Processes of Individualization and Responsibilisation in the Risk Society" Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 22, 1, pp. 23-33
Powell, A. (2007) 'Youth at Risk? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent' Youth Studies Australia 26, 4, pp. 21-28.
te Riele, K. (2006) 'Youth "At Risk": Further Marginalizing the Marginalized?' Journal of Education Policy 21, 2, pp. 129-145.
A Concise Description of Youth
Who exactly is a youth? Are there specific traits that distinguish a youth from an adult or a child for that matter? These are the questions that immediately come to mind when one attempts to come up with a concise definition of "youth." From the onset, it is important to note that the term youth does not have an assigned definition. In that regard therefore, "youth" as a term could mean different things to different people. For some, youth is the period after childhood. For others, however, youth is that period coming immediately after or preceding adulthood. In this text, I will take a different approach in an attempt to describe youth. Instead of reviewing existing literature in search of the numerous definitions that have been applied to the term, I will largely concern myself with features or characteristics of youth. However, for guidance…
Theology -- Youth and Theology
Genuine truth is the focus of Palmer's To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey. Pointing to Jesus as the source of truth, Palmer contrasts truth with society's currently deranged approach to knowledge. The author also discusses a faith-based, holistic, communal, healing approach to education in which the teacher is a lifelong student who creates space in which the teacher and students practice obedience to the whole truth.
What is Truth?
Parker J. Palmer's To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey hinges on Truth; consequently, exploring the author's approach to education logically begins by discussing the meaning of truth. According to Palmer, truth consists of more than facts and reasons (Palmer xxiv). Truth is personal and communal Christian faith focused on "the person who said, 'I am…the truth'" (Palmer 47). It consists of living relationships with Jesus and…
Palmer, Parker J. To Know as We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. Print.
academic research on this topic, present a causal argument, identify key variables, operationalize these variables, identify between 2 and 3 research hypotheses, specify and justify the relevant research method to test the given hypotheses, address possible obstacles or problems this research might confront and how to overcome these, and a correctly formatted and relevant 10 source bibliography.
Youth unemployment in Armenia.
Youth unemployment rates in Armenia are at an all-time high, but what is leading to its increase? Unemployment rates in countries are defined by individuals who are currently jobless but are seeking active employment within the last four weeks (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009). It is particularly interesting to see such a high youth unemployment rate because statistics show that the general unemployment rate within adults in Armenia has decreased from 7.1% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2011 (Index Mundi, 2012) yet unemployment amongst the youth contuse unabated and…
West BankWorldBank. Org. (2010)WorldBank. Org. (2010)
(CIA (2012) World Factbook Snapshot of Global Youth Challenges https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2012-featured-story-archive/snapshot-of-global-youth-challenges.html )
Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…
Over the last several years, the issue of juvenile crime has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of concerns about how to effectively deal with this problem vs. using traditional approaches (i.e. incarceration). As a result, the rates will vary dramatically when comparing the different decades with each other. This has created periods that will see an increase in juvenile crime (which is followed by sharp declines). In a number of situations, a host of theories have been introduced to help explain why these decreases are occurring. (Butts, 2007, pg. 16)
One of the notable is the quality of education. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lochner (2003) who says, "There are a number of reasons to believe that education will affect subsequent crime. First, schooling increases the returns to legitimate work, raising the opportunity costs of illicit behavior. Additionally, punishment for…
Brewer, D. (2010). Economics of Education. San Francisco, CA: Academic Press.
Butts, J. (2007). Where Are Juvenile Crime Trends Headed? Juvenile and Family Justice Today, 16 -- 21.
Edwards, H. (2001). Lecturing. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gregory, G. (2007). Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Youth Leadership Training and Development
The following is a research plan for the proposed youth leadership training and development study. It is based on the checklist provided in the text esearch Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Creswell, 2009).
To determine if early leadership training has a significant influence on the building of self-esteem, motivation, moral values and self-confidence in youth.
To quantify how a lack of skills in solving problems, self-esteem and communication skills impacts short- and long-term leadership skills in adolescents.
To measure and correlate the extent to which life experiences and the capacity for emotional empathy contribute to and support the attainment of transformational leadership.
