Cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence are concepts that have been widely used and examined in relation to their impact on the workplace performance of employees. Actually, these two concepts are largely considered to be significant individual differences in the organizational behavior field. Some theories have argued that cognitive intelligence is the most basic probable indicator for individual workplace performance since the recruitment of individuals based on intelligence is one of the major contributors to enhanced performance that lead to high economic value to the organization. On the other hand, other theorists claim that emotional intelligence is the foundation for various competencies that assist a person to become more effective in the organization's working environment. However, cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence are closely related and equally important in the field of organizational behavior. Since none of these concepts can stand alone in the workplace, they can be both applied in modern organizations.
Cognitive intelligence is a term that had traditionally been used by psychologists that incorporates the ability to understand complex ideas, to learn from experience, to adapt efficiently to the environment, to engage several forms of reasoning, and to overcome challenges through careful thought (Greenberg & Baron, 2008, p.154). Generally, individuals possess cognitive intelligence in varying degrees as various jobs or tasks require different levels of cognitive intelligence for success. Notably, the concept or theory of cognitive intelligence is seemingly wide since it comprises of a broad range of distinct cognitive skills and abilities.
Some of the different cognitive abilities in cognitive intelligence include verbal comprehension and reasoning, numerical ability and reasoning, word fluency, symbolic reasoning, and space visualization. Therefore, different jobs and tasks need different blends of these cognitive abilities, which results in people's selections of different career choices. For instance, writers need to have cognitive abilities of word fluency while statisticians have to be adept at numerical reasoning and numerical ability and architects need spatial visualization abilities. There is a general consensus and assumption that people with huge amounts of cognitive intelligence tend to have enhanced job performance than those who don't.
Dunn (n.d.), describes cognitive intelligence as intellectual abilities like logic, writing, reason, prioritizing, reading, and analyzing. The cognitive intellectual abilities go through an individual's head or mind and use only the neocortez instead of the emotional centers of the brain. Notably, the cognitive intelligence abilities do not necessarily involve any individual skills since there are various functions that can be performed by individuals like solving a math equation individually. Through cognitive intelligence, a person has great control over his/her own emotions so as to resolve various problems that many people will have to address in controlled and rational ways.
Emotional intelligence can be defined as the ability to understand an individual's own emotions and those of others and having the ability to use the information to develop the best outcome for all the parties. This basically implies that it's the ability to know the genesis of emotions and being able to manage a person's won emotions and those of others. In this case, the individual can identify the information being given by emotions and being able to work effectively at the individual level and with others.
Based on general consensus, emotional intelligence deals with the social, emotional, and survivor dimensions of intelligence and can be considered as the usual more important aspects for daily functioning as compared to the intellectual or cognitive aspects of intelligence (Stein, 2008, p. 61). This is primarily because emotional intelligence is concerned with understanding oneself and others, adapting to the immediate surroundings or environment, and relating to others effectively. Consequently, the concept of emotional intelligence basically focuses and emphasizes on the significance of self-awareness and understanding through addressing the relative imbalance between intellect and emotion in the individual's mind.
The theory of emotional intelligence is also linked to various cutting-edge aspects of psychological science such as the self-regulation concept, the neuroscience of emotion, the pursuit for human cognitive abilities beyond the conventional academic intelligence and metacognition studies. Emotional Intelligence Theory is based on four major concepts i.e. awareness of emotions in self, awareness of emotions in other people, management of own emotions, and management of other people's emotions. The use of these components basically involves the incorporation of information from the emotions into a person's thinking process and subsequent actions (Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2004, p. 373).
Based on this description, it seems like the concept of emotional intelligence exclude cognitive skills and abilities that may contribute to emotion awareness and management. However, cognitive abilities and skills are closely linked to emotional intelligence, especially abilities like problem-solving and reality testing. This is primarily because the theory can be regarded as combination of competencies and general dispositions for adaptive individual functioning and dealing with the environmental demands. Therefore, the concept includes various aspects of personal and emotional knowledge and individual functioning that are seemingly loosely associated to emotion. Some of these aspects include personality traits, motivation, social skills, character, and temperament.
Strengths of Cognitive Intelligence in Relation to Modern Organizations:
Theoretically, cognitive intelligence as measured by standard intelligence tests evaluates only one type of intelligence since general intelligence indicates job performance. In relation to modern organizations, psychologists have evaluated general cognitive ability of various people in the workplace. These psychologists have discovered that people with higher cognitive intelligence levels are more successful on their respective job tasks than individuals with lower levels of cognitive intelligence. Nonetheless, the link between job success and general intelligence varies for individuals in different kinds of jobs. This is primarily because certain jobs need more cognitive intelligence tests measures as compared to others.
Cognitive intelligence is vital for modern organizations because it's positively associated with the various dimensions of job performance. This is one of the major strengths of this concept, especially in relation to organizational citizenship behavior and task performance across almost all jobs (Cote & Miners, 2006). In this case, task performance is associated with the core substantive responsibilities and duties, which are formally identified as part of the job. On the contrary, organizational citizenship behavior deals with the activities that lead to the accomplishment of organizational objectives though they are not necessarily formally recognized as part of the job.
The second major strength of cognitive intelligence as related to modern organizations is that the concept theoretically enhances task performance. This concept basically enhances task performance through improving knowledge of the facts, processes, and rules that are related to the technical foundation of the job. The improvement also extends to organizational citizenship behavior through this knowledge as linked to efficient assistance, cooperating, and approving the organization. When job performance is low, cognitive intelligence provides a large room for correction and improvement.
Thirdly, modern concepts of cognitive intelligence tend to suggest that the theory consists of three major categories i.e. crystallized intelligence, visual-spatial reasoning, and fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use acquired knowledge to existing problems while visual-spatial intelligence is the ability to use visual symbols to problem solving and fluid intelligence is the ability to create problem-solving mechanisms to unknown problems (Mengel, n.d.). The three categories provide the third strength of cognitive intelligence in relation to modern organizations with regards to problem solving. Through these categories, cognitive intelligence helps in applying knowledge to current problems, development of support systems for problem solving, and coping with non-standard problems that may occur.
Strengths of Emotional Intelligence In Relation to Modern Organizations:
Emotional intelligence can be regarded as a necessary element of any effective and successful working environment. This is because individuals who operate with a high level of emotional intelligence usually have more effective work relationships with superiors and colleagues, higher work satisfaction, and greater work success. This in turn becomes one of the major strengths of emotional intelligence with regards to modern organizations since such individuals have the ability to self-manage, which provides them with increased self-awareness. These people use the heightened self-awareness to manage their actions, which contributes to lesser stress and maximized skills. For modern organizations, it's becoming increasingly important that people joining the workforce are emotionally intelligent and better self-managers in addition to having necessary job qualifications and experience.
Secondly, emotional intelligence promotes an environment in the workplace where employees demonstrate an equal amount of concern for their interpersonal relationships like their work duties. The self-aware individuals evaluate their thoughts, intentions, and behaviors to indentify how other people in the workplace will be affected. In this case, the individuals with high levels of emotional intelligence approach their work in terms of how to help in the accomplishment of group and job success instead of merely completing assignments and projects. Therefore, as these people function from a rational perspective; stronger bonds are developed between them and their colleagues in the workplace.
Theoretically, emotional intelligence is strong in the modern working environment because of its role in enabling people to become efficient self-managers. It helps people to evaluate probable work output and finish their…