Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.
3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by suppressing their women and in extreme cases go t0o the extent of physically assault them.
in more conservative societies where illegitimate pregnancies, or pre-marriage pregnancies are considered a taboo, women are often forced to go for an abortion despite the fact that they want to bring the child to the world. This also happens under circumstances when although the child is legitimate but having a baby would mean that a woman would not be able to pursue a career of her choice or would not be granted admission in a university on account of being a mother. Quoting China's example again, where the government does not allow more than one child per family on account of controlling population, many woman are forced to go through abortion processes despite the fact that they direly want their babies. It must be noted that all this 'forcefulness' is designed, and perpetuated by the male members of the society. In cases where males fail to become authoritative they feel powerless (Mussapp, 2008). Kimmel suggests that where men feel powerless and are taunted over there powerlessness they must adhere to reverse psychology therapy and use this part of their personality as their asset.
4. Provide an overview of what we know in regards to labor/economic inequality
The level of liberty that a modern woman enjoys is much greater as compared to the ancient woman. As industrialized era started, more women started to take part in the economic activity. Likewise women started to enjoy the right to higher education. The change in a women's contribution in the society was greatly influenced by the way the global culture changed due to the increased globalization, colonialization and media exposure. Many stronger and educated civilizations such as the Europeans when started colonialization, they influenced the more conservative societies with their more liberal ideas. Italy was one country which went through the slightest change in terms of family formations. While compared to a 1000 centuries back, the age of getting married among women around the world increased drastically, it only went up to 23 years in Italy by the 1960s.
The contemporary globalized world functions on the lines of showing tolerance towards others regardless of gender, cast, color, nationality, race and religion. There is certainly, nothing wrong with this philosophy as peaceful coexistence is the need of the time in order to make the world a better place to live. The social theorists that support the ideology of cultural relativism argue that this ideology is completely logical as it encourages people to understand each other and peacefully coexist with each other regardless of the differences among them. As peaceful and positive as it may sound, the practical implications of this ideology are entirely opposite of what is claimed by the social theorists.
The western world is much more progressed where women's rights are highly spoken of and male dominance is much less as compared to Asian societies. Despite this, workplace harassment and treatment of woman as objects are highly common problems. This problem persists to a greater degree in Asian societies where either the women are not allowed to participate in economic activity until the husband fails to fulfill the familial responsibility (Adler, 1993). In cases where women goes out to work, the society looks down upon her in terms of character and she is likely to face great harassment, verbal, and sexual from the male members of the society and the workplace itself.
Woman in Power and Politics
Initially women had little role to play in power and politics and only elite female in some cases could use their relations to influence politics. However, in the contemporary world more and more females are stepping up and participating in the larger political systems of the country (Enos, 1996). All three of the sub-continental countries have now had the privilege of having female heads of the country and even the most conservative of the Middle Eastern countries have allowed females participation in the national assembly. Still, it is highly difficult for woman to influence the political system enough to bring a desired change. In societies such as Pakistan, a woman, though allowed to vote by the country, is not allowed by the male members of her family to cast a vote of her own choice and is forced to go with the choice of her father, brother or husband.
Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.
Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463
Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043
Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430