To design the methodology to ensure all respondents under age have parental consent, outcomes of the study and data collection do not reveal respondent's identities and the broader environment of the research study (including analysis and presentation results) do not violate…
Creswell, John W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Methods Approaches (3rd edition). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…
Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178
Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brady, F. (2004). Children's Organized Sports a Developmental Perspective; despite Their Place as a Childhood Rite, Youth Sports Have a High Dropout Rate. Why? And What Can We Do about it?. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(2), 35+. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brenner, Joel S. And the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Pediatrics, Jun 2007; 119: 1242-1245. Retrieved October 15, 2008, at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/search?andorexactfulltext=and&resourcetype=&disp_type=&sortspec=relevance&fulltext=%22Overuse+is+one+of+the+most+%22&ubmit.x=12&submit.y=14 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469629
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Youth Behind Bars - Let's Rehabilitate Kids, Not Punish Them" published in the San Francisco Chronicle on February 27 of this year argues in his article that the California system for dealing with juvenile delinquents is a failure but that it must be repaired instead of being dismantled. He describes terrible abuses inflicted on the youth and opportunities to rehabilitate them ignored. Adachi makes sense. Because the youth of today are tomorrow's future, we must do everything we can to help those who have started off on the wrong path to turn their lives around.
It is easy to argue that people who commit crimes should be punished, As a society we do not accept that murder, rape or theft are ever acceptable. However, most young students start out performing relatively smaller crimes. If they can change their ways while they are young, they will spend the rest of their…
As social systems expand to cover the ever growing social dynamics, the norms governing social behaviors are losing their ability to control behaviors. Over the years, concerns over the rising level of crimes committed primarily by the young are evident. The number of youths placed in juvenile correctional facilities is on the rise with the authorities appearing incapacitated to control the situation. This paper looks at the aspects of society contributing to Juvenile criminals and their continued perpetration of antisocial behaviors in the society.
In the modern world the norms that guide transitions and relationships from family to school and work have come under immense challenge. These challenges have seen to the collapse of the smooth socialization process that the young need to become productive in the society (Livingston, Stewart, Allard, & Ogilvie, 2008). As lifestyle trajectories vary and become more unpredictable, the young find it difficult to…
Greenwood, P. (2004). "Cost-effective Violence Prevention through Targeted Family Interventions, in Youth Violence- Scientific Approaches to Prevention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 201-214.
Livingston, M., Stewart, A., Allard, T., & Ogilvie, J. (2008). Understanding juvenile offending trajectories. Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 345-363.
Savignac, J. (2008). (2008) Families, Youth and Delinquency: The State of Knowledge, and Family-Based Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programs. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety.
Sprott, J., Jenkins, J., & Doob, A. (2005). "The Importance of School: Protecting At-Risk Youth from Early Offending." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 59-76.
According to Paddock, "The American Psychological Association (APA suggests that the proliferation of sexual images of girls and young women in the media is harming their self-image and development." The APA found that these images often arrest healthy development in a variety of areas, including self-esteem, which can cause a woman to display anxiety and shame. The article specifically mentions Christina's advertisements as examples of a negative portrayal of women (Paddock). Thus, the images portray women incorrectly in two ways. First of all, they portray women in a style of beauty that is not common, encouraging these women to believe that the advertised type of beauty is the only type of beauty. In response, some young girls are liable to have low self-esteem, in addition to spending a great amount of money on beauty products that they don't need. In short, the advertisements suggest that only one type of beauty…
Beauty and Body Image in the Media." 2008. Media Awareness Network. 20 October 2008. Media Awareness Network. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/women_beauty.cfm
Kid, Shibuya. "More Sizzling Christina Aguilera Ads on the Way! Sketchers Campaign
Shows Off Sexed-Up Xtina." 30 July 2004. AIR Massive. 20 October 2008. Air
ole of Drugs as Part of Youth Culture
The use of drugs among the youth has become a normal part of dance and culture of young people. Generally, drugs have been regarded as a part of daily life, particularly among the youth to an extent that it has been involved in many youth cultures. The role of drugs as part of youth culture has been fueled by other components that have become common characteristics of today's youth. Actually, today's youths are becoming synonymous to rave, dance and club cultures, which has also been accompanied by increased drug use. Similar to the 60s, taking drug while in town, clubs or dancing is increasingly becoming the norm in the lifestyles of many young people. Given the prevalence of drugs as a motivator in the youth culture, several initiatives have been established to help deal with the problem. The juvenile justice system has…
Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. Juvenile Justice 18(2). Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=31&articleid=46§ionid=159
Cortis, N., Katz, I. & Patulny, R. (2009, June). Engaging Hard-to-reach Families and Children. Retrieved from Department of Social Services -- Australian Government website: https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/number-26-engaging-hard-to-reach-families-and-children-HTML
Anti-Jock, Cyber 'Movement'?
