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Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.
Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).
How then, can Maslow's Hierarchy of needs help offenders reintegrate into society? There are at least five ways that Maslow can be incorporated into philosophies and theories when dealing with convicted offenders:
Physical Needs -- Food, water, and a bed are needs that are often taken for granted in society, but when inside prison, these needs are there and not thought of by the offender. When offenders are released, if these basic needs are unmet, they are likely not focusing on entering society in a law-abiding manner. Correctional staff can assist in this transition by community outreach programs that at least, for a period of time, will allow the offender some semblance of security.
Safety Needs -- Prisons are unsafe; ratios of offenders to staff is high, and prisoner to prisoner violence is endemic. If the time prior to release is safe (security checkes, more routein, a special wind) and/or places are provided to help integration, having basic needs met in a safe environment will go a long way to help in integration.
Social Needs -- Often, social groups in prison surround ethnicity or bias, once it is time to come back into society, correctional staff can encourage to find support through more positive needs and break the depressive society. Upon reentry, this may include self-help groups, former prisoner groups, or support groups that focus away from gang or ethnic issues and onto productive and optimistic attitudes.
Esteem Needs -- Esteem and self-respect are typical concepts that law-abiding persons expect, but are difficult for the offender. Society is suspicious of them, and it is often difficult to find trust. In a controlled environment, esteem needs are regulated; out of that environment requires trained personnel who will help with job hunting, depression and groups to ease the transition.
Self-Actualization Needs -- This final step is one of the most difficult. If we think about this honestly, many non-offenders struggle for most of their lives. No one can change the offender, or even cause the offender to feel actualized, but the offender. Correctional and social staff can provide the context of self-actualization by helping with the other four categories (Jones, 2004; Andrews, 1989).
Finally, ultimate change can only be accomplished by the individual who wants to change. However, offenders need the opportunity to become law-abiding citizens, and it is possible that with help of correctional staff and social workers, change can occur that is meaningful and mutually beneficial to both the offender and society. There are numerous alternatives to reincaceration, even with problem offenders. For drug issues, treatment programs that take 15-24 months save 50-60% above prisons and graduates of some programs are at least 75% less likely to return to prison. Churches and other social organizations can integrate their counseling abilities to offset those that do not occur in prisons. Prevention of violence programs work with gang and high-crime neighborhoods to monitor the area. For instance, in Chicago, a violence management team shows up when a crime is reported showing their disapproval through rallies, monuments, and prayer services -- thus shaming the neighborhood into change. These, and other alternatives, are at least an approach in the right direction to the revolving door policy (David, 2006). It is far more beneficial to society to provide programs and services that help offenders reestablish themselves in society than to prosecute and put them back in prison where there is little to no chance of positive behavioral chances or outcomes. Psychologically, we know deviance exists, it is now up to us to find ways to reversing the trend, saving taxpayer money, and allowing for more actualized citizenry.
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Integration Cost to Programs Incarcerate
It is important to note, though, that the United States does report all of its prisoners, and it is likely some countries do not. Still, there is an unbelievably high incarceration rate of 748/100,000 inmates in the U.S., or .75%, causing many global organizations to remark that the United States has 1% of its population in jail, and another 3% on parole, with another half a percent as juveniles, making it the wealthiest country in the world with 5% of its population tied up in the penal system (Total U.S. Correctional Population, 2010).[continue]
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The third conviction could serve as the third strike for California's anti-recidivism statute, thereby triggering a minimum 25-year sentence. Andrade was convicted of both counts of petty theft and was sentenced to two consecutive terms of 25 years to life in prison. After exhausting his appeals in the California legal system, Andrade filed a petition for habeas corpus, arguing his sentence violated the Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and
, et al., 2012). Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest
The refusal to extend the vote, as well as all of the other rights prohibited to ex-felons, really denies them the chance to begin their lives again as fully integrated citizens of their city, state and country. The irony is that while the disenfranchisement laws negate the application of some rights for the ex-felons, the laws don't negate other obligations that are a part of citizenship. For instance, ex-felons who do
Rehabilitation of Felony Offenders Possible? Desirable? As the global economic downturn continues to adversely affect federal and state budgets across the board, one of the hardest hit areas has been the nation's penal system. Dwindling budgets have caused layoffs and cutbacks in many prison systems, and many facilities are at their limit already with no end to the steady stream of felons in sight. Unfortunately, even when they are released,
Com (2004), the author focuses specifically on Florida. In this state, prisoners are indeed incorporated in labor programs. However, these programs are targeted only towards the advantage of those benefiting from cheap labor. There is not rehabilitative function. The lack of rehabilitation programs, as mentioned above, simply perpetuates the situation that created overcrowding in prisons in the first place. Rehabilitation programs can give convicts a sense of humanity and society
Ex-Felons and Employment Should employers discriminate against ex-convicts when deciding who to hire for open positions? In the United States, there are a great number of people in the prison system. It is a very serious matter. The prisons are overcrowded and there are fewer and fewer resources available. After the prisoner's release, they are assigned a period of probation where they must prove their dedication to remaining law-abiding. During this time,
A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009). The trail Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which