Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

In other words Emotional Intelligence means that the individual is capable of: (1) Accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others; (2) Uses emotions to facilitate thinking; (3) Understands emotional meanings; and (4) Manages emotions well. This model is referred to as the 'ability' model of emotional intelligence. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997)


Daniel Goleman proposed the model of emotional intelligence based on the Personal and Social competencies of the individual. This work will look at each of these areas of competency for the individual in their 'personal' and 'social' interactions.

The Personal Competence Model

Within the framework of the personal competence model are the elements of:

1) Self-Awareness, 2) Self-Regulation, and 3) Self-Motivation.

The following chart illustrates these categories and the respective sub-categories that comprise each of the three in the Personal Competence model.



I. Emotional Awareness is the recognition on one's own emotions and their effects. Those who possess this competence:

Know which emotions they are feeling and why Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and say

Recognize how their feelings affect their performance

Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals

II. Self-Assessment (Accurate) knows one's strengths and limits. People with this competence are:

Aware of their strengths and weaknesses

Reflective, learning from experience

Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, continuous learning, and self-development

Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves

III. Self-Confidence: When one is sure concerning their own self-worth and their own capabilities. People with this competence:

Present themselves with self-assurance; have "presence"

Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is right

Are decisive, able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressures


I. Self-Control: Management of disruptive emotions and impulses. People with this competence:

Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well

Stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments

Think clearly and stay focused under pressure

II. Trustworthiness: Honesty and Integrity are maintained through adhesion to principles and standards. People with this competence:

Act ethically and are above reproach

Build trust through their reliability and authenticity

Admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others

Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular

III. Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal Performance. People with his competence:

Meet commitments and keep promises

Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives

Are organized and careful in their work

IV. Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change. People with this competence:

Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid change

Adapt their responses and tactics to fit fluid circumstances

Are flexible in how they see events

V. Innovativeness: Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new information. People with this competence:

Seek out fresh ideas from a wide variety of sources

Entertain original solutions to problems

Generate new ideas

Take fresh perspectives and risks in their thinking


I. Achievement Drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence. People with this competence:

Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and standards

Set challenging goals and take calculated risks

Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better

Learn how to improve their performance

II. Commitment: Aligning with the goals of the group or organization. People with this competence:

Readily make personal or group sacrifices to meet a larger organizational goal

Find a sense of purpose in the larger mission

Use the group's core values in making decisions and clarifying choices

Actively seek out opportunities to fulfill the group's mission

III. Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities. People with this competence:

Are ready to seize opportunities

Pursue goals beyond what's required or expected of them Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the job done

Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts

IV. Optimism: Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks. People with this competence:

Persist in seeking goals despite obstacles and setbacks

Operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure

See setbacks as due to manageable circumstance rather than a personal flaw

The Social Competence Model

The following chart illustrates the elements that comprise what is know as social competence with the three main categories being those of: (1) Social-Awareness; (2) Social Skills; and (3)



I. Empathy: Sensing others' feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns. People with this competence:

Are attentive to emotional
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cues and listen well

Show sensitivity and understand others' perspectives

Help out based on understanding other people's needs and feelings

II. Service Oriented: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers' needs. People with this competence:

Understand customers' needs and match them to services or products

Seek ways to increase customers' satisfaction and loyalty

Gladly offer appropriate assistance

Grasp a customer's perspective, acting as a trusted advisor

III. Are Adept at the Development of Others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and bolstering their abilities. People with this competence:

Acknowledge and reward people's strengths, accomplishments, and development

Offer useful feedback and identify people's needs for development

Mentor, give timely coaching, and offer assignments that challenge and grow a person's skill

IV. Leverage of Diversity: Cultivating opportunities through diverse people. People with this competence:

Respect and relate well to people from varied backgrounds

Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to group differences

See diversity as opportunity, creating an environment where diverse people can thrive

Challenge bias and intolerance

V. Politically Aware: Reading a group's emotional currents and power relationships. People with this competence:

Accurately read key power relationships

Detect crucial social networks

Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients, customers, or competitors

Accurately read situations and organizational and external realities


I. Influence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion. People with this competence:

Are skilled at persuasion

Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener

Use complex strategies like indirect influence to build consensus and support

Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point

II. Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages. People with this competence:

Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in attuning their message

Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly

Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information fully

Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as good

III. Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people. People with this competence:

Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission

Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position

Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable

Lead by example

IV. A Catalyst for Change: Initiating or managing change. People with this competence:

Recognize the need for change and remove barriers

Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change

Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit

Model the change expected of others

V. Conflict Management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with this competence:

Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact

Spot potential conflict, bring disagreements into the open, and help deescalate

Encourage debate and open discussion

Orchestrate win-win solutions

VI. Building Bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships. People with this competence:

Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks

Seek out relationships that are mutually beneficial

Build rapport and keep others in the loop

Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates

VII. Collaboration and Cooperation: Working with others toward shared goals. People with this competence:

Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships

Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources

Promote a friendly, cooperative climate

Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration

VIII. Team Capabilities: Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals. People with this competence:

Model team qualities like respect, helpfulness, and cooperation

Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation

Build team identity, esprit de corps, and commitment

Protect the group and its reputation; share credit


After perusing the social-emotional relationship studies moved on toward Darwin and his effective adaptive behavior and the general conceptualizations of this type of intelligence have been inclusive of at least one of the key components as follows: (a) "The ability to recognize, understand and express emotions and feelings; (b) the ability to understand how others feel and relate with them; - the ability to manage and control emotions; (d) the ability to manage change, adapt and solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature; and (e) the ability to generate positive affect and be self-motivated." (Ibid)

The contribution of the Bar-on model is the theoretical basis for the EQ-I, which was originally developed to assess various aspects of this construct as well as to examine its conceptualization" (Ibid) Within this model the way in which one effectively understands oneself and deals with oneself and others is an expression of the social-emotional competencies upon which this model is based. In other words if one is both socially and emotionally intelligent "encompasses the ability to be aware…

Sources Used in Documents:


Abraham, R. (2000).The role of job control as a moderator of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence-outcome relationships. Journal of Psychology, Vol.134, 2.

Abraham, R. (1999). Emotional intelligence in organizations: a conceptualization. genetic, social, & general psychology monographs, Vol.126, 2.

BarOn, R. (1996). The Emotional quotient inventory (EQ-1): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Berk, L. (1994). Child development. Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Paramount

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