Brian ilson, in his article The Anti-Jock Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet, uses new social movement theory to examine the nature of a cyber-community that has emerged in opposition to the so-called 'jock culture' endemic in American high schools. ilson divides his analysis of the 'anti-jock' youth resistance into two parts. The first part examines published research on youth resistance and then attempts to weave a cohesive argument by relying on new social movement theory to address the role internet-based social media might be playing. In the second part, ilson briefly reviews what is known about jock culture and applies his theory to the emergent anti-jock websites and webzines to see if new social movement theory is adequate to the task of describing this cyber-community. ilson's approach is therefore qualitative in nature and represents a case…
Wilson, Brian. "The "Anti-Jock" Movement: Reconsidering Youth Resistance, Masculinity, and Sport Culture in the Age of the Internet." Sociology of Sport Journal 19.2 (2002): 206-233.
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
Sociologists base their studies of youth subcultures on structured and unstructured interviews, participant observation and analysis of media, texts and music. Unlike similar studies in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Albert Cohen's Delinquent Boys (1955) that described post-World War II youth cultures as a relatively new and unknown phenomenon, more recent research over the past thirty years has been heavily based on feminist and postmodernist theories. These place special emphasis on the diversity and multiplicity within each subculture, while trying to avoid the stereotypes that commonly appear in the mass media. This new type of sociology also appears to me more journalistic than objective, scientific or value free, rejecting the principles and pretensions of Talcott Parsons and his generation of postwar sociologists. Of course, any type of sociology should still consider questions of ethnicity, social class, immigration, poverty, inequality and violence, although the funding to investigate these…
Wilson, B. (2006). Fight, Flight, or Chill: Subcultures, Youth and Rave into the Twenty-First Century. McGill-Queen's University Press.
Wood, R.T. (2006). Straightedge Youth: Complexity and Contradictions of a Subculture. Syracuse University Press.
Youth Development Empirical Study
There are numerous programs that currently exist which allege to benefit youths and youth development. Many of these programs are attempting to address the fact that children and adolescents directly represent the future. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare youths for a future world in which they become leaders, decision makers, and ultimately, stewards of the planet and of society itself. Nonetheless, there are a variety of ways of attempting to equip youths for their leadership of the coming generation. One can argue that it does little good to merely create a new generation of workers to fill the same positions that exist in society today, which only perpetuates the social inequality and problems that plague the current generation. Instead, it is more advantageous to empower youths by giving them the tools and experience they need to think for themselves and address the problems of society…
Youth Transition Methods Section
The literature and research sections above adequately demonstrate how challenging it can be for young people in foster care to transition into adulthood and independence and why certain assessment tactics will likely best capture objective and subjective reviews of the experience. This methodology section reiterates the specific study elements that will be used to look directly at the experience that the targeted young people (those who left within the last two years) had as they moved through their transitional stages toward aging out of the foster care system.
To reiterate, the study has three focal areas. The first two offer a degree of quantitative assessment as well as qualitative sections. The latter is mostly qualitative in that it seeks to elicit the recollections of the young people in regards to their experiences and where they see their future going. Together, the results will provide a multidimensional…
Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report. 13(4), 544-559. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf .
Gardner, D. (2008). Youth aging out of foster care: Identifying strategies and best practices. 2007-2008 Presidential Initiative. National Association of Counties. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G.R. & Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: Distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-484. doi:10.1086/519536.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L. & Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: Results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-993. Retrieved from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/10/986.pdf .
UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANICS OF THE STUDY:
The pimay independent vaiable o vaiables of the study ae intentional spot, nonintentional spot, and intentional leadeship. The pimay dependent vaiable(s) ae injuy, inceased anxiety, stess and bunout, alcohol and dug use. one elevant vaiable (RV) in the study was the lack of valid and eliable PYD outcome measues is also ecognized as a limitation within the spot psychology field. The pimay unit(s) of analysis ae youth spot pope stuctue; (c) suppotive elationships; (d) oppotunities to belong; (e) positive social noms. The pimay hypothesis showed that diffeences wee pesent acoss these thee contexts, wheeby intentionally stuctued pogams (spot and leadeship) scoed significantly highe on pogam quality fom both the eseaches' and youth's pespectives, as well as on PYD outcomes, than nonintentional stuctued spot pogams.
The pimay natue of the study is to examine the diffeences in pogam quality and positive developmental outcomes…
references are not current but they are cited used in the text.
Structured programs scored higher on program quality and positive youth development out- comes than nonintentionally structured programs, with intentional sport scoring significantly higher on some measures of program quality and positive youth development than leadership programs.
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…
Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.
Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
Leadership Training for Youth
Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.
The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…
Alcohol and Youth
According to the Center on Marketing and Youth (CAMY), states are not doing very much in terms of keeping adolescents and other youth from being over-exposed to alcohol-related advertisements on television. The liquor and beer companies are clearly interested in getting young people started with their particular brand, and through television commercials those companies make beer and liquor seem very "cool" to impressionable young people. This paper reviews and critiques the literature on youth and alcohol-related advertising on television -- including peer-reviewed scholarship from several sources.
Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising
The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth -- a component of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health -- reports that the amount of advertising on television that specifically targets youth rose by 38% between 2001 and 2007. About one in five alcohol advertisements was placed on programs that attracts young people ages 12 to…
Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2008). Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001-2007. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from http://www.camy.org .
Jernigan, David H. (2010). The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth.
Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(1), 57-89.
Siegel, Michael, King, Charles, Ostroff, Joshua, Ross, Craig, Dixon, Karen, and Jernigan, David
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
Cultural Observation Project
Location of Observation: Shopping mall
Youth 201-Section # Observation:
Write at least two full pages of an observation response as to what you saw from your first field assignment experience. Use the first field assignment suggestions as some suggestive points to this response. This is more of an analytical "objective" observation (from the head).
The shopping mall site that I selected meets the criteria of a secular well-attended local teenage (ages 12 -- 18) "hot spot" because it contains attractions that are designed to draw young people to mall and keep them engaged in activities at the mall for relatively long periods of time. Like many shopping malls today, the site I chose rubs shoulders with a movie complex. Teenagers congregate on the "apron" just outside the theater before and after seeing movies. And from the movie theater, the teenagers walk into the mall to investigate other…
Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…
Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at http://bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/topics/new_pope_defied_nazis.htm
The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth. Historyplace.com.
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/sco/country/ger/scoutger.ht
Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitler.htm
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
Works Cited continued
Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
Subsequently there is a "...hunger for reforms, for more freedom and accommodation with the west." (Asghar a.)
This movement of the progressive youth as well other sectors of the population, such as women, was clearly seen in the 1999 unrest in Iran where mainly university students took to the streets of Tehran in order to express their dissatisfaction with the orthodox regime. There were more than 20,000 students who took part in this protest and the result was a slight reduction on conservatism form the regime.
The present state of affairs Iran shows that there are a number of issues that are in the forefront of the desire for progressive reforms. These include the need for freedom of thought and expression and a reduction of the strict censorship that characterizes government policy. Another issue that is central to the progressive agenda is international relationships. There is a consensus among the…
Asghar a. IRAN BETWEEN LIBERALISM and ORTHODOXY. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com/perspective/iran.htm
Iran's Youth Push Islamic Limits. Retrieved March 14, 2007, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/01/25/eveningnews/main669223.shtml
Judah T. Via TV and the net, Iran's youth plot social revolution. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at http://www.hvk.org/articles/0902/46.html
Profile: Mohammad Khatami. Retrieved March 11, 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1373476.stm
("Qualitative research...," 2008, Sampling Issues section)
Groenwald (2004) also stresses that in regard to the phenomenon the researcher identifies/describes, the unique or minority voices serve as vital counterpoints to relate.
Data Collection Method
To complement the proposed study's literature review, the researcher plans to interview a minimum of 10 professional individuals who regularly work with underinsured and/or uninsured youth. The researcher notes three types of interviews" a) the unstructured interview, which constitutes a formal, conversational interview without any predetermined questions; (b) the structured interview, where the interviewer utilizes a series of pre-established questions in the same order to obtain information from those he/she interviews; - the semi-structured interview, where the interviewer asks numerous open-ended questions that simultaneously mirror the researcher's perception of theoretical perspective.
egarding the phenomenon being researched, as Groenwald (2004) stresses, the unique or minority voices prove to be vital counterpoints for the researcher to bring out.…
Brindis, C.D., Morreale, M.C., & English, a. (2003). The Unique Health care needs of adolescents. The Future of Children, 13(1), 116+. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002004881
Ensign, Josephine. Quality of health care: the views of homeless youth. Health Services Research. Health Research and Educational Trust. (2004). Retrieved March 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Dereshiwsky, M. (1999). Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative Research. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved March 4, 2009, at http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~mid/edr725/class/strategies/strategies/reading2-1-1.html
Collect analyze newsprint media depictions youth crime a -week period (i.e., check newspaper day weeks articles discussing youth crime justtcej] How media depict youth crime comparison actual picture youth Crime?YOu information actual youth crime picture Study Guide, textbook, Juristat reports relevant: 1.
Youth Crime in the Media
There is much controversy today in regard to youth crime, its effects on society, the way that it operates, and how it is perceived by the masses. The mass media currently has a lot of influence and it is very difficult for people to be able to filter information in order to avoid being manipulated. More and more media devices come to depict youth crime as a significant threat to society's well-being and emphasize the fact that conditions are likely to worsen in the near future if the reform does not occur. The masses have trouble understanding youth crime correctly because people generally…
Alvi, S. "Youth Criminal Justice Policy in Canada: A Critical Introduction," Springer, 2011.
Brennan, S. And Dauvergne M. "Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2010," Retrieved January 24, 2012, from the Statistics Canada Website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11523-eng.htm#a6
Brown, S. "Understanding Youth and Crime: Listening to Youth?," 2nd ed. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press, 2005.
Charron, M. "Neighbourhood Characteristics and the Distribution of Crime in Toronto: Additional Analysis on Youth Crime," Retrieved January 24, 2012 from the Statistics Canada Website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-561-m/85-561-m2011022-eng.htm
leadership training and experiences for youth. The research methodology was carefully drafted and developed as the best means for exploring this concept. A mixed methods, non-experimental, correlational study will be conducted to examine how problem solving, communication, and the building of self-esteem, contributes to early leadership training and development for youth in rural and inner city communities. While few research methodologies are perfect, this one has a tremendous amount of inherent strengths. One of the benefits of using a more mixed methods approach is that it will allow the researchers to gather data about this issue in a more comprehensive manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches empowers the researchers to gather a wider net of data and to be able to process it from a larger variety of perspectives.
If anything, the wealth of previous literature supports this exact methodology for this particular subject matter. The study, "Personality and…
Boyd, B. (2001). Bringing Leadership Experiences to Inner-City Youth. Journal of Extension.
De Lisle, J. (2011). The Benefits and Challenges of Mixing Methods. Caribbean Curriculum, 87-120.
Ipregroup.com. (2013). Advantages of mixed methods in impact evaluation. Retrieved from ipregroup.com: http://ipregroup.com/2013/04/advantages-of-mixed-methods-in-impact-evaluation/
Judge, T. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 765 -- 780.
If his father had been violent with him, Jeremiah would have that experience to draw upon in order to solve problems. He may have seen violence as the only way out of the situation. Moreover, Jeremiah's extreme insecurity led him to be fully engaged in conditioned thinking, which compelled him to assert the validity of his worldview by any means necessary. In this instance, that meant resorting to murder in order to prove that he was right.
Where do these feelings of insecurity originate from? According to POM, insecurities are not a result of circumstances or life events. On the contrary, POM suggests that the source of insecure feelings exists within the mind of the offender and occurs as a function of different mood states (Kelley, 1996). The reason why a certain person may have feelings of insecurity in one instance but not in another, even under identical circumstances, stems…
Adams, M.S., Robertson, C., Gray-Ray, P., Ray, M. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence, 38(149), 171-86.
Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S., Bullock, B., Winter, C. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 651-63.
Doucette, P.A. (2004). Walk and talk: an intervention for behaviorally challenged youths. Adolescence, 39, 373-88.
Flom, P.L., Friedman, S., Kottiri, B., Neaigus, A., Curtis, R. (2001). Recalled adolescent peer norms towards drug use in young adulthood in a low-income, minority urban neighborhood. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(2), 425-43.
Competency development in the balanced approach emphasizes the need for a broader concern with maturational development, especially by means of acquiring the survival skills required for daily living (p. 485).
Interventions that emphasized the balanced approach do look at the deficits and dysfunctions of the individual, but also identify family and community strengths, to draw upon. Not only would this intervention increase competency in the delinquent youth, but also help ensure public safety. Mentoring with a parental education and community organization approach, coupled with an effective sanctioning guidelines with meaningful consequences, is one intervention that would fulfill this criteria.
This type of intervention differs significantly from the interventions commonly utilized in the current system. Most interventions are geared to address a singular facet of delinquency, and regretfully ignore the others. As an example, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America offer a wide variety of programs to help counter risk…
Education and career. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.bgca.org/programs/education.asp .
Ek, A. (Mar 2008). Cluster profiles of youths living in urban poverty: Factors affecting risk and resilience. Social Work Research, 32(1). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from CINAHL Plus database.
Leve, L. & Chamberlain, P. (Jun 2005). Association with delinquent peers: Intervention effects for youth in the juvenile justice system. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(3). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from PubMed Central database.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (Aug 1997). Balanced and restorative justice for juveniles. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/framwork.pdf .
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
ith these things being understood I believe it is safe to say that therapeutic boarding schools are not the same as juvenile prisons.
Explains what you think will happen once the problem child leaves the school?
I believe that once the child leaves the boarding school he/she will have discovered the root of their problem and discovered ways to deal with the problem in a manner that is positive instead of negative. It is also expected that the child will no longer cope with their problems through behaviors that are detrimental to themselves and others.
Overall I believe that time in a boarding school would help a child better understand their worth. In doing so, the child will have great self-esteem and greater self-respect. Children and people in general who value themselves also value other people along with their property and their lives. Therefore the child will be more inclined…
The Benefits of Board Schools for Children"
Boot Camp Programs Help troubled youth"
Hoover, John H., and Melissa V. Ries. "Troubled Children and Youth." Reclaiming Children and Youth 13.2 (2004): 118+.
Our Program." 26 Apr. 2008 http://www.swiftriver.com/our_program.htm
Child Abuse, Organization Canada World Youth, 2017
Conduct a SWOT analysis.
A SWOT analysis of Canada World Youth (CWY) is provided in Table 1 below.
SWOT analysis of Canada World Youth
• The organization has a proven 40-year track record of success in working with youth groups.
• CWY has developed an extensive network of international partnerships.
• CWY has an influential patron (the Governor General of Canada since March 2012), a strong management team as well as a highly effective and dedicated board of directors.
• CWY continues to rely on unpredictable levels of public donations for funding.
• Cross-cultural differences between CWY's leadership team and partner organizations in other countries.
• Any political scandals involving CWY's patron could damage the organization's reputation.
• Expand the indigenous youth programs and partnerships throughout North America.
• Develop a program model-based CWY's…
Canadian economy. (2017). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html
Light, P. C. (2009, Winter). Donor, heal thyself. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3(4), 6-9.
Payton, L. (2016, December 19). 2016-year in review: 4 Canadian political scandals. CTV News. Retrieved from http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/2016-year-in-review-4-canadian-political-scandals-1.3197014 .
Revell, O. & Kamen, J. (2007, September 11). Preventing the next attack; what America can do from this day forward. The Washington Times, A17.
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…
Community Space and Youth
There are many benefits for young people when public space is made available, or when citizens work together to both pressure government and work with government and business to establish quality space. Public access should not be denied to young people and as a youth says on page 7 of Another inter, Another Spring (Social Planning Toronto -- SPT), "Schools shouldn't be charging for the use of space." In hitehorse, volunteers proved that with a firm goal in mind, change can be accomplished and young people can be afforded quality space for their activities. The volunteers have worked within the system -- embracing members of the business community and others from government to establish a space for the visual and performing arts (Canadian Case Studies).
Today there is a well-functioning Yukon Arts Centre, open year-round, hosting theatre presentations, music events, and even training for young would-be…
Canadian Case Studies.
Raphael, Dennis, Renwick, Rebecca, Brown, Ivan, Phillips, Sherry, Sehdev, Hersh, and Steinmetz, Brenda. (2001). Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods:
Findings From Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Community Development Society, 32(2), 310-333.
Social Planning Toronto. Another Winter, Another Spring: Toronto Youth Speak Out about
Singaporean Youth and No Sense of Belonging
With the entrance of foreigners, Singaporean youth claims to have lost their sense of belonging and ownership in Singapore, this was reported by a 23-year-old student at one convention when the guest speaker was saying something quite the opposite. The Singaporean youth doesn't know "what it is defending anymore" since the influx of foreigners in the country has caused fragmentation of nationalistic spirit. There is no single identity attached to being a Singaporean and hence the youth doesn't have the same sense of ownership that it once enjoyed because it no longer believes that Singapore belongs to any single national identity. What the youth is now experiencing is something that has long been felt in the political circles and argued in political discourse i.e. lack of sense of belonging and increased alienation.
It must be understood that the problem goes back to the…
Kluver, R. & Weber I. Patriotism and the Limits of Globalization: Renegotiating Citizenship in Singapore. Journal of Communication Inquiry 27:4 (October 2003): 371